South Saami verb morphology

Souths Saami verb morphology


This page describes the verb morphology, one table for each Umlaut column. In each table, each form is listed for each verb type, and finally a list of tentative underlying forms for the inflectional endings.

One general remark should be made here: It looks like the verb types for even-syllable verbs are corresponding to the different Umlaut rows, with the single difference that Umlaut row 2 corresponds to verb type III, and vice versa. Except for Umlaut Column 7, there is no difference between the two rows, so in practice this has very little significance. The difference is mainly to be seen in the vocalism of the inflectional endings. To make the order of the second syllable vowels be the same as in the Umlaut table, I have swapped type II and III in the tables below. This is clearly shown in the titles.

I have also included two productive derivations that cause Umlaut.

Umlaut column 1

The Umlaut column goes like this (verb type in parenthesis):
i (I), æ (III), æ (II), ï (IV), y (V), i (VI).

Forms Uneven Even I Even III Even II Even IV Even V Even VI Underlying form of ending Comments
Inf bissiestidh bissedh fænkedh bæsvodh bïssedh lyjhkedh milkedh
Present tense
1Sg bissestem bæssam fænkam bæsvoem bïssem lyjhkem milkem
2Sg bissesth bæssah fænkah bæsvoeh bïssh lyjhkh milkh
3Sg bisseste bæssa fænkoe bysve bæssa lyjhkoe milkie
1Du bissiestien bissien fænkan
bæsvoen bissien lyjhkoen milkien
2Du bissiestidien bisseden fænkeden bæsvoden bïsseden lyjhkeden milkeden
3Du bissiestægan bissiejægan fænkajægan bæsvoejægan bïssijægan lyjhkijægan milkijægan
1Pl bissiestibie bissebe fænkebe bæsvobe bïssebe lyjhkebe milkebe
2Pl bissiestidie bissede fænkede bæsvode bïssede lyjhkede milkede
3Pl bissiestieh bissieh fænkah
bæsvoeh bissieh lyjhkoeh milkieh
Past tense
1Sg bissiestim bissim
fænkajim bæsvoejim bïssim lyjhkim milkim
2Sg bissiestih bissih
fænkajih bæsvoejih bïssih lyjhkih milkih
3Sg bissiesti
bïssi lyjhki milki
1Du bissiestimen bissimen
fænkajimen bæsvoejimen bïssimen lyjhkimen milkimen
2Du bissiestiden bissiden
fænkajiden bæsvoejiden bïssiden lyjhkiden milkiden
3Du bissiestigan bissigan
fænkajigan bæsvoejigan bïssigan lyjhkigan milkigan
1Pl bissiestimh bissimh
fænkajimh bæsvoejimh bïssimh lyjhkimh milkimh
2Pl bissiestidh bissidh
fænkajidh bæsvoejidh bïssidh lyjhkidh milkidh
3Pl bissiestin bissin
fænkajin bæsvoejin bïssin lyjhkin milkin
2Sg bissesth bissieh fænkah bæsvoeh bïssh lyjhkh milkh
2Du bissiestidien bisseden fænkeden bæsvoden bïsseden lyjhkeden milkeden
2Pl bissiestidie bissede fænkede bæsvode bïssede lyjhkede milkede
Infinite forms
Neg bissesth bissieh fænkah bæsvoeh bïssh lyjhkh milkh
Ger bissesteminie bissieminie fænkaminie bæsvoeminie bïsseminie lyjhkeminie milkeminie
Ptc bissiestamme bæsseme fænkeme bysveme bïsseme lyjhkeme milkeme
VGen(?3) bissesten bissien fænkan(?1) bæsvoen bïssen(?1) lyjhken(?2) milken(?2)
Nom. ag. bissiestæjja bissije(?2) fænkeje(?2) bæsvoje bïsseje(?2) lyjhkeje(?2) milkeje(?2)
Nom. act. bissiestimmie bisseme(?2) fænkeme(?2) bæsvome bïsseme(?2) lyjhkeme(?2) milkeme(?2)
Rough translations of stems, Engl. (Norw.)
Transl. steak a little (steika litt) steak (steika) be delayed (bli opphalde, seinka) punish (straffa) wash (vaska) like, love (lika, vera glad i) grass and x down (beita av og trampa ned)

Notes and open issues:

The form is not yet verified
The second vowel needs to be double checked, could be different
Grammar ¤ 62

Umlaut column 2

(some initial remarks?)

Umlaut column 3

(some initial remarks?)

Umlaut column 4

(some initial remarks?)

Umlaut column 5

(some initial remarks?)

Umlaut column 6

(some initial remarks?)

Umlaut column 7

(some initial remarks?)

by Sjur Moshagen