Pronouns are a closed special sub class of nouns. Morphologically pronouns have often defective, heteroclitic or otherwise irregular inflectional patterns, and certain pronouns have an morphophonologically distinct accusative case, extinct from other noun classes Further reading: VISK §§ 100 – 104, Semantics ... VISK § 7XX

Pronouns are subdivided into categories by semantic and syntactic means. Semantic categories delimit the type of referents (humane, sentient, object), qualification and quantification. (interrogative, quantor). Morphosyntactically distinct is class of proadjectives, that inflect and act like adjectives. There are six personal pronouns for the six deictic references used; first, second and third singular and plural. The personal pronouns have separate accusative cases marked by t suffix. The pronouns in standard literary Finnish are *minä* (I), *sinä* (you), *hän* (he), *me* (we), *te* (you),

Personal pronouns examples:

  • minä: minä+Pron+Pers+Sg+Nom (Eng. # me)
  • sinut: sinä+Pron+Pers+Sg+Acc
  • heille: he+Pron+Pers+Pl+All

The personal pronouns are among the most dialectally varied words of the Finnish language. The pronouns forms are one of the factors separating eastern dialects from the western ones. The personal pronouns of eastern dialects are *mie*, *sie*, (*hää*, *hiä*), *myö*, *työ*, *hyö* resp.; The third singular being rare in modern use. |citation-needed| In the western dialects the pronouns are *mää*, *sää* for first and second singular, and more variedly *meitti*, *teitti*, *heitti* for plurals.

In standard spoken Finnish, and in many cases even in written form, the words *mä* and *sä* are more common and preferred to longer minä and sinä for first and second singular respectively. In practice the distinction is much like between Estonian corresponding pronouns, but official norm still recommends only the long forms. For third singular the nominative form is *hän* as in standard written language, however the inflection is without intervening *-ne-* part. In old literary Finnish and poetic language the forms *ma* and *sa* are still used.

There are six demonstrative pronouns for six non-personal references. In standard written Finnish these are *tämä* (this), *tuo* (that), *se* (it),

  • nämä* (these), *nuo* (those), *ne* (those).

Further reading: VISK § 101

Demonstrative pronouns examples:

  • tämä: tämä+Pron+Dem+Sg+Nom
  • tuolle: tuo+Pron+Dem+Sg+All

In standard spoken Finnish the demonstrative pronouns are commonly

  • tää*, *toi*, *nää*, *noi* instead of *tämä*, *tuo*, *nämä*, *nuo*.

Interrogative pronouns are used in question clauses. The basic interrogatives in standard written Finnish are *kuka* (who), *mikä* (what),

  • kumpi* (which); *millainen* (what kind of), *kuinka* (how),
  • miksi* (what for). Further reading: VISK §734

Interrogative pronouns examples:

  • kuka: kuka+Pron+Interr+Sg+Nom (Eng. # who)
  • ketä: kuka+Pron+Interr+Sg+Par
  • kenet: kuka+Pron+Interr+Sg+Acc

The stem of *kuka* is shortened by from *kene* to *ke* in spoken language.

Few forms of *kuka* based on *ken* stem and *ku* stem have become archaic. Fuhrer reading: VISK §102 Also the short form of *mi* is archaic and limited to poetic use. |citation-needed| Relative pronouns are *kuka*, *joka* and *mikä* (which, whose). VISK §735| They are morphologically indistinct from corresponding interrogative pronouns.

Relative pronouns examples:

  • kuka: kuka+Pron+Rel+Sg+Nom

Quantor pronouns correspond to existential and universal quantifiers and their negations. The generic quantors are *joku* (someone),

  • jokin* (something), *jokainen* (everyone), *kaikki* (everything),
  • kukin* (each one), *kukaan* (no one), *mikään* (nothing), *jokunen*,
  • muutama*, *harva* (a few), *moni* (many) and *useampi* (more). The dual quantors, quantifying over set of two objects are *jompikumpi* (either or), *kumpikin*, *molemmat* (both), *kumpikaan* (neither). VISK §740 The quantor pronouns subsume the class of indefinite pronouns used in older grammar defintions. VISK §742 The indefinite quantifiers are classified as indefinite quantors for the sake of compatibility. This covers *joku*,
  • jokin*, *jompikumpi*, as well as specific
  • eräs*, *muuan* (some), *yksi* (one). Further reading VISK §746 – 749.

Quantor pronouns examples:

  • joku: joku+Pron+Qu+Indef+Sg+Nom
  • jotkut: joku+Pron+Qu+Indef+Pl+Nom

Reflexive pronoun is the word *itse* refering to self, usually but not always coupled with possessive suffix to denote the referent. Further reading: VISK §729

Reflexive pronouns examples:

  • itse: itse+Pron+Refl+Sg+Nom

Reciprocal pronoun is *toinen* refering to each other. It uses possessive suffix to delimit the reciprocal group. Further reading: VISK §732

Reciprocal pronouns examples:

  • toisiamme: toinen+Pron+Recipr+Pl+Par+PxPl1

Proadjectives are pronouns that act in place of adjectives syntactically. They are formed by compounds (or derivations) of pronoun and *lainen* or

Proadjectives examples:

  • jollainen: jollainen+A+Rel+Sg+Nom

Proadverbs are the pronouns that have lexicalised into adverbs by their syntax and semantics. Further reading: VISK §715

Proadverbs examples:

  • missä: missä+Adv+Interr+Ine

forms of *jompi* may not exist as free morphs. The marginal forms of

  • monias* are extinct. Oddly enough, the semireduplicative intensifier monituinen is nowhere to be found in VISK either.

Marginally in the pro word category are nouns, adjectives and adverbs refering to equivalence in comparative context since they are also otherwise lacking meaning like other pro words. This fgroup includes words *sama* (same), *eri* (different), *muu* (other),

  • toinen* (another), and their derivations. Further reading: VISK §766

In spoken language the supposedly non-inflecting *eri* has common inflected forms.