root-morphology

Morphology

Multicharacter symbols

Sõnaliik / Part of speech

  • +N : nimisõna / substantive
  • +A : omadussõna / adjective
  • +Num : arvsõna / numeral
  • +Pron : asesõna / pronoun
  • +V : tegusõna / verb
  • +Adv : määrsõna / adverb
  • +Interj : hüüdsõna / interjection
  • +CC : rinnastav sidesõna / co-ordinating conjunction
  • +CS : alistav sidesõna / subordinating conjunction
  • +Adp : kaassõna / adposition, i.e. pre/postposition
  • +Pref : prefiks / prefix

Genitiivatribuut pole eraldi kategooria / No special tag for genitive attribute : angoora+N+Sg+Gen

Alamkategooriad / Sub-pos categories

  • +Prop : pärisnimi / proper name
  • +Card : põhiarvsõna / cardinal numeral
  • +Ord : järgarvsõna / ordinal numeral

Võrdlusastmed / Comparation

  • +Comp : komparatiiv / comparative
  • +Superl : superlatiiv / superlative

hfstol:examples:

  • asi: asi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # thing)
  • Jaan: Jaan+N+Prop+Sg+Nom
  • asjalik: asjalik+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # serious)
  • parem: parem+A+Comp+Sg+Nom (Eng. # better)
  • parim: parim+A+Superl+Sg+Nom (Eng. # best)
  • kaks: kaks+Num+Card+Sg+Nom (Eng. # two)
  • teine: teine+Num+Ord+Sg+Nom (Eng. # second)
  • see: see+Pron+Sg+Nom (Eng. # that)
  • asjastama: asjastama+V+Pers+Sup+Ill (Eng. # objectify)
  • asjatult: asjatult+Adv (Eng. # in vain)
  • hei: hei+Interj (Eng. # hi)
  • ja: ja+CC (Eng. # and)
  • et: et+CS (Eng. # that)
  • kaudu: kaudu+Adp (Eng. # via)
  • eba-: eba+Pref (Eng. # un-, non-)

Sõnamuutus / Inflection

Käändsõna / Noun

Arv / number

  • +Sg : ainsus / singular
  • +Pl : mitmus / plural

Kääne / Case

  • +Nom : nimetav / nominative
  • part: part+N+Sg+Nom
  • maja: maja+N+Sg+Nom
  • pardid: part+N+Pl+Nom
  • majad: maja+N+Pl+Nom
  • +Gen : omastav / genitive
  • pardi: part+N+Sg+Gen
  • maja: maja+N+Sg+Gen
  • partide: part+N+Pl+Gen
  • majade: maja+N+Pl+Gen
  • +Par : osastav / partitive
  • parti: part+N+Sg+Par
  • maja: maja+N+Sg+Par
  • parte: part+N+Pl+Par
  • partisid: part+N+Pl+Par+Use/Rare
  • maju: maja+N+Pl+Par
  • majasid: maja+N+Pl+Par+Use/Rare
  • +Ill : sisseütlev / illative

Lühike sisseütlev e suunduv pole eraldi kääne (parti, majja) / Short illative or additive is not a separate case

  • parti: part+N+Sg+Ill
  • majja: maja+N+Sg+Ill
  • pardisse: part+N+Sg+Ill+Use/Hyp
  • majasse: maja+N+Sg+Ill+Use/Rare
  • partidesse: part+N+Pl+Ill
  • majadesse: maja+N+Pl+Ill
  • +Ine : seesütlev / inessive
  • pardis: part+N+Sg+Ine
  • majas: maja+N+Sg+Ine
  • partides: part+N+Pl+Ine
  • majades: maja+N+Pl+Ine
  • +Ela : seestütlev / elative
  • pardist: part+N+Sg+Ela
  • majast: maja+N+Sg+Ela
  • partidest: part+N+Pl+Ela
  • majadest: maja+N+Pl+Ela
  • +All : alaleütlev / allative
  • pardile: part+N+Sg+All
  • majale: maja+N+Sg+All
  • partidele: part+N+Pl+All
  • majadele: maja+N+Pl+All
  • +Ade : alalütlev / adessive
  • pardil: part+N+Sg+Ade
  • majal: maja+N+Sg+Ade
  • partidel: part+N+Pl+Ade
  • majadel: maja+N+Pl+Ade
  • +Abl : alaltütlev / ablative
  • pardilt: part+N+Sg+Abl
  • majalt: maja+N+Sg+Abl
  • partidelt: part+N+Pl+Abl
  • majadelt: maja+N+Pl+Abl
  • +Tra : saav / translative
  • pardiks: part+N+Sg+Tra
  • majaks: maja+N+Sg+Tra
  • partideks: part+N+Pl+Tra
  • majadeks: maja+N+Pl+Tra
  • +Trm : rajav / terminative
  • pardini: part+N+Sg+Trm
  • majani: maja+N+Sg+Trm
  • partideni: part+N+Pl+Trm
  • majadeni: maja+N+Pl+Trm
  • +Ess : olev / essive
  • pardina: part+N+Sg+Ess
  • majana: maja+N+Sg+Ess
  • partidena: part+N+Pl+Ess
  • majadena: maja+N+Pl+Ess
  • +Abe : ilmaütlev / abessive
  • pardita: part+N+Sg+Abe
  • majata: maja+N+Sg+Abe
  • partideta: part+N+Pl+Abe
  • majadeta: maja+N+Pl+Abe
  • +Com : kaasaütlev / comitative
  • pardiga: part+N+Sg+Com
  • majaga: maja+N+Sg+Com
  • partidega: part+N+Pl+Com
  • majadega: maja+N+Pl+Com

Verb

Verbil on finiitsed (pöördelised) ja infiniitsed (nn käänduvad) vormid. Pöördelistel vormidel on kategooriad: tegumood, aeg, kõneviis, isik, arv, kõneliik (tegumood ja aeg on ka mõnedel infiniitsetel vormidel).

Verbs have finite (conjugable) and infinite ("declinable") forms. The finite forms have categories: voice, tense, mood, person, number, negation (some infinite forms also have voice and tense).

Pöördelised vormid / Conjugable forms

Tegumood / Voice

  • +Impers : umbisikuline / impersonal
  • +Pers : isikuline / personal

Aeg / Tense

  • +Prs : olevik / present
  • +Prt : minevik / past (i.e. not present)

Lihtminevik = minevik / Past imperfect = past

Täisminevik / Past perfect: olema (pres) + nud/tud/dud ( olen teinud)

Enneminevik / Past pluperfect: olema (impf) + nud/tud/dud ( olin teinud)

Kõneviis / Mood

  • +Ind : kindel / indicative
  • +Cond : tingiv / conditional
  • +Imprt : käskiv / imperative / jussive
  • +Quot : kaudne / quotative

Pööre ja arv / Person and number

  • +Sg1 : ainsuse 1. pööre / singular 1st person
  • +Sg2 : ainsuse 2. pööre / singular 2nd person
  • +Sg3 : ainsuse 3. pööre / singular 3rd person
  • +Pl1 : mitmuse 1. pööre / plural 1st person
  • +Pl2 : mitmuse 2. pööre / plural 2nd person
  • +Pl3 : mitmuse 3. pööre / plural 3rd person

Kõneliik / Polarity

  • +Aff : jaatav kõne / affirmative
  • +Neg : eitav kõne / negative

Infiniitsed (nn käänduvad) verbivormid / Infinite ("declinable") verb forms

  • +Sup : ma-tegevusnimi / supine (ma-infinitive)
  • +Inf : da-tegevusnimi / infinitive (da-infinitive)a
  • +Ger : des-vorm / gerund (des-form)
  • +Prc : kesksõna / participle

Kategooriate võimalikud kombinatsioonid / Possible combinations of categories

allikas / source : Heiki-Jaan Kaalep. Eesti verbi vormistik. Keel ja kirjandus 1/2015 lk 1-15.

The categories are given in the order in which the allomorphs (if they can be distinguished) that represent them are attached to the word stem (note that the treatment of allomorphs is sloppy here). The justification is that the categories are not equal, but form an hierarchy: those closer to the word end tend to be more optional, more often non-specified.

  1. voice: personal vs. impersonal (0-morph vs. t/d(aiu)), eg. elaks vs. elataks, elav vs. elatav
  2. tense: present vs. past (0-morph vs. s/si/nu), e.g. elan vs. elasin, elaks vs. elanuks
  3. mood: indicative vs. conditional vs imperative vs quotative (0-morph vs. ks vs. k/g(ue)vs. vat)
  4. person+number: notice that in personal present and past conditional, imperative and quotative moods one form is underspecified for person+number
  5. negation: affirmative vs. negative. It manifests itself via lexical means: it is either present in an exceptional wordform (some forms of olema) or gets adhered to a form, normally used in affirmative, from an immediately preceding word ei, ega or ära (e.g. ei elaks). The only case when negation has a dedicated form of its own is impersonal present indicative negative (e.g. ei elata).

The forms of negative words pole and ära are included in order to capture really all the combinations; also note that for olema, there are some constellations of categories that are the same for a wordform beginning with ole-'' and pole-''

---- Personal finite forms ----

  • elan: elama+V+Pers+Prs+Ind+Sg1+Aff
  • elad: elama+V+Pers+Prs+Ind+Sg2+Aff
  • elab: elama+V+Pers+Prs+Ind+Sg3+Aff
  • elame: elama+V+Pers+Prs+Ind+Pl1+Aff
  • elate: elama+V+Pers+Prs+Ind+Pl2+Aff
  • elavad: elama+V+Pers+Prs+Ind+Pl3+Aff


  • ela: elama+V+Pers+Prs+Ind+Neg
  • pole: olema+V+Pers+Prs+Ind+Neg
  • ole: olema+V+Pers+Prs+Ind+Neg

NB! ei ole = pole

  • elaksin: elama+V+Pers+Prs+Cond+Sg1+Aff
  • elaksid: elama+V+Pers+Prs+Cond+Sg2+Aff
  • elaks: elama+V+Pers+Prs+Cond
  • elaksime: elama+V+Pers+Prs+Cond+Pl1+Aff
  • elaksite: elama+V+Pers+Prs+Cond+Pl2+Aff
  • elaksid: elama+V+Pers+Prs+Cond+Pl3+Aff


  • poleksin: olema+V+Pers+Prs+Cond+Sg1+Neg
  • poleksid: olema+V+Pers+Prs+Cond+Sg2+Neg
  • poleks: olema+V+Pers+Prs+Cond+Neg
  • poleksime: olema+V+Pers+Prs+Cond+Pl1+Neg
  • poleksite: olema+V+Pers+Prs+Cond+Pl2+Neg
  • poleksid: olema+V+Pers+Prs+Cond+Pl3+Neg


  • ela: elama+V+Pers+Prs+Imprt+Sg2
  • elagu: elama+V+Pers+Prs+Imprt
  • elagem: elama+V+Pers+Prs+Imprt+Pl1
  • elage: elama+V+Pers+Prs+Imprt+Pl2


  • ära: ära+V+Pers+Prs+Imprt+Sg2+Neg
  • ärgu: ära+V+Pers+Prs+Imprt+Neg
  • ärgem: ära+V+Pers+Prs+Imprt+Pl1+Neg
  • ärme: ära+V+Pers+Prs+Imprt+Pl1+Neg+Use/Rare
  • ärge: ära+V+Pers+Prs+Imprt+Pl2+Neg


  • elavat: elama+V+Pers+Prs+Quot
  • polevat: olema+V+Pers+Prs+Quot+Neg


  • elasin: elama+V+Pers+Prt+Ind+Sg1+Aff
  • elasid: elama+V+Pers+Prt+Ind+Sg2+Aff
  • elas: elama+V+Pers+Prt+Ind+Sg3+Aff
  • elasime: elama+V+Pers+Prt+Ind+Pl1+Aff
  • elasite: elama+V+Pers+Prt+Ind+Pl2+Aff
  • elasid: elama+V+Pers+Prt+Ind+Pl3+Aff


  • elanud: elama+V+Pers+Prt+Ind+Neg
  • polnud: olema+V+Pers+Prt+Ind+Neg
  • olnud: olema+V+Pers+Prt+Ind+Neg

NB! ei olnud = polnud

  • elanuksin: elama+V+Pers+Prt+Cond+Sg1+Aff
  • elanuksid: elama+V+Pers+Prt+Cond+Sg2+Aff
  • elanuks: elama+V+Pers+Prt+Cond
  • elanuksime: elama+V+Pers+Prt+Cond+Pl1+Aff
  • elanuksite: elama+V+Pers+Prt+Cond+Pl2+Aff
  • elanuksid: elama+V+Pers+Prt+Cond+Pl3+Aff


  • polnuksin: olema+V+Pers+Prt+Cond+Sg1+Neg
  • polnuksid: olema+V+Pers+Prt+Cond+Sg2+Neg
  • polnuks: olema+V+Pers+Prt+Cond+Neg
  • polnuksime: olema+V+Pers+Prt+Cond+Pl1+Neg
  • polnuksite: olema+V+Pers+Prt+Cond+Pl2+Neg
  • polnuksid: olema+V+Pers+Prt+Cond+Pl3+Neg


elanud: elama+V+Pers+Prt+Imprt: 1.11.2016 ei genereerita ega tunta ära / not recognized nor generated as of Nov 1, 2016

  • ärnud: ära+V+Pers+Prt+Imprt+Neg


  • elanuvat: elama+V+Pers+Prt+Quot
  • polnuvat: olema+V+Pers+Prt+Quot+Neg

---- Personal infinite forms ----

  • elav: elama+V+Pers+Prs+Prc
  • elanud: elama+V+Pers+Prt+Prc

(on, oli, ...) + V+Pers+Prt+Prc = some analytical personal form

  • elama: elama+V+Pers+Sup+Ill
  • elamas: elama+V+Pers+Sup+Ine
  • elamast: elama+V+Pers+Sup+Ela
  • elamaks: elama+V+Pers+Sup+Tra
  • elamata: elama+V+Pers+Sup+Abe

---- Impersonal finite forms ----

  • elatakse: elama+V+Impers+Prs+Ind+Aff
  • elata: elama+V+Impers+Prs+Ind+Neg
  • polda: olema+V+Impers+Prs+Ind+Neg
  • olda: olema+V+Impers+Prs+Ind+Neg

NB! ei olda = polda

  • elataks: elama+V+Impers+Prs+Cond
  • poldaks: olema+V+Impers+Prs+Cond+Neg


  • elatagu: elama+V+Impers+Prs+Imprt
  • ärdagu: ära+V+Impers+Prs+Imprt+Neg


  • elatavat: elama+V+Impers+Prs+Quot
  • poldavat: olema+V+Impers+Prs+Quot+Neg


  • elati: elama+V+Impers+Prt+Ind+Aff
  • elatud: elama+V+Impers+Prt+Ind+Neg
  • poldud: olema+V+Impers+Prt+Ind+Neg
  • oldud: olema+V+Impers+Prt+Ind+Neg

NB! ei oldud = poldud

  • elatuks: elama+V+Impers+Prt+Cond
  • polduks: olema+V+Impers+Prt+Cond+Neg

---- Impersonal infinite forms ----

  • elatav: elama+V+Impers+Prs+Prc
  • elatud: elama+V+Impers+Prt+Prc

( on, oli, ...) + V+Impers+Prt+Prc = some analytical personal form

  • elatama: elama+V+Impers+Sup

---- Infinite forms with no voice category ----

  • elada: elama+V+Inf
  • elades: elama+V+Ger

Exceptional cases:

personal present (Prs not implemented????), 3 words: kuulukse, tunnukse, näikse

  • kuulukse: kuulukse+V

Negation verb

  • ei: ei+V+Neg

Analytical forms (olen elanud, olin elanud, oleksin elanud, ei olnud elanud, ei olnuks elanud etc) are not treated here...

Partikkel -gi/-ki / Particle -gi/-ki

  • +Foc/gi
  • pulkki: pulk+N+Sg+Nom+Foc/gi

Kasutust (sagedust jm) iseloomustavad märgendid / Usage-related tags

  • +Emph : long inflectional forms of personal pronouns mina, sina, tema, meie, teie, nemad
  • temale: tema+Pron+Sg+All+Emph

Paralleelvormide erinevat kasutussagedust iseloomustavad / Usage info for parallel forms (either correct according to the norm, or incorrect)

  • +Use/Rare : norm, but rare
  • puusid: puu+N+Pl+Par+Use/Rare
  • +Use/Hyp : norm, but so rare that norm is probaly wrong
  • tiivasse: tiib+N+Sg+Ill+Use/Hyp
  • +Use/NotNorm : not norm, but sometimes used
  • pöidlates: pöial+N+Pl+Ine+Use/NotNorm
  • +Use/CommonNotNorm : not norm, and used more than norm
  • peeneid: peen+A+Pl+Par+Use/CommonNotNorm

Tuletus / Derivation

Eesliited on harvad, aga ikkagi ... / Prefixes are seldom used, but still...

  • +Pref
  • taasriigistama: taas+Pref#riigistama+V+Pers+Sup+Ill
  • reinvesteerima: re+Pref#investeerima+V+Pers+Sup+Ill

Järelliited / Suffixes

V --> N

  • +Der/mine
  • jahumine: jahuma+V+Der/mine+N+Sg+Nom
  • +Der/ja
  • jahuja: jahuma+V+Der/ja+N+Sg+Nom
  • +Der/nu
  • elanu: elama+V+Der/nu+N+Sg+Nom
  • +Der/mus
  • küllastumus: küllastuma+V+Der/mus+N+Sg+Nom
  • +Der/ng
  • devalveering: devalveerima+V+Der/ng+N+Sg+Nom

V --> A

  • +Der/v
  • jahuv: jahuma+V+Der/v+A+Sg+Nom
  • +Der/tav
  • öeldav: ütlema+V+Der/tav+A+Sg+Nom
  • +Der/nud
  • elanud: elama+V+Der/nud+A+Sg+Nom
  • +Der/mata
  • elamata: elama+V+Der/mata+A
  • +Der/matu
  • segamatu: segama+V+Der/matu+A+Sg+Nom
  • +Der/tamatu
  • mõeldamatu: mõtlema+V+Der/tamatu+A+Sg+Nom
  • +Der/tu
  • elatu: elama+V+Der/tu+A+Sg+Nom
  • +Der/tud
  • elatud: elama+V+Der/tud+A

N --> A

  • +Der/lik
  • kotkalik: kotkas+N+Der/lik+A+Sg+Nom
  • +Der/line
  • põõsaline: põõsas+N+Der/line+A+Sg+Nom
  • onomastiline: onomastika+N+Der/line+A+Sg+Nom
  • apooriline: apooria+N+Der/line+A+Sg+Nom

A --> Adv

  • +Der/lt
  • roosalt: roosa+A+Der/lt+Adv
  • +Der/sti
  • valusasti: valus+A+Der/sti+Adv
  • +Der/ini
  • paremini: parem+A+Comp+Der/ini+Adv

A --> A

  • +Der/m
  • valusam: valus+A+Der/m+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • +Der/im
  • valusaim: valus+A+Der/im+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

N --> N

  • +Der/nna
  • õmblejanna: õmbleja+N+Der/nna+N+Sg+Nom
  • +Der/kond
  • vaatajaskond: vaatama+V+Der/ja+N+Der/kond+N+Sg+Nom

A --> N, V --> N

  • +Der/us
  • porisus: porine+A+Der/us+N+Sg+Nom
  • õpetus: õpetama+V+Der/us+N+Sg+Nom

N --> Adv

  • +Der/ti
  • lauati: laud+N+Der/ti+Adv
  • +Der/lane : helveetslane: Helveetsia+N+Prop+Der/lane+N+Sg+Nom
  • firenzelane: Firenze+N+Prop+Der/lane+N+Sg+Nom
  • helveetslane: Helveetsia+N+Prop+Der/lane+N+Sg+Nom

N --> N, A --> A

  • +Dim/ke : diminutive
  • põõsake: põõsas+N+Dim/ke+Sg+Nom
  • +Der/minus : shortening stem
  • vaatamis-: vaatamine+N+Der/minus
  • astraal-: astraalne+A+Der/minus

Muud / Other tags

Symbols that need to be escaped on the lower side (towards twolc):

  • »
  • «
  • > (written with square brackets, see the root.lexc file)
  • < (written with square brackets, see the root.lexc file)
  • '7 7 is the real apostrophe ??
  • +Use/Circ : for arabic and roman numerals
  • +ABBR : Lühend / Abbreviation
  • +CLB : Osalause piir (punkt, koma) / Clause border (full stop, comma..)
  • +PUNCT : Kirjavahemärk / Punctuation
  • +LEFT : Kirjavahemärgi asetus / Punctuation orientation
  • +RIGHT : Kirjavahemärgi asetus / Punctuation orientation

Flag diacritics

Use the following flag diacritics to control downcasing of derived proper nouns (e.g. Finnish Pariisi -> pariisilainen). See e.g. North Sámi for how to use these flags. There exists a ready-made regex that will do the actual down-casing given the proper use of these flags.

@U.Cap.Obl@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.
@U.Cap.Opt@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.

These are used for limiting the number of components in a compound word (the compound transducer is cyclic, but in reality there is a limit to the length of words)

@D.Part@ No part of a compound should have been encountered yet
@P.Part.One@ Indicate that this could be the first part of a compound
@R.Part.One@ Require that the first part has been encountered
@P.Part.Two@ Indicate that this could be the second part of a compound
@R.Part.Two@ Require that the second part has been encountered
@P.Part.Three@ Indicate that this could be the third part of a compound
@P.Part.Bad@ Indicate that this cannot be a part of a compound

POS is used for filtering derivations and compounds

@R.POS.NumCardCompound@ compound numeral (viis+sada - five hundred)

Case is used for filtering derivations and compounds

Remember there has been some derivation from A or N; for filtering compounds

Remember the stem type; for filtering compounds (not used at the moment)

A special condition that is used for filtering derivations and compounds

Sg Nom is allowed as first part of a compound only for some words

Lexicons

  • LEXICON Root is the starting point of everything

This is actually a loop, formed after applying Kleene star concatenation on the transducer with itself. When looping, it remembers which paths it has taken in every loop. For remembering it sets up flags on the path: 1. flag the first 3 loops (thus forbidding any more loops) 2. in every loop, flag the POS and inflection, to be used in the following loop

strictly simplex word; cannot be a part of a compound a simplex word, or the first part of a compound

strictly simplex words; cannot be a part of a compound

  • Adpositions ;
  • Conjunctions ;
  • NoninflectingVerbs ;
  • LEXICON First a simplex word or the first part of a compound
  • @P.POS.A@ Adjectives ;
  • @P.POS.A@ NoninflectingAdjectives ;
  • @P.POS.AComp@ ComparativeAdjectives ;
  • @P.POS.ASuperl@ SuperlativeAdjectives ;
  • @P.POS.Adv@ Adverbs ;
  • @P.POS.N@ Nouns ;
  • @P.POS.NProp@@U.Cap.Obl@ ProperNouns ;

always uppercase

  • @P.POS.NProp@@U.Cap.Opt@ ProperNouns ;

downcased for derivations

  • @P.POS.NumCard@ CardinalNumerals ;
  • @P.POS.NumOrd@ OrdinalNumerals ;
  • @P.POS.Pron@ Pronouns ;
  • @P.POS.V@ Verbs ;
  • @P.POS.Interj@ Interjections ;
  • @P.POS.GA@@P.Case.Gen@ GenitiveAttributes ;
  • @P.POS.Pref@ Prefixes ;
  • LEXICON Latter the latter part of a compound
  • @P.POS.A@@C.Der@@C.NomStem@ Adjectives ;
  • @P.POS.A@@C.Der@@C.NomStem@ Adjectives_ne ;
  • @P.POS.A@@C.Der@@C.NomStem@ Adjectives_v ;
  • @P.POS.A@@C.Der@@C.NomStem@ PlainAdjectives ;
  • @P.Case.Gen@ LatterVerb ;
  • @P.POS.V@@C.Der@ Verbs ;