root-morphology

Võru tags and basic lexica

Definitions for Multichar_Symbols

Analysis symbols

The morphological analyses of wordforms for the Võro language are presented in this system in terms of the following symbols. (It is highly suggested to follow existing standards when adding new tags).

  • +WORK (eng) work needed special letters
  • b plus U+0301 COMBINING ACUTE
  • d plus U+0301 COMBINING ACUTE
  • f plus U+0301 COMBINING ACUTE
  • h plus U+0301 COMBINING ACUTE
  • t plus U+0301 COMBINING ACUTE
  • v plus U+0301 COMBINING ACUTE
  • u plus U+032C COMBINING CARON BELOW
  • u plus U+032C COMBINING CARON BELOW
  • ü̬ ü plus U+032C COMBINING CARON BELOW
  • Ü̬ ü plus U+032C COMBINING CARON BELOW
  • i plus U+032C COMBINING CARON BELOW
  • i plus U+032C COMBINING CARON BELOW
  • õ̭ õ plus U+032D COMBINING CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT BELOW
  • Õ̭ õ plus U+032D COMBINING CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT BELOW
%{ˋØ%} - U+02CB MODIFIER LETTER GRAVE ACCENT used in rules

The parts-of-speech are:

  • +N Noun
  • +A Adjective
  • +Adv Adverb
  • +V Verb
  • +Pron Pronoun
  • +CS subjunction
  • +CC Correlating conjunction
  • +Det Determiners
  • +Adp Adpositions
  • +Po Postposition
  • +Pr Preposition
  • +Interj Interjections
  • +Pcle
  • +Num Numerals
  • +Qnt

The parts of speech are further split up into:

  • +Prop
  • +Pers
  • +Dem
  • +Interr
  • +Refl
  • +Recipr
  • +Rel
  • +Indef
  • +AdA adjective or adverb modifier

The Usage extents are marked using following tags:

  • +Err/Orth
  • +Err/Orth-no-pal palatalization is missing
  • +Use/-Spell
  • +Use/NG No generation

The nominals are inflected in the following Case and Number

  • +Sg Singular
  • +Pl Plural
  • +SP Singular and Plural, used for CG and Apertium
  • +Abe abessive
  • +Abl ablative
  • +Acc accusative
  • +Ade adessive
  • +All allative
  • +Com comitative
  • +Com/Sh
  • +Ela elative
  • +Ess essive
  • +Ill illative
  • +Ine inessive
  • +Gen genitive
  • +Loc locative
  • +Nom nominative
  • +Par partitive
  • +Ter terminative
  • +Tra translative

The possession is marked as such: There are no possessive markers

The comparative forms are:

  • +Comp
  • +Superl Numerals are classified under:
  • +Attr
  • +Card
  • +Ord Verb moods are:
  • +Ind
  • +Jus
  • +Prs
  • +Prt
  • +Pot
  • +Cond
  • +Imprt

Verb personal forms are:

Subject conjugation

  • +Sg1
  • +Sg2
  • +Sg3
  • +Pl1
  • +Pl2
  • +Pl3
  • +ScSg1
  • +ScSg2
  • +ScSg3
  • +ScPl1
  • +ScPl2
  • +ScPl3
  • +Sc

Passive conjugation

  • +PcSg1
  • +PcSg2
  • +PcSg3
  • +PcPl1
  • +PcPl2
  • +PcPl3
  • +Pc Other verb forms are
  • +Inf sõimadaq, elädäq
  • +Inf/mA sõimama, elämä
  • +Ger ollõn
  • +ConNeg saa eiq 3 elements in 2 orthographic units
  • +ConNegII ei saaq 3 elements in 2 orthographic units
  • +Neg saa-aiq 3 elements in 1 orthographic unit
  • +ImprtII
  • +PrsPrc
  • +PrfPrc
  • +Sup olõman, olõmaldaq; oldama
  • +VGen
  • +VAbess
  • +Act active
  • +Pss passive
  • +PrsPrc
  • +PrfPrc elet
  • +ABBR
  • +Symbol = independent symbols in the text stream, like £, €, ©
  • +ACR

Special symbols are classified with:

  • +CLB
  • +PUNCT
  • +LEFT
  • +RIGHT The verbs are syntactically split according to transitivity:
  • +TV
  • +IV Special multiword units are analysed with:
  • +Multi Non-dictionary words can be recognised with:
  • +Guess

Question and Focus particles:

  • +Qst
  • +Foc
  • +Clt
  • +Hom1
  • +Hom2
  • +Hom3
  • +Hom4

Tags distinguishing different versions of the same lemma (before POS)

  • +v1
  • +v2
  • +v3
  • +v4
  • +v5
  • +v6
  • +v7
  • +v8
  • +v9
  • +v10
  • +v11
  • +v12
  • +v13
  • +v14
  • +v15
  • +v16
  • +v17
  • +v18
  • +v19
  • +v20
  • +v21
  • +v22
  • +v23
  • +v24
  • +Sem/Act Activity
  • +Sem/Amount Amount
  • +Sem/Ani Animate
  • +Sem/Aniprod Animal Product
  • +Sem/Body Bodypart
  • +Sem/Body-abstr siellu, vuoig?a, jierbmi
  • +Sem/Build Building
  • +Sem/Build-part Part of Bulding, like the closet
  • +Sem/Cat Category
  • +Sem/Clth Clothes
  • +Sem/Clth-jewl Jewelery
  • +Sem/Clth-part part of clothes, boallu, sávdnji...
  • +Sem/Ctain Container
  • +Sem/Ctain-abstr Abstract container like bank account
  • +Sem/Ctain-clth
  • +Sem/Curr Currency like dollár, Not Money
  • +Sem/Dance Dance
  • +Sem/Dir Direction like GPS-kursa
  • +Sem/Domain Domain like politics, reindeerherding (a system of actions)
  • +Sem/Drink Drink
  • +Sem/Dummytag Dummytag
  • +Sem/Edu Educational event
  • +Sem/Event Event
  • +Sem/Feat Feature, like Árvu
  • +Sem/Feat-phys Physiological feature, ivdni, fárda
  • +Sem/Feat-psych Psychological feauture
  • +Sem/Feat-measr Psychological feauture
  • +Sem/Fem Female name
  • +Sem/Food Food
  • +Sem/Food-med Medicine
  • +Sem/Furn Furniture
  • +Sem/Game Game
  • +Sem/Geom Geometrical object
  • +Sem/Group Animal or Human Group
  • +Sem/Hum Human
  • +Sem/Hum-abstr Human abstract
  • +Sem/Ideol Ideology
  • +Sem/Lang Language
  • +Sem/Mal Male name
  • +Sem/Mat Material for producing things
  • +Sem/Measr Measure
  • +Sem/Money Has to do with money, like wages, not Curr(ency)
  • +Sem/Obj Object
  • +Sem/Obj-clo Cloth
  • +Sem/Obj-cogn Cloth
  • +Sem/Obj-el (Electrical) machine or apparatus
  • +Sem/Obj-ling Object with something written on it
  • +Sem/Obj-rope flexible ropelike object
  • +Sem/Obj-surfc Surface object
  • +Sem/Org Organisation
  • +Sem/Part Feature, oassi, bealli
  • +Sem/Perc-cogn Cognative perception
  • +Sem/Perc-emo Emotional perception
  • +Sem/Perc-phys Physical perception
  • +Sem/Perc-psych Physical perception
  • +Sem/Plant Plant
  • +Sem/Plant-part Plant part
  • +Sem/Plc Place
  • +Sem/Plc-abstr Abstract place
  • +Sem/Plc-elevate Place
  • +Sem/Plc-line Place
  • +Sem/Plc-water Place
  • +Sem/Pos Position (as in social position job)
  • +Sem/Process Process
  • +Sem/Prod Product
  • +Sem/Prod-audio Audio product
  • +Sem/Prod-cogn Cognition product
  • +Sem/Prod-ling Linguistic product
  • +Sem/Prod-vis Visual product
  • +Sem/Rel Relation
  • +Sem/Route Name of a Route
  • +Sem/Rule Rule or convention
  • +Sem/Semcon Semantic concept
  • +Sem/Sign Sign (e.g. numbers, punctuation)
  • +Sem/Sport Sport
  • +Sem/State
  • +Sem/State-sick Illness
  • +Sem/Substnc Substance, like Air and Water
  • +Sem/Sur Surname
  • +Sem/Symbol Symbol
  • +Sem/Time Time
  • +Sem/Tool Prototypical tool for repairing things
  • +Sem/Tool-catch Tool used for catching (e.g. fish)
  • +Sem/Tool-clean Tool used for cleaning
  • +Sem/Tool-it Tool used in IT
  • +Sem/Tool-measr Tool used for measuring
  • +Sem/Tool-music Music instrument
  • +Sem/Tool-write Writing tool
  • +Sem/Txt Text (girji, lávlla...)
  • +Sem/Veh Vehicle
  • +Sem/Wpn Weapon
  • +Sem/Wthr The Weather or the state of ground
  • +Sem/Ant_Fem
  • +Sem/Ant_Mal
  • +Temp

Derivations are classified under the morphophonetic form of the suffix, the source and target part-of-speech.

  • +V→N
  • +V→V
  • +V→A
  • +Prop→A
  • +Der
  • +Der/xxx +Der/JA NomAg +Der/minE NomAct +Der/lt A→Adv

Morphophonology

To represent phonologic variations in word forms we use the following symbols in the lexicon files:

  %{aä%}    — Vowel harmony with "(t)a/ä" AÄ1:a AÄ1:ä AÄ1:0
  %{ae%}   — Vowel harmony with "a/e/õ" passive tahetu
  %{aõ%}   — Vowel harmony with "a/e/õ" passive sõidõtu
  %{äe%}    — Vowel harmony with "ä/e/õ" passive
  %{eõ%}    — Vowel harmony with "e/õ"
  %{uü%}    — Vowel harmony with "u/ü"
  %{öü%}    — Vowel raising
  %{ou%}    — Vowel raising
  %{ei%}    — Vowel raising
  %{õy%}    — Vowel raising
  %{ao%}    — Vowel raising
  %{eØ%}    — ütlemä:üt%{eØ%}l  
  %{õØ%}    — ütlemä:üt%{eØ%}l  
  %{Øõ%}    — juurdlõma:juur%{dØ%}%{0õ%}l
  %{XV%}    — This is used for echoing the previous vowel
  %{XC%}    — This is used for lengthening a consonant
  %{dØ%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{tØ%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{dv%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{ij%}    ellä%{ij%}
  %{gv%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{gl%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{gØ%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas argnõma:ar%{gØ%}
  %{uv%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{üv%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na

Gemination

  %{hØ%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{jØ%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{kØ%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{lØ%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{mØ%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{nØ%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{pØ%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas oppama:o%{pØ%}pama
  %{rØ%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{sØ%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{vØ%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{Øp%}    — häbü:hä%{Øp%}%{pbØ%}ü
  %{Øt%}    — koda:ko%{Øt%}%{tdØ%}a
  %{Øk%}    — nägo:nä%{Øk%}%{kgØ%}o

Strong and weak

  %{pb%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{td%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{t́d́%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{kg%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{bv%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas närväs:när%{bv%}ä%{sØ%}
  %{dr%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas parras:par%{dr%}a%{sØ%}
  %{bm%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas lammas:lam%{bm%}a%{sØ%}
  %{dn%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas lammas:lam%{bm%}a%{sØ%}
  %{dl%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas lammas:lam%{bm%}a%{sØ%}
  %{pbØ%}   — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{pbv%}   — tõbi: tõvõ tõpõ tõppõ
  %{tdØ%}   — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{kgØ%}   — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{jiØ%}   — HJK and KimmoK ideas vari:var%{jiØ%}o
  %{qmn%}   — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{qn%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{dd́Ø%}   
  %{dd́n%}   
  %{dd́r%}   
  %{dd́v%}   
  %{dd́Ø%}   
  %{gǵv%}   
  %{gǵØ%}   
  %{tt́d%}   
  %{tt́Ø%}    täh%{tt́Ø%}
  %{kḱg%}   
  %{kḱØ%}   
  %{pṕb%}   
  %{pṕØ%}   

Palatalization

  %{bb́%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{dd́%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{ff́%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{gǵ%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{hh́%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{kḱ%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{lĺ%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{mḿ%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{nń%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{pṕ%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{rŕ%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{sś%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{tt́%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{vv́%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{zź%}    — HJK and KimmoK ideas kana:ka%{nØ%}na
  %{dd́n%}  

%^I7 This appears in stem vaoma: va%^I7o for vaio %^K7 This appears in stem väemä: vä%^K7e for väkeq %^V7 This appears in stem häömä: hä%^V7ö for hävvü %^T7 This appears in stem kaoma: ka%^T7o for katoq %^Y7 This appears for syna = s%^Y7na and is rendered as õ in the norm

And following triggers to control variation %^ErrorBack +Err/Orth+Clt: %>kinaq in front harmony context BHARM disallowance

%^CC2C att%^CC2C%>m%{aä%} atma %^OO2Õ joo%^OO2Õ%>i: j0õ0%>i %^PSS vowel in passive tahetu, sõidõtu, eletü

%^ÄI2ÄÄ päiv%^ÄI2ÄÄ%>ä: päävä %{PrsSg1%} — this helps with %{eõ%}:i̬

%^StrD2T This changes g,d,b, => k,t,p

%^VowRM this will remove stem final vowel %^CnsRM this will remove stem final consonant tervüs: tervü %^StrGStem This strengthens "perädü" to "perätüt" %^XStrGStem This extra-strengthens "sõda" to "sõtta" %^NoGrad %^WGStem This weakens %^G1 — This is used with %{pØ%} %{pbØ%} for 0 0, also t, k %^G2 — This is used with %{pØ%} %{pbØ%} for 0 b, also t, k %^G3 — This is used with %{pØ%} %{pbØ%} for 0 p, also t, k %^G4 — This is used with %{pØ%} %{pbØ%} for p p, also t, k %^Pen This moves us to penultimate coda

%^PenWGStem This weakens "kipõń" to "kibõna"

%^PenVowRM syncope tapõld : taplõma %^PAL — Palatalization

%^D2S käsi, susi %^TS2S The -ts- => -s- %^I2J The i => j change

%^PLPRT The a: o attested in Plural kana: kanno and prt %^VOWRaise Raises vowel %^VOWLower Lowers vowel %^XLowerVow Lowers vowel two levels %^VOWLowerDelab Lowers vowel and delabializes it %^XLowerVowDelab Lowers vowel two levels and delabializes it %^U2E lowers u: õ and ü: e delabializes and lowers %^U2A lowers u: a and ü: ä delabializes and lowers

Oahpa Place names and case used

+%<plc_ine%>
Ine, Ill, Ela
+%<plc_ade%>
Ade, All, Abl
+%<pcl_pääl%>
pääl, pääle, päält

Flag diacritics

We have manually optimised the structure of our lexicon using the following flag diacritics to restrict morhpological combinatorics - only allow compounds with verbs if the verb is further derived into a noun again:

@P.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@D.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@C.NeedNoun@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised

For languages that allow compounding, the following flag diacritics are needed to control position-based compounding restrictions for nominals. Their use is handled automatically if combined with +CmpN/xxx tags. If not used, they will do no harm.

@P.CmpFrst.FALSE@ Require that words tagged as such only appear first
@D.CmpPref.TRUE@ Block such words from entering ENDLEX
@P.CmpPref.FALSE@ Block these words from making further compounds
@D.CmpLast.TRUE@ Block such words from entering R
@D.CmpNone.TRUE@ Combines with the next tag to prohibit compounding
@U.CmpNone.FALSE@ Combines with the prev tag to prohibit compounding
@P.CmpOnly.TRUE@ Sets a flag to indicate that the word has passed R
@D.CmpOnly.FALSE@ Disallow words coming directly from root.

Use the following flag diacritics to control downcasing of derived proper nouns (e.g. Finnish Pariisi -> pariisilainen). See e.g. North Sámi for how to use these flags. There exists a ready-made regex that will do the actual down-casing given the proper use of these flags.

@U.Cap.Obl@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.
@U.Cap.Opt@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.

The Root lexicon

The word forms in the Võro language start from the lexeme roots of basic word classes, or optionally from prefixes:

  • adjectives ;
  • adpositions ;
  • adverbs ;
  • conjunctors ;
  • interjections ;
  • pronouns ;
  • PronounTypes ;
  • Punctuation ;
  • Symbols ;
  • numerals ; look at verb_newwords.lexc
  • Exceptions ;
  • Abbreviation ;
  • Acronym ;

Incoming

  • ADP_NEWWORDS ;
  • ADV_NEWWORDS ;
  • DET_NEWWORDS ;
  • INTERJ_NEWWORDS ;
  • N_NEWWORDS ;
  • @U.Cap.Obl@ PROP_NEWWORDS ;
  • @U.Cap.Opt@ PROP_NEWWORDS ;
  • V_NEWWORDS ;
  • GenitiveAttributes ; Borrowed from experimental_languages est

less complex word classes