Infra Upgrade And Github

The present GiellaLT infrastructure has been serving us well in terms of scalability and maintainability. But over the years, a number of limiting issues have popped up, both from linguists and external groups we are cooperating with, and from a technical point of view.

Another aspect is that the present version control system, with a self-hosted subversion repository, is arcane and invisible, and also not easy to administer the users of. To both increase visibility and cooperation, as well as making it easier to publish regular updates, we should consider moving to github or a similar hosted and distributed version control system.

This document is a first overview of things to work on, and list possible solutions.

Directory structure

The present structure is way too deep and hard to navigate. It also hard-codes certain coding patterns related to phonology, and the tests are too far away from the code it should test. There are three different steps to be taken here:

  1. merge src/morphology/ and src/phonology to a new dir fst/, and reorganise the whole src/ dir to reflect technology rather than linguistic groups - the linguistic splitup really never was completely consistent and logical;
  2. flatten the tools/ directory tree, so that it has only (or mostly) one subdir level
  3. move all test dirs to being subdirs of the actual source code they are testing e.g. test/tools/spellcheckers/ should be moved to tools/spellcheckers/test/

Isolate dependencies and common build elements

Each language source code has a number of dependencies, both on other parts of the GiellaLT infra, and of external tools and repos. As it is now, most of these dependencies users have to install themselves, which creates a heavy and brittle getting started process. Ideally one should only have to check out a single language dir, and then run a setup script that handles all the rest.

Specifically, the following changes are ideas to follow up:

  • remove the am-shared/ dir, and instead havd a common/shared am-shared/ dir in giella-shared/ (or core?) and sym-link to it or check it out as a submodule or similar within a .deps/ directory, done by the script; a requirement of the solution is that it must still be compatible with the various build systems we need to support
  • do the same for the various giella-shared/ dirs
  • do the same for giella-core/

The end result of the points above should be that it should be enough to check out one language dir, then run ./, and then you are ready to go. It should also work the same although one has checked out all languages, or the whole $GTHOME tree (but then using a common .deps dir one level up, or symlinks to the various giella-shared and giella-core bits).

These changes should also remove the need to merge changes in am-shared/, but we need to ensure that the .deps/am-shared/ dir is kept up-to-date all the time, for all types of setups.

Github move concerns

When we move to Github, and thus git, there are a number of maintenance scenarios we have to work out in front of the move. We have already moved all keyboards there, and they can serve as a test case for the language repos.

Benefits of the move:

  • vastly increased code visibility and accessibility
  • easier cooperation and contribution
  • automatized user management/account creation
  • easy CI and CD

To avoid the cost of a huge and slow, single repo for all languages, each language will become a repo of its own. But this does require the ability to easily update the code across all or some repositories in a simple way. It also makes it necessary to be able to administer all repositories collectively.

Procedure for moving

See Follow that receipt for each language in each langs dir. Then run the following commands:

git remote add origin <>
git push origin -u master

After that we should have a set of language repos in GitHub, with the full history of each language.

Update data across all repositories

One of the reasons we have been able to scale well in terms of languages (with more than hundred languages in all our repos pr january 2020), is that we have a consistent directory and file structure. From time to time we need to do changes en mass to all repos, and that needs to be possible also after the move to Github. And there will still be the need to update both single files and batches of files based on some template data.

One promising tool to handle such chores is Silver Platter. It is a tool to loop over a number of repositories, and apply the same changes to all of them. There might be other similar tools, this is just a first suggestion. Silver Platter is available on GitHub and is open source.

GitHub multiple repo admin

By moving to GitHub, with one language = one repo, there is also a need to easily administer all repos en block. So far there does not seem to exist a tool that does what we need, so we might have to build it ourselves. Here's a list of possible actions performed on all or a subset of repos, and required features:

  • perform actions on repos whose name are matching a given regex (e.g. all repos matching keyboard-*, or all repos mathcing *-sm?, etc)
  • rename all/multiple repos
  • set default branch for all/multiple repos
  • add all/multiple repos to a team
  • set access restrictions for all/multiple repos
  • add/update/remove git submodules, including revision for said submodule
  • get list of all repos matching a certain pattern, potentially with repo URL or documentation site URL, to include in overview documentation or reports

There will certainly be more, but this at least gives a first impression of the required features.

Private repos

We have a couple of languages which are closed-source and private for various reasons. You can have private repos also in GitHub, but only with max three collaborators, unless payments are involved. One can also self-host git repos, but then we loose the co-administration and scalability benefits of the infrastructure - we can't have multiple ways of doing one thing.

These are concerns we need to discuss thoroughly before we decide to switch to GitHub.

After further investigation, it looks like UiT could apply for the GitHub Campus Program, which would give us access to GitHub Enterprise Cloud, which would give us umlimnited collaborators for private repos. A request for getting this for UiT has been sent to orakelet.

Teams and nested teams

We should consider whether nested teams are useful for our purposes. One obvious need is to be able to communicate with various groups of committers:

  • Tromsø people only
  • all committers
  • Edmonton people only
  • project people only
  • etc

The only trouble is: one can still not force an email upon everyone - notifications can be turned off individually, and are controlled individually. Thsi is something that has been requested by a lot of people.

Subversion compatibility

GitHub allows checkout via svn, allowing people most familiar with svn to continue working as before. The only caveat is that git submodules, which is planned to be used for the internal dependencies (giella-core, giella-shared, etc) will not work using the svn checkout method. For those users we need an alternative, possibly a shell script checking out the dependent repos using svn in a suitable subdir. The shell script should be called from ./, which people are used to run in any case.

We also need to consider how to best ensure that people are using the correct version/revision of those dependencies, both for @HEAD and when rebuilding past versions.

A third concern is that we need to ensure that the main development is done without breaking releases. Using the git-flow model, the default commit branch in github should be the develop branch. This should be accompanied with both existing and new tests to ensure that the code is mostlly releasable at any point. Further information about git-flow can be found:

Multiple languages in one go

The present infra groups languages in different subdirs:

  • langs/ - the default/production languages
  • startup-langs/ - as the name implies
  • experiment-langs/ - as the name implies
  • private*-langs/ - closed-source or otherwise non-public languages

In various settings it would be beneficial to be able to continue to define sets of languages one would like to process together. In Apertium, this is done by defining such sets as abstract repos, with all included languages as submodules. This seems like a straight-forward solution, but other ways could definitely be considered.

Possible use cases for such groupings:

  • defining a group of production languages = all within should be pushed to a páhkat release repo
  • language groups for projects or teams
  • defining something as startup or experimental is a clear sign to outsiders that this is not yet ready for consumption
  • the core UiT people would like to check out all languages, and possibly build them all locally

There might be better ways of achieving these goals in the Git(Hub) universe, but we need something that will help us group languages.

Also, the grouping should be bidirectional, such that a given language repo "knows" what group(s) it belongs to. And as indicated, one language can be a member of multiple such groups.

Name collisions

Because languages are grouped in several subdirs, we have a couple of cases where one language is described more than once. This is the case for at least est and sms. When/if moving to GitHub, each language will become a repo of its own, with the repo name being the language code. Thus we get repo name collisions for the mentioned languages.

In both cases one of the two descriptions is in experiment-langs/, so one can consider repo names like lang-est-x-exp (keeping the part after lang- BCP-47 compatible). There certainly are other alternatives, the main point is just to remember to consider this, and find a good solution.

This is also a reminder that we need to update the script for setting up a new language, in two ways:

  • it must support the new git repo structure
  • it should accept a full BCP-47 tag, not only ISO 639-3 language codes

The second point could be fixed while we are still in svn, but the first one obviously needs to be fixed as we move to git.

Bugzilla issues

Open (or all?) issues for various languages in the GiellaLT Bugzilla should be transferred to github. There are various tools for this, so this note is here just to remember to do it. Some pointers: