sms-phon-phonology

Skolt Sámi TWOLC file

Introduction

The rule file for Skolt Saami is divided into 5 main types:

  1. Definitions
  2. Consonant shift rules (tbw)
  3. Vowel alternation rules
  4. Consonant gradation rules
  5. Rules for cleaning up and composing end result

Alphabets, sets and definitions

Alphabet

  • a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
  • ä å â õ
  • Ä Å Â Õ
  • č ǩ ǯ ǧ ž đ ǥ ʒ š ŋ
  • Č Ǩ Ǯ Ǧ Ž Đ Ǥ Ʒ Š Ŋ
  • ẹ Pedagogical purposes
  • Ẹ Pedagogical purposes
  • æ ø ö á é í
  • Æ Ø Ö Á
  • É Ó Ú Í À È Ò Ù Ì Ë Ü Ï Ê Ô Û Î Ã Ý þ Ñ Ð
  • é ó ú í à è ò ù ì ë ü ï ê ô û î ã ý þ ñ ð ß ª ß ç
  • MODIFIER LETTER PRIME: U+02B9 suprasegmental palatization
  • MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE: U+02BC Syllable marker that appears in writing
  • MODIFIER LETTER VERTICAL LINE: U+02C8 as overlong consonant marker that does not appear in writing except for pedagogical purposes

Trigger symbols

  • %^Pen: 0 for combinations 2015-09-28 Miikka
  • %^RmVow: 0 for removing vowels e, â, a before final consonant in stem
  • %^UltRmVow: 0 for removing vowels e, â, a after final consonant in stem
  • %^RmCns: 0 for removing stem final consonant, e.g. final z in ǩeeʹstes: ǩeâsttez ǩeâstta
  • %^2VOW: 0 %^3VOW: 0 %^4VOW: 0 %^5VOW: 0 Vow triggers
  • %^VOWLower: 0 i>e, õ>â, â>ä, u>o, o>å
  • %^VOWRaise: 0 e>i, ä>e
  • %^U2Õ: 0 lowers u>õ
  • %^PAL: 0 %^PALNo: 0 %^PALI: 0 %^PALE: 0 %^PALÄ: 0 %^PALẸ: 0 %^PALÂ: 0 %^PALÕ: 0 Palatalisation Penultimate Palatalisation
  • %^PALK: 0 causes k: ǩ and g: ǧ
  • %^VC: 0 Voicing s: z š: ž
  • %^Â: 0 Indicates placement of â in stem

CHARACTERISTIC BREAKDOWN 2015-02-17

  • %^VV2V: 0 Shortens vowel
  • %^V2VV: 0 Lengthens vowel
  • %^CC2C: 0 Shortens consonant
  • %^CC2CAllegro: 0 Shortens consonant
  • %^C2CC: 0 Lengthens consonant
  • %^CC2CCC: 0 Strong to Extra Strong consonant
  • %^CCC2C: 0 Extra Strong to Weak consonant
  • %^CCC2CAllegro: 0 Extra Strong to Weak consonant
  • %^CCC2CC: 0 Extra Strong to Strong consonant
  • %^XYY2XY: 0 Shortens consonant cluster
  • %^XYY2VY: 0 Consonant cluster to vowel and consonant sijdd: siid
  • %^XYY2VYY: 0 Consonant cluster to vowel and geminate uvdd: ouʹdd
  • %^XYY2IY: 0 Consonant cluster to i and consonant kueʹhtt: kueiʹt
  • %^VY2XYY: 0 Consonant cluster i/u to j/v
  • %^VYY2XYY: 0 Consonant cluster i/u to j/v
  • %^KK2ZERO: 0 nââʹer
  • %^KKK2ZERO: 0 jeeʹel
  • %^KKK2GG: 0 Geminate weakening
  • %^KKK2G: 0 Strong Geminate allegro
  • %^KK2GG: 0 Geminate weakening jokk: jooǥǥ
  • %^KK2GAllegro: 0 Geminate weakening in allegro pååss: påz
  • %^K2GG: 0 Geminate weakening čårrõs: čårrõõzz
  • %^K2GAllegro: 0 Geminate weakening in allegro čâustõk
  • %{ʹØ%}:0 This is modifier letter prime
  • %{ʼØ%}:0 used between l, n, j and subsequent j and elsewhere

This introduces vertical bar after diphth before consonants

  • %^Allegro: 0 This introduces vertical bar after diphth before consonants
  • %^J2I: 0 in tuâjj: tuâi
  • %^I2J: 0 in agent names
  • %^I2Zero: 0 in agent names

Gradation triggers 2015.01.23

  • %^XSt2St: 0 Causes weakening from extra strong to strong
  • %^XSt2W: 0 Causes weakening from extra strong to weak
  • %^St2W: 0 Causes weakening from strong to weak
  • %^W2St: 0 Causes strengthening from weak to strong
  • %^W2XSt: 0 Causes strengthening from weak to extra strong
  • %^St2XSt: 0 Causes strengthening from strong to extra strong

Other vowel length and consonant length will be phased out

  • %^VOWXSH: 0 Extra shortens vowel in relation to consonant
  • %^VOWXL: 0 Extra lengthens vowel in relation to consonant in nouns, for example
  • %^CXLong: 0 %^CLong: 0 %^CShort: 0 Lengthening, shortening
  • X3: 0 causes weak grade
  • %{VU%}:u used with stuuʹl
  • %{Â1%}:0 used with "mainsted" to tell (a story)
  • %{A1%}:0 used with "vuejted" to drive (causative)
  • %{E1%}:0 used with "kåʹmrded" to bow
  • %{%ʼ%}:0 archiform for MODIFIER LETTER ACUTE ACCENT used in stems where the lemma does not contain a MODIFIER LETTER ACUTE ACCENT and yet the paradigm requires one.
  • %{EÂ%}:e archiform for ie: eâ variation
  • %^IMPSG2: 0
  • %^INDPRSSG3: 0
  • %^PenVow2a: 0 Changes penultimate vowel to a; e: a â: a
  • %^FRICG: 0

Hyphen at compound word boundary

  • %{%-Ø%}:0 Zero versus hyphen in compounding
  • %^Hyphen: 0 at compound word boundary with %-
  • %^NoHyphen: 0 at compound word boundary

Literal quotes and angles must be escaped (cf morpheme boundaries below):

  • »
  • «
  • >
  • <

Morpheme boundaries:

End of alphabet definitions

Sets

  • B C D F G H J K L M N P Q R S T V W X Z Đ Ʒ Ǯ Č Ŋ Ǩ Ǧ Ǥ Š Ž ;
  • B C D F G H J K L M N P Q R S T W X Z Đ Ʒ Ǯ Č Ŋ Ǩ Ǧ Ǥ Š Ž ;
  • B C D F G H K L M N P Q R S T V W X Z Đ Ʒ Ǯ Č Ŋ Ǩ Ǧ Ǥ Š Ž ;
  • Vow = a e ẹ i o u å ä â õ
  • A E Ẹ I O U Å Ä Â Õ ;
  • B C D F G H K L M N P Q R S T W X Z Đ Ʒ Ǯ Č Ŋ Ǩ Ǧ Ǥ Š Ž ;
  • B C F G H J K M N P Q S T V W X Z Đ Ǯ Č Ŋ Ǩ Ǧ Ǥ Š Ž ;
  • %^VOWRaise %^VOWSH %^CLong %^K2GG ; dummies in Sg.Nom and Sg.Gen

Definitions

Short consonant cluster

Onset consonant or word boundary

Penultimate consonant

following morpheme or word boundary

 * RBound = [(%^Hyphen: %-|%^NoHyphen:|%{%-Ø%}:) #:|.#.|%>|»|%-] ; 

possible triggers before VOWLower and VOWRaise

possible triggers before PALE PALÄ

possible triggers between stem and PALNo and PAL

possible triggers between vowel length and consonant grade

possible triggers between word end and consonant grade

possible triggers between vowel length and Palatalization

Penultimate vowel centers possible triggers before VOWLower and VOWRaise

used in compounding Cmp/SgNom and Cmp/SgGen

neutral to vowel height and backness

 * NeutrHighBack = [(%^VOWLower:|%^VOWRaise:) ] ; 

neutral to vowel length neutral to consonant length


neutral to vowel and consonant length

 * NeutrGrade = [VNeutrGrade |CNeutrGrade] ; 
  • X3 = C Vx Cx Cx C Vx Vy Cx ˈ Cx
  • X2 = C Vx Vx Cx Cx C Vx Vy Cx Cx
  • X1 = C Vx Vx Cx C Vx Vy Cx

Rules

Vowel shortening rules

Vowel shortening â:0 - used in

čââʹđ+N+Sg+Ill: heart/sydän

  • čâ%^1VOWđđ%>ma
  • čâ0đđ%>ma

ǩeʹtted+V+Ind+Prs+ConNeg: cook/keittää

  • ǩeâ%{ʹØ%}tt%^VV2V%^VOWRaise%^PALI%^PAL
  • ǩi0ʹtt0000

Vowel shortening ẹ:0 - used in +Ind+Prs+Pl3, +Ind+Prt+Pl3 teevvad+V+Prt+4:

  • tẹẹvv%^VV2V%^VOWRaise%>uš
  • ti0vv00%>uš

Vowel shortening e:0 - used in +Ind+Prs+Pl3, +Ind+Prt+Pl3

eʹǩrded+V+Inf

  • eeʹǩǩerd%^Pen%^VV2V%^Pen%^CC2C%^RmVow%>ed
  • e0ʹǩ00rd00000%>ed cieʹǩǩes+N+Sg+Ill: trick, type of ear mark/tikki, pykälä
  • ciâ%{ʹØ%}kˈkes%^Pen%^VOWLower%^RmVow%>a
  • ceä0kˈk0s000%>a

Ââvel+N+Prop+Sg+Loc Ivalo

  • Ââvel%^RmVow%>est
  • Ââv0l0%>est

Jouste

Vowel shortening å:0 - used in +Ind+Prs+Pl3, +Ind+Prt+Pl3 jååʹtted+V+Ind+Prt+Pl3 trekk

  • jåå%{ʹØ%}tt%^VV2V%^VOWRaise%^PAL%>e
  • jo0ʹtt000%>e

sååbbar+N+Sg+Nom meeting

  • så%^1VOWbbar%^Pen%^V2VV
  • sååbbar00

Vowel shortening õ:0 - used in +Ind+Prs+Pl3, +Ind+Prt+Pl3

  • mõõ%{ʹØ%}nn%^VV2V%^PAL%>e
  • mõ0ʹnn00%>e
  • mõõ%{ʹØ%}nn%^VV2V%^VOWLower%^PAL%>e
  • mâ0ʹnn000%>e
  • čõõnâst%^Pen%^VV2V%^RmVow%>ed
  • čõ0n0st000%>ed

kõõnjâl+N+Sg+Gen tear

  • kõ%^1VOWnnjâl%^Pen%^VV2V%^Pen%^C2CC
  • kõ0nnjâl0000

Vowel shortening u:0 - used in +Ind+Prs+Pl3, +Ind+Prt+Pl3

mainstummuš+N+Sg+Ill: story telling/tarinointi

  • mainstummuš%^RmVow%>a
  • mainstumm0š0%>a

juurd+N+Ess thought

  • ju%^1VOWrdd%>j%>en
  • ju0rdd%>j%>en

Oulu

Vowel shortening i:0 - used in +Ind+Prs+Pl3, +Ind+Prt+Pl3 viikkâd+V+Ind+Prs+Pl3

  • vii%{ʹØ%}kk%^VV2V%^VOWLower%^PAL%>e
  • ve0ʹǩǩ000%>e viikkâd+V+Imprt+Pl3
  • vii%{ʹØ%}kk%^VV2V%^VOWLower%>az
  • vẹ00kk00%>az
  • *vii{ʹØ}kk^VV2V^VOWLower>az (is not standard language)
  • *vẹẹ0kk00>az (is not standard language) iilâsǩ: ilska

prääʹzniǩ+N+Sg+Ill: celebration/juhla

  • prääʹzniǩ^RmVow^PALNo>a
  • prääʹzn0k00%>a
  • žẹẹvai^RmVow^I2Zero%>ǥa
  • žẹẹv0000>ǥa

+Sg+Ill N_HÕʹPPI

  • hõʹppi^UltRmVow>ǥa
  • hõʹpp00>ǥa

Vowel shortening o:0 - used in +Ind+Prs+Pl3, +Ind+Prt+Pl3 šoomm+N+Sg+Ill

  • šoomm^VV2V^VOWRaise>u
  • šu0mm00>u ponjsted+V+Inf
  • poonjâst^Pen^VV2V^RmVow>ed
  • po0nj0st000>ed poorrâd+V+Imprt+Pl3
  • poorr^VV2V^VOWLower>az
  • på0rr00>az

ooccâd+V+Imprt+Pl3

  • oocc^VV2V^VOWLower>az
  • å0cc00>az

ooumaž+N+Sg+Nom

  • o^1VOWumm^V2VV^XYY2XY>až
  • ooum000>až -o

Vowel shortening a:0 - used in +Ind+Prs+Pl3, +Ind+Prt+Pl3

  • saa{ʹØ}kk^VV2V^PAL>e
  • sa0ʹǩǩ00>e
  • maainâst^Pen^VV2V>ed
  • ma0inâst00>ed

Aanar+N+Prop+Sg+Ill: Inari/Enare

  • Aanar^RmVow>a
  • Aan0r0>a

mättʼted+V+Inf: teach/opettaa

  • mätta0t^RmVow>ed
  • mätt0ʼt0>ed

-a

Vowel shortening ä:0 - used in +Ind+Prs+Pl3, +Ind+Prt+Pl3

%{ʼØ%} for modifier letter apostrophe-

jieʹlli+N+Ess animal/eläin

  • jieʹll{ʼØ}i^I2J>en
  • jieʹllʼj0>en
  • koll>{ʼØ}j>ed
  • koll>ʼj>ed
  • *koll>{ʼØ}j>ed (is not standard language)
  • *koll>0j>ed (is not standard language)
  • valmštõõll{ʼØ}i^I2J>i
  • valmštõõllʼj0>i piânˈnai+N+Ess: dog/koira
  • piânˈn^CCC2CC>{ʼØ}j>en
  • piân0n0>ʼj>en
  • jieʹll{ʼØ%}i^I2J>e>st
  • jieʹllʼj0>e>st

Vowel shortening y:0 - used in PX -y

Vowel shortening ö:0 - used in PX

ZERO to syllable mark 0:ʼ, same as modifier letter apostrophe - used in zeeʹtt+N+Sg+Abe: zeeʹttʼtää mättʼted+V+Inf: teach/opettaa

  • mätta0t^RmVow>ed
  • mätt0ʼt0>ed
  • ijss>0sa
  • ijss>ʼsa
  • kåčč>0čem
  • kåčč>ʼčem
  • a^1VOWutt^V2VV^XYY2XY>0taa
  • aaut000>ʼtaa
  • taaurõ^1VOWš{XC}^C2CC>0ses
  • taaurõ0šš0>ʼses

Vowel alternation rules

VOWEL SHIFT

RAISING

deriving +Ind+Prt+Sg1, +Ind+Prt+Sg2 +Ind+Prt+Pl3 in teevvad: tivvu

Vowel raising o:u - Adding +Prt+Pl3 for ed verbs, Removing u: and i: second element due to njeiddad njeiddu

  • šoomm^VV2V^VOWRaise>u
  • šu0mm00>u

Vowel raising %{õu%}:u- Adding tõlvvad+V+Pass+PrfPrc:

  • t{õu}{õuØ}lvv^VOWRaise>um
  • tu0lvv0>um

Vowel raising å:o - Adding

  • kåbll^VOWRaise
  • kobll0
  • kåå{ʹØ}pp^VOWRaise^PAL^CC2C>in
  • kooʹv0000>in
  • kå^1VOW{ʹØ}ll^V2VV^VOWRaise^PAL>in
  • kooʹll000>in

Vowel raising e:i - Adding +Prt+Pl3 for ed verbs, Removing u: and i: second element due to njeiddad njeiddu

reâugg+N+Sg+Ill

  • reâugg^VOWRaise>u
  • riõugg0>u

mieʹlǩǩ+N+Sg+Nom: milk/maito

  • meâ{ʹØ}lkk^VOWRaise^PALE^PAL
  • mieʹlǩǩ000
  • jeä{ʹØ}gˈg^VOWRaise^PALẸ^PAL^CCC2CC
  • jiẹʹǧ0ǧ0000
  • beâ{ʹØ}sˈs^VOWRaise^PALE^PAL^CCC2CC
  • bieʹs0s0000
  • ceägˈg^VOWRaise>u
  • ciâgˈg0>u

Vowel raising ẹ:i - used in

  • pẹ^1VOWss^VOWRaise>u
  • pi0ss0>u
  • pẹ^1VOWss^V2VV^VOWRaise>už
  • piiss00>už
  • tẹẹvv^VV2V^VOWRaise>uš
  • ti0vv00>uš peigg+N+Sg+Ill
  • *pẹ^1VOWigg^VOWRaise^VYY2XYY>u (is not standard language)
  • *pẹ0jgg00>u (is not standard language)

Vowel raising â:õ - Adding +Prt+Pl3 for ed verbs, Removing u: and i: second element due to njeiddad njeiddu mââʹnn+N+Pl+Acc: egg/muna

  • mââ{ʹØ}nn^VOWRaise^PAL^CC2C>id
  • mõõʹn0000>id čâʹlmm+N+Pl+Acc: eye/silmä
  • čâ^1VOW{ʹØ}lmm^V2VV^VOWRaise^PAL^XYY2XY>id
  • čõõʹlm00000>id
  • ruâk0k^VOWRaise^CC2CCC>u
  • ruõkˈk00>u
  • čuâkˈk^VOWRaise>u
  • čuõkˈk0>u kuâsˈsad+V+Ind+Prt+Pl3
  • kuâsˈs^VOWRaise>u
  • kuõsˈs0>u reâugg+N+Sg+Ill
  • reâugg^VOWRaise>u
  • riõugg0>u veârrad+V+Ind+Prt+Pl3
  • veâr0r^VOWRaise^CC2CCC>u
  • viõrˈr00>u

Diphthong raising beginning with u ä:å - kuärŋŋad+V+Ind+Prt+Pl3

  • kuärŋŋ^VOWRaise>u
  • kuårŋŋ0>u
  • *kuärŋŋ^VOWRaise>u (is not standard language)
  • *kuõrŋŋ0>u (is not standard language)

Diphthong raising beginning with e:i ä:â - reäkkad+V+Ind+Prt+Pl3

  • reäk0k^VOWRaise^CC2CCC>u
  • riâkˈk00>u ǩeäinn+N+Sg+Ill: road/tie
  • ǩeäinn^VOWRaise>u
  • ǩiâinn0>u
  • *ǩeäinn^VOWRaise>u (is not standard language)
  • *ǩiäinn0>u (is not standard language)

Diphthong raising beginning with e:i ä:e - used in

  • jeä{ʹØ}kˈkel^Pen^PALE^Pen^PAL^Pen^KKK2ZERO
  • jeeʹ000el000000

Diphthong raising beginning with e:i ä:ẹ - used in

  • čuä{ʹØ}ckk^PALẸ^PAL^XYY2XY>es
  • čuẹʹcǩ0000>es
  • suä{ʹØ}kk^PALẸ^PAL^KK2GG
  • suẹʹjj000

diphthong backing beginning with u ä:õ - used in

  • jeä{ʹØ}l0l^VOWRaise^PALÕ^PAL^CC2CCC>e
  • jiõʹlˈl0000>e

Even syllabic verbs I, diphthong raising beginning with ä:a u - deriving läullad > laullum

  • ä^1VOWldd^VOWRaise>u
  • a0ldd0>u
  • ä^1VOWldd^V2VV^VOWRaise^XYY2XY>u
  • aald0000>u čääʹcc+N+Pl+Acc water
  • čää{ʹØ}cc^VOWRaise^PAL^KK2GG>id
  • čaaʹʒʒ00>id mäʹhssed+V+Ind+Prt+Sg3: pay/maksaa
  • mä^1VOW{ʹØ}h{ʹØ}ss^V2VV^VOWRaise^PAL^XYY2VY>i
  • maa0uʹs00000>i
  • *mä^1VOW{ʹØ}h{ʹØ}ss^V2VV^VOWRaise^PAL^XYY2VY>i (is not standard language)
  • *mää0uʹs00000>i (is not standard language)

LOWERING

Even syllabic verbs I, vowel lowering o:å - deriving +Ind+Prs+Sg3, +Ind+Prs+Pl3 in poorrâd poorrâd+V+Ind+Prs+Pl3 eat/syödä

  • poo{ʹØ}rr^VV2V^VOWLower^PAL>e
  • på0ʹrr000>e poorrâd+V+Ind+Prs+Sg3 eat/syödä
  • poo{ʹØ}rr^VOWLower
  • påå0rr0 juʹrdded+V+Cond+Sg1: joordčem juʹrdded > joordam

Even syllabic verbs I, vowel lowering i:e - viǯǯâd+V+Ind+Prs+Pl3 fetch/noutaa

  • vi^1VOW0ǯǯ^VOWLower^PAL>e
  • ve0ʹǯǯ00>e viikkâd+V+Ind+Prs+Pl3
  • vii0kk^VV2V^VOWLower^PAL>e
  • ve0ʹǩǩ000>e

siõrrâd+V+Ind+Prs+Pl3: play/leikkiä

  • siõ0r0r^VOWLower^PALÄ^PAL^CC2CCC>e
  • seäʹrˈr0000>e
  • siõrr^VOWLower
  • seârr
  • *siõrr^VOWLower (is not standard language)
  • *siârr0 (is not standard language)

cieʹǩǩes+N+Sg+Gen: trick, type of ear mark/tikki, pykälä

  • ciâkˈkes^Pen^VOWLower^PenVow2a^VC
  • ceäkˈkaz0000

Even syllabic verbs I, vowel lowering i:ẹ - deriving +Ind+Prs+Sg3 in viǯǯâd viǯǯâd+V+Imprt+Sg2 fetch/noutaa

  • vi^1VOWǯǯ^V2VV^VOWLower>as
  • vẹẹǯǯ00>as viikkâd+V+Imprt+Pl3
  • viikk^VV2V^VOWLower>az
  • vẹ0kk00>az

Vowel lowering a:ä -

Even syllabic verbs I, vowel lowering u:o - deriving +Ind+Prs+Sg3, +Ind+Prs+Pl3 in uʹvdded

uʹvdded+V+Cond+Pl3 to give

  • u^1VOWvdd^V2VV^VOWLower^XYY2VY>če
  • ooud0000>če uʹvdded+V+Ind+Prs+Sg3
  • u^1VOWvdd^VOWLower^XYY2VYY
  • o0udd00 vuʹvll+N+Sg+Ill: voulla
  • vu^1VOWvll^VOWLower^XYY2VYY>a
  • vo0ull00>a puʹhtted+V+Cond+Pl3 to give
  • pu^1VOW%{ʹØ%}h%{ʹØ%}tt^VOWLower
  • po00h0tt0

kuullâd+V+Ind+Prs+Pl3 hear/kuulla

  • kuu0ll^VV2V^VOWLower^PAL^CC2C>e
  • ko0ʹl00000>e juʹrdded+V+Ind+Prs+Sg1 think
  • ju^1VOW{ʹØ}rdd^V2VV^VOWLower^XYY2XY>am
  • joo0rd0000>am juʹrdded+V+Ind+Prs+Pl3 think
  • ju^1VOW0rdd^VOWLower^PAL>e
  • jo0ʹrdd00>e

stuuʹl+N+Sg+Ill: chair/tuoli

  • stu^1VOW{VU}l^V2VV^VOWLower>a
  • stooul00>a juʹrdded+V+Cond+Sg1: joordčem juʹrdded > joordam

puuʹttes+A+Sg+Gen: bright/kirkas

  • pu^1VOWttes^Pen^VOWLower^PenVow2a^VC
  • po0ttaz0000
  • *pu^1VOWttes^Pen^VOWLower^PenVow2a^VC (is not standard language)
  • *pu0ttaz0000 (is not standard language)

suukkâd+V+Imprt+Sg3: row/soutaa

  • suukk^VOWLower^KK2GG>as
  • sooǥǥ00>as

Even syllabic verbs I, vowel lowering u:õ - deriving

  • ču^1VOWkk^V2VV^U2Õ>až
  • čõõkk00>až

Even syllabic verbs I, vowel lowering õ:â - deriving +Ind+Prs+Sg3, +Ind+Prs+Pl3 in viǯǯâd riõkkâd+V+Ind+Prs+Sg3 to whip

  • riõkˈk%^VOWLower#
  • reâkˈk0#
  • mõõ0nn%^VV2V%^VOWLower%^PAL%>e
  • mâ0ʹnn000%>e
  • mõõnn%^VOWLower%^CC2C%>as
  • mâân000%>as

kuõskkâd+V+Ind+Prs+Sg3

  • kuõskk%^VOWLower
  • kuâskk0

diphthongs

Even syllabic verbs I, diphthong opening after u å:ä - deriving +Ind+Prs+Sg3, in kuåccâd kuäʹcce = a>ä lowering clockwise

  • kuå0c0c%^VOWLower%^PAL%^CC2CCC%>e
  • kuäʹcˈc000%>e

Vowel in second syllable e:a - deriving cieʹǩǩes+N+Sg+Gen: ceäkˈkaz cieʹǩǩes+N+Sg+Gen: trick, type of ear mark/tikki, pykälä

  • ciâkˈkes%^Pen%^VOWLower%^PenVow2a%^VC
  • ceäkˈkaz0000 puuʹttes+A+Sg+Gen

Even syllabic verbs I, diphthong opening i:e â:ä for â:ä - deriving +Ind+Prs+Sg3, in čiõkkâd

  • vuâinn%^VOWLower
  • vuäinn0 vueʹlǧǧed+Use/NG+V+Ind+Prs+Pl3 leave/lähteä
  • vuâ0lgg%^PALÄ%^PAL%>a
  • vuäʹlǧǧ00%>a

Even syllabic verbs I, diphthong opening after i:e e:â - deriving +Ind+Prs+Sg3, in pi%{EÂ%}ʹǩǩ: peâkka

Vowel backing

u å:õ - used in = a>ä lowering clockwise


  • puått%^VOWRaise%>u
  • puõtt0%>u

Vowel Palatalization

diphthong allophonic realization in palatalization u å:e - deriving


  • puå0v0v%^PALE%^PAL%^CC2CCC%>e
  • pueʹvˈv000%>e

diphthong allophonic realization in palatalization u å:ẹ - deriving

Vowel Lowering and Fronting

Even syllabic verbs I, diphthong opening õ:ä after i:e - deriving +Ind+Prs+Sg3, in čiõkkâd siõrrâd+V+Ind+Prs+Pl3: play/leikkiä

  • siõ0r0r%^VOWLower%^PALÄ%^PAL%^CC2CCC%>e
  • seäʹrˈr0000%>e

SECONDARY FRONTING

Even syllabic verbs I, secondary vowel fronting with PAL u õ:e - deriving +Ind+Prs+Pl3 in VIQQAD: kuõskkâd >kueʹsǩǩe

  • kuõ0skk%^VOWLower%^PALE%^PAL%>e
  • kueʹsǩǩ000%>e

Even syllabic verbs I, secondary u > v

RELATIVE VOWEL LENGTHENING

vowel lengthening and consonant shortening, %^Pen: %^V2VV and %^CShort

Even syllabic verbs I, relative vowel lengthening %^1VOW:â - deriving +V+Inf in TIETTED: uudd > uʹvdded šõddâd+V+Imprt+Sg3:

  • šõ%^1VOWdd%^V2VV%^VOWLower%>as
  • šââdd00%>as

nââʹer+N+Sg+Nom sleep

  • nâ%^1VOW0kker%^Pen%^V2VV%^Pen%^PAL%^Pen%^KK2ZERO
  • nââʹ00er000000

radio+N+Sg+Ill

  • radio%^1VOW%^V2VVʹje
  • radioo0ʹje

%^1VOW:ẹ relative vowel lengthening - pess+N+Sg+Acc: rifle/pyssy

  • pẹ%^1VOWss%^V2VV
  • pẹẹss0 veʹrǧǧ+N+Der/lazh+A+Sg+Nom
  • vẹ%^1VOW%{ʹØ%}rgg%^V2VV%^XYY2XYlaž viǯǯâd+V+Imprt+Sg2 fetch/noutaa
  • vi%^1VOWǯǯ%^V2VV%^VOWLower%>as
  • vẹẹǯǯ00%>as eelas+N+Sg+Nom:
  • ẹ%^1VOWllas%^Pen%^V2VV%^Pen%^CC2C
  • ẹẹl0as0000

Even syllabic verbs I, relative vowel lengthening %^1VOW:e - deriving +V+Inf in TIETTED: uudd > uʹvdded

  • čââʹlmtẹ%^1VOW0m%^V2VV%^PAL
  • čââʹlmteeʹm00 reeʹǧǧes+A+Sg+Nom: rich/rikas
  • rẹ%^1VOW0gges%^Pen%^V2VV%^Pen%^PAL
  • rẹẹʹǧǧes0000
  • pẹ%^1VOWi0vv%^V2VV%^PAL%^XYY2XY
  • peeiʹv0000
  • kaađnẹ%^1VOW0ǩ%{XC%}%^V2VV%^PAL%^C2CC
  • kaađneeʹǩǩ000

Jouste+N+Prop+Sg+Ill

  • Jouste%^1VOW%^V2VVʹje
  • Joustee0ʹje

Even syllabic verbs I, relative vowel lengthening %^1VOW:å - deriving sååbbar+N+Sg+Nom

  • så%^1VOWbbar%^Pen%^V2VV
  • sååbbar00
  • *så%^1VOWbbar%^Pen%^V2VV (is not standard language)
  • *så0bbar00 (is not standard language)

radio+N+Sg+Ill

  • radio%^1VOW%^V2VVʹje
  • radioo0ʹje

Even syllabic verbs I, relative vowel lengthening %^1VOW:õ - deriving +V+Inf in TIETTED: uudd > uʹvdded âʹlǧǧ+N+Pl+Gen: boy/poika

  • â%^1VOW%{ʹØ%}lgg%^V2VV%^VOWRaise%^PAL%^XYY2XY%>i
  • õõʹlj00000%>i čâʹlmm+N+Pl+Acc: eye/silmä
  • čâ%^1VOW%{ʹØ%}lmm%^V2VV%^VOWRaise%^PAL%^XYY2XY%>id
  • čõõʹlm00000%>id
  • ču%^1VOWkk%^V2VV%^U2Õ%>až
  • čõõkk00%>až
  • võ%^1VOWrr%^V2VV%^CC2C
  • võõr000
  • sõ%^1VOWll%^V2VV%^CC2C
  • sõõl000
  • mättʼtõ%^1VOWs%{XC%}%^V2VV%^K2GG
  • mättʼtõõzz00
  • sõ%^1VOWhss%^V2VV%^XYY2VY
  • sõõus000

relative vowel lengthening %{õuØ%}:õ

radio+N+Sg+Ill

  • radio%^1VOW%^V2VVʹje
  • radioo0ʹje

Even syllabic verbs I, relative vowel lengthening %^1VOW:ä - deriving +V+Inf in TIETTED: uudd > uʹvdded

  • ä%^1VOWldd%^V2VV%^CC2C
  • ääld000
  • jä%^1VOWu0rr%^V2VV%^PAL%^CC2C
  • jääuʹr0000 mäʹhssed+V+Ind+Prs+Sg1: pay/maksaa
  • mä%^1VOW%{ʹØ%}h%{ʹØ%}ss%^V2VV%^XYY2VY%>am
  • mää0u0s000%>am mäʹhssed+V+Ind+Prs+Sg4: pay/maksaa
  • mä%^1VOW%{ʹØ%}h%{ʹØ%}ss%^V2VV%^PAL%^XYY2VY%>et
  • mää0uʹs0000%>et

Määttä+N+Prop+Sg+Ill

  • Määttä%^1VOW%^V2VVʹje
  • Määttää0ʹje

Even syllabic verbs I, relative vowel lengthening %^1VOW:a - deriving +V+Inf in MAINSTED: maainstam, mainstam

  • ä%^1VOWldd%^V2VV%^VOWRaise%^CC2C%>už
  • aald0000%>už
  • dura%^1VOWk%^V2VV
  • duraak0 mäʹhssed+V+Ind+Prt+Sg3: pay/maksaa
  • mä%^1VOW{ʹØ}h{ʹØ}ss%^V2VV%^VOWRaise%^PAL%^XYY2VY%>i
  • maa0uʹs00000%>i

taalkâs+N+Sg+Nom

biologia+N+Sg+Ill

  • biologia%^1VOW%^V2VVʹje
  • biologiaa0ʹje

Relative vowel lengthening %^1VOW:o - simultaneous lengthening and lowering: juʹrdded > joordam juʹrdded+V+Ind+Prs+Sg1

  • u%^1VOWvdd%^V2VV%^VOWLower%^XYY2VY%>če
  • ooud0000%>če juʹrdded+V+Ind+Prs+Sg1 think
  • ju%^1VOWrdd%^V2VV%^VOWLower%^XYY2XY%>am
  • joord0000%>am
  • kå%^1VOW0ll%^V2VV%^VOWRaise%^PAL%>in
  • kooʹll000%>in
  • tå%^1VOWidd%^V2VV%^VOWRaise%^XYY2XY%>čed
  • tooid0000%>čed oolmaž+N+Sg+Nom: person/henkilö
  • o%^1VOWlmm%^V2VV%^XYY2XY%>až
  • oolm000%>až toll+N+Sg+Gen: fire/tuli
  • to%^1VOWll%^V2VV%^CC2C
  • tool000
  • to%^1VOW0ll%^V2VV%^PAL%^CC2C%>e
  • tooʹl0000%>e
  • ko%^1VOWnttâr%^Pen%^V2VV%^Pen%^XYY2XY
  • koont0âr0000 radio+N+Sg+Ill
  • radio%^1VOW%^V2VVʹje
  • radioo0ʹje

Even syllabic nouns I, relative vowel lengthening i - ǩiđđ: ǩiiđ pirsted+V+Ind+Prs+ConNeg

  • piirâst
  • piirâst
  • pẹ%^1VOWss%^V2VV%^VOWRaise%>už
  • piiss00%>už
  • ǩi%^1VOWđđ%^V2VV%^CC2C
  • ǩiiđ000

Terhi+N+Prop+Sg+Ill

  • Terhi%^1VOW%^V2VVʹje
  • Terhii0ʹje

Even syllabic nouns, relative vowel extra lengthening u not followed by v - declension of nouns kunn > kuun mainstummuš+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Gen: story telling/tarinointi

  • mainstummu%^1VOWš%{XC%}%^Pen%^CC2C%^V2VV%^K2GG
  • mainstum0uužž0000
  • pu%^1VOW0ttes%^Pen%^V2VV%^Pen%^PAL
  • puuʹttes0000
  • *pu%^1VOW0ttes%^Pen%^V2VV%^Pen%^PAL (is not standard language)
  • *pu0ʹttes0000 (is not standard language)

vuʹvdd+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Gen: area/alue

  • vu%^1VOW%{ʹØ%}v%{ʹØ%}dd%^V2VV%^PAL%^XYY2XY
  • vuuʹv0d0000 Oulu+N+Prop+Sg+Ill
  • Oulu%^1VOW%^V2VVʹje
  • Ouluu0ʹje

Word-final vowel ö - Enontekiö+N+Prop+Sg+Ill

  • Enontekiö%^1VOW%^V2VVʹje
  • Enontekiöö0ʹje

simultaneous lengthening and raising, hmm: xfst ordering might be easier

VOWEL DUMMY LOSS

SEMI VOWELS

Even syllabic nouns, for j>i - sijdd > siid This will need a special extra-lengthening rule

  • ijss%^XYY2VY%>âs
  • iis00%>âs
  • sââjj%^J2I%^CC2C
  • sââi000 tuâjj+N+Sg+Acc work
  • tuâjj%^J2I%^CC2C
  • tuâi000

Even syllabic verbs, for v>u - uvdd > ouʹdde

  • u%^1VOWv0dd%^PAL%^XYY2VY
  • u0uʹd000
  • u%^1VOWvdd%^VOWLower%^XYY2VYY
  • o0udd00 kuʹvǯǯ+N+Sg+Gen
  • ku%^1VOWv0ǯǯ%^VV2V%^PAL%^XYY2VY
  • ku0uʹǯ0000

Even syllabic nouns, for h>u - luhtt s s: ... uhss+N+Der/Dim+N+Sg+Gen door

  • uh0ss%^PAL%^XYY2VY%>e
  • uuʹs000%>e
  • sä%^1VOWhss%^V2VV%^XYY2VY%>am
  • sääus000%>am

piiutâs+N+Sg+Nom clothing/vaate

  • pi%^1VOWhttâs%^Pen%^V2VV%^Pen%^XYY2VY
  • piiut0âs0000

Even syllabic nouns, for h>i - kueʹhtt kueiʹt+Num+Sg+Gen two/kaksi

  • kuâh0tt%^PALE%^PAL%^XYY2IY
  • kueiʹt0000

trisyllabic verbs and doer derivations, i>j - used in

  • valmštõõll%{ʼØ%}i%^I2J%>i
  • valmštõõllʼj0%>i piânˈnai+N+Ess: dog/koira
  • piânˈn%^CCC2CC%>%{ʼØ%}j%>en
  • piân0n0%>ʼj%>en

peigg+N+Sg+Ill

  • pẹ%^1VOWigg%^VOWRaise%^VYY2XYY%>u
  • pi0jgg00%>u

VOWELS TENSE vs LAX 2012-11-28

Vowels for â:i - ǩeʹtted+V+Ind+Prs+ConNeg: cook/keittää

  • ǩeâ0tt%^VOWRaise%^PALI%^PAL
  • ǩiiʹtt000

Vowels for â:e - miârr+N+Sg+Ill

  • miâ0rr%^PALE%^PAL%>e
  • mieʹrr00%>e mieʹlǩǩ+N+Sg+Nom
  • meâ0lkk%^VOWRaise%^PALE%^PAL
  • mieʹlǩǩ000
  • piâ0ss%^PALE%^PAL
  • pieʹss00
  • ǩiâ0p0p%^PALE%^PAL%^CC2CCC%>e
  • ǩieʹpˈp000%>e
  • kuâ0ll%^PALE%^PAL
  • kueʹll00 tieʹtted+V+Imprt+Sg2: know/tietää
  • teâ0tt%^VOWRaise%^PALE%^PAL%^CC2C
  • tieʹđ00000
  • ǩeâ0sttes%^Pen%^PALE%^Pen%^PAL%^Pen%^XYY2XY
  • ǩeeʹst0es000000 ǩeʹtted+V+Ind+Prs+ConNeg: cook/keittää
  • ǩeâ0tt%^PALE%^PAL
  • ǩeeʹtt00

Even-syllabic nouns, for â:ẹ - used in pieʹll+N+Sg+Nom: half

  • peä0ll%^VOWRaise%^PALẸ%^PAL
  • piẹʹll000
  • tuâjj^PALẸ
  • tuẹjj0

Palatalization for ẹ:e - used in

  • pẹ%^1VOWi0vv%^V2VV%^PAL%^CC2C
  • peeiʹv0000

VOWEL and ZERO ALTERNATION

Realization for â in a - used in

  • ǩiõrggân%^PenVow2a
  • ǩiõrggan0

THE NON-ORTHOGRAPHIC SYLLABLE

Loss of ʼ when preceded by vowel - This is a temporary solution to "ʼ" in võʹllʼjed


%{A1%}:ʼ when subseqent syllable has vowel v- This is a temporary solution to "ʼ" in võʹllʼjed 2013-08-29


PALATALIZATION

0:ʹ as transfer from left of v:u - used +Ind+Prs+Pl3, uʹvdded+V+Ind+Prs+Pl3: ouʹdde uʹvdded+V+Ind+Prs+Pl3: give/antaa

  • u%^1VOWv0dd%^VOWLower%^PAL%^XYY2VYY%>e
  • o0uʹdd000%>e
  • u%^1VOWv0dd%^PAL%^XYY2VY
  • u0uʹd000

täʹhtt+N+Pl+Nom: bone/luu

  • tä%^1VOWh0tt%^V2VV%^PAL%^XYY2VY
  • tääuʹt0000 täʹhtt+N+Pl+Gen: bone/luu
  • tä%^1VOWh0tt%^V2VV%^VOWRaise%^PAL%^XYY2VY%>i
  • taauʹt00000%>i kueiʹt+Num+Sg+Gen two/kaksi
  • kuâh0tt%^PALE%^PAL%^XYY2IY
  • kueiʹt0000 siõrrâd+V+Ind+Prs+Pl3: play/leikkiä
  • siõ0r0r%^VOWLower%^PALÄ%^PAL%^CC2CCC%>e
  • seäʹrˈr0000%>e
  • saa0kk%^VV2V%^PAL%>e
  • sa0ʹǩǩ00%>e tääʹss+N+Sg+Gen: level/taso
  • *tää0ss%^PAL%^KK2GG (is not standard language)
  • *tää0zz00 (is not standard language)
  • mõõ0nn%^VV2V%^VOWLower%^PAL%>e
  • mâ0ʹnn000%>e
  • jåå0tt%^VV2V%^VOWRaise%^PAL%>e
  • jo0ʹtt000%>e
  • kuâ0ll%^PALE%^PAL
  • kueʹll00
  • stu%^1VOW%{VU%}0l%^PAL
  • stu0uʹl0
  • čââʹlmtẹ%^1VOW0m%^PAL
  • čââʹlmte0ʹm0
  • kä%^1VOW0lles%^Pen%^V2VV%^Pen%^PAL
  • kääʹlles0000
  • jeä0kˈkel%^Pen%^PALE%^Pen%^PAL%^Pen%^KKK2ZERO
  • jeeʹ000el000000
  • seäh0tter%^Pen%^PALE%^Pen%^PAL%^Pen%^XYY2VY
  • seeuʹt0er000000 The left context allows for: Vowel shortening, and j/v > Vow

%{ʹØ%}:ʹ as transfer from left of v:u and all instances of modifier letter prime- used +Ind+Prs+Pl3, uʹvdded+V+Ind+Prs+Pl3: ouʹdde uʹvdded+V+Ind+Prs+Pl3: give/antaa

  • u%^1VOWv%{ʹØ%}dd%^VOWLower%^PAL%^XYY2VYY%>e
  • o0uʹdd000%>e
  • u%^1VOWv%{ʹØ%}dd%^PAL%^XYY2VY
  • u0uʹd000

täʹhtt+N+Pl+Nom: bone/luu

  • tä%^1VOWh%{ʹØ%}tt%^V2VV%^PAL%^XYY2VY
  • tääuʹt0000 täʹhtt+N+Pl+Gen: bone/luu
  • tä%^1VOW%{ʹØ%}h%{ʹØ%}tt%^V2VV%^VOWRaise%^PAL%^XYY2VY%>i
  • taa0uʹt00000%>i kueiʹt+Num+Sg+Gen two/kaksi
  • kuâh%{ʹØ%}tt%^PALE%^PAL%^XYY2IY
  • kueiʹt0000 uʹvdded+V+Ind+Prs+Pl3: give/antaa
  • u%^1VOW%{ʹØ%}v%{ʹØ%}dd%^PAL%>ed
  • u0ʹv0dd0%>e täʹhtt+N+Pl+Nom: bone/luu
  • tä%^1VOW%{ʹØ%}h%{ʹØ%}tt%^PAL
  • tääuʹt0000

siõrrâd+V+Ind+Prs+Pl3: play/leikkiä

  • siõ%{ʹØ%}r0r%^VOWLower%^PALÄ%^PAL%^CC2CCC%>e
  • seäʹrˈr0000%>e
  • saa%{ʹØ%}kk%^VV2V%^PAL%>e
  • sa0ʹǩǩ00%>e tää%{ʹØ%}ss+N+Sg+Gen: level/taso
  • *tää0ss%^PAL%^KK2GG (is not standard language)
  • *tää0zz00 (is not standard language)
  • mõõ%{ʹØ%}nn%^VV2V%^VOWLower%^PAL%>e
  • mâ0ʹnn000%>e
  • jåå%{ʹØ%}tt%^VV2V%^VOWRaise%^PAL%>e
  • jo0ʹtt000%>e
  • kuâ%{ʹØ%}ll%^PALE%^PAL
  • kueʹll00
  • stu%^1VOW%{VU%}%{ʹØ%}l%^PAL
  • stu0uʹl0
  • čââʹlmtẹ%^1VOW%{ʹØ%}m%^PAL
  • čââʹlmte0ʹm0
  • kä%^1VOW%{ʹØ%}lles%^Pen%^V2VV%^Pen%^PAL
  • kääʹlles0000
  • jeä%{ʹØ%}kˈkel%^Pen%^PALE%^Pen%^PAL%^Pen%^KKK2ZERO
  • jeeʹ000el000000
  • seäh%{ʹØ%}tter%^Pen%^PALE%^Pen%^PAL%^Pen%^XYY2VY
  • seeuʹt0er000000 The left context allows for: Vowel shortening, and j/v > Vow

d:đ in weak grade - used in

  • ǩeä0dgg%^VOWRaise%^PALẸ%^PAL%^XYY2XY
  • ǩiẹʹđj00000

Even-syllabic verbs I, Palatalization of g:ǧ - used in reäiʹǧǧ+N+Sg+Nom: hole/reikä

  • reäi0gg%^PAL
  • reäiʹǧǧ0 šäʹŋǧǧ+N+Sg+Com: pasty/piirakka
  • šä%^1VOW0ŋgg%^V2VV%^VOWRaise%^PAL%^XYY2XY%>in
  • šaaʹŋǧ00000%>in vueʹlǧǧed+Use/NG+V+Ind+Prs+Pl3 leave/lähteä
  • vuâ0lgg%^PALÄ%^PAL%>a
  • vuäʹlǧǧ00%>a

bioloog+N+Sg+Ill biologist

  • bioloo0g%^PAL%>e
  • biolooʹǧ0%>e

Even-syllabic verbs I, Palatalization of k:ǩ here - used in

hääʹsǩ Perhaps the stem should simply be häskk

  • hää0sk%^PAL
  • hääʹsǩ0 mieʹlǩǩ+N+Sg+Acc: milk/maito
  • meâ0lkk%^VOWRaise%^PALE%^PAL%^CC2C
  • mieʹlǩ00000

rääʹǩǩes+A+Sg+Nom beloved/rakas

  • rä%^1VOW0kkes%^Pen%^V2VV%^Pen%^PAL
  • rääʹǩǩes0000
  • jo%^1VOW0kk%^PAL%>e
  • jo0ʹǩǩ0%>e
  • saa0kk%^VV2V%^PAL%>e
  • sa0ʹǩǩ00%>e kåålvak+N+Sg+Loc
  • kåålvak%^RmVow%^PALK%>est
  • kåålv0ǩ00%>est

Even-syllabic nouns I, Depalatalization of ǩ:k - used in

  • mätkk%>a
  • mätkk%>a kaađneǩ+N+Sg+Ill:
  • kaađnẹ^1VOW{ʹØ}ǩ{XC}^PALNo^C2CC>a
  • kaađnẹ00kk00%>a

prääʹzniǩ+N+Sg+Ill: celebration/juhla

  • prääʹzniǩ%^RmVow%^PALNo%>a
  • prääʹzn0k00%>a
  • kaaddâšǩ%^Pen%^VV2V%^Pen%^CC2C%^RmVow%^PALNo%>a
  • ka0d00šk000000%>a

Even-syllabic nouns, removing palatalization in -est +Loc nouns - removing palatalization in +Sg+Ill, pieʹss: peässa

  • čââʹlmtẹ%^1VOWm%{XC%}%^C2CC%>a
  • čââʹlmtẹ0mm0%>a stroitteʹl+N+Sg+Ill: plant/laitos
  • stroitteʹl%^RmVow%^PALNo%>a
  • stroitt00l00%>a prääʹzniǩ+N+Sg+Ill: celebration/juhla
  • prääʹzniǩ%^RmVow%^PALNo%>a
  • prääʹzn0k00%>a

Consonant QUANTITY CHANGE gradation rules

Weakening Consonant Cluster

dealing with relative length changes mõõnnâd : mõʹnne : mõõn

Even syllabic verbs I, cg m:0 - used with +Imp+Sg2, +Ind+Prs+ConNeg, oolmaž+N+Sg+Nom: person/henkilö

  • o%^1VOWlmm%^V2VV%^XYY2XY%>až
  • oolm000%>až
  • sää0mm%^PAL%^CC2C
  • sääʹm000 kåʹmrded+V+Ind+Prs+Sg3 bow
  • kååʹmmerd%^PenVow2a
  • kååʹmmard0 mainstummuš+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Gen: story telling/tarinointi
  • *mainstummu%^1VOWš%{XC%}%^Pen%^CC2C%^V2VV%^K2GG (is not standard language)
  • *mainstummuužž0000 (is not standard language)

Even syllabic verbs I, cg for b - used neiʹbb+N+Sg+Gen: knife/veitsi

  • nẹ%^1VOWi0bb%^V2VV%^PAL%^CC2C
  • neeiʹb0000 äʹrbb+N+Sg+Gen: heritage/perintö
  • ä%^1VOW0rbb%^V2VV%^PAL%^XYY2XY
  • ääʹrb0000 joorbâs+A+Sg+Nom
  • jo%^1VOWrbbâs%^Pen%^V2VV%^Pen%^XYY2XY
  • joorb0âs0000

Even syllabic verbs I, second consonant loss p:0 - used in

  • ǩiâpp%^CC2C
  • ǩiâv00
  • vuäʹppest%^Pen%^CC2CAllegro%^RmVow%>ed
  • vuäʹp00st000%>ed
  • ka%^1VOWmppâr%^Pen%^V2VV%^Pen%^XYY2XY
  • kaamp0âr0000
  • *ka%^1VOWmppâr%^Pen%^V2VV%^Pen%^XYY2XY (is not standard language)
  • *kaamppâr0000 (is not standard language)

Even syllabic verbs I, cg v:0 - used with +Imp+Sg2, +Ind+Prs+ConNeg, teevvad > teev

  • pẹ%^1VOWi0vv%^V2VV%^PAL%^CC2C
  • peeiʹv0000 tuõvâs+N+Sg+Nom: candle/tuohus, kynttilä
  • tuõvˈvâs%^Pen%^CCC2C
  • tuõv00âs00 juʹvjj+N+Sg+Loc+PxSg3:
  • ju%^1VOWv0jj%^VV2V%^PAL%^XYY2VY%>stes
  • ju0uʹj0000%>stes

f:0 - used in

kaaʹff+N+Sg+Gen coffee

  • kaa0ff%^PAL%^CC2C
  • kaaʹf000

Even syllabic verbs I, cg n:0 - used with +Imp+Sg2, +Ind+Prs+ConNeg, jiõnn: jiõn vueʹn+N+Sg+Nom: mother-in-law/anoppi

  • vuâ0nˈn%^PALE%^PAL%^CCC2C
  • vueʹn00000 jeäʹnn+N+Sg+Loc+PxSg1: mother/äiti
  • jeä0%{ʹØ%}nˈn%^PALE%^PAL%^CCC2CAllegro%>stan
  • jiẹˈʹn00000%>stan

Even syllabic nouns I, with extra lengthening of vowel ij>ii/uv>uu and dd>d - used with +N+Sg+Nom > +N+Sg+Gen, sijdd > siid

  • ä%^1VOWldd%^V2VV%^XYY2XY
  • ääld000
  • ä%^1VOWldd%^V2VV%^VOWRaise%^XYY2XY%>už
  • aald0000%>už
  • u%^1VOWv0dd%^PAL%^XYY2VY
  • u0uʹd000 juʹrdded+V+Ind+Prs+Sg1 think
  • ju%^1VOWrdd%^V2VV%^VOWLower%^XYY2XY%>am
  • joord0000%>am

uʹvdded+V+Ind+Prs+4:

  • u%^1VOWv0dd%^PAL%^XYY2VY%>et
  • u0uʹd000%>et

- idd: id, +Imp+Sg2, +Ind+Prs+ConNeg double consonants following vowel and "i" at coda that become single consonants in gradation

Even syllabic verbs I, cg for ʒ - used with pääʹʒʒelm+N+Sg+Ill: päʹʒlma sauʒʒ+N+Pl+Nom sheep/lammas

  • sa%^1VOWuʒʒ%^V2VV%^XYY2XY
  • saauʒ000

ǯ:0 - used in kuʹvǯǯ+N+Sg+Gen

  • ku%^1VOWv0ǯǯ%^PAL%^XYY2VY
  • ku0uʹǯ000

č:0 - used in

c:0 - used in

ž:0 - used in

z:0 - used in

  • ǩeâsttez%^PenVow2a%^RmCns
  • ǩeâstta000

Even syllabic verbs I, cg for đ - used with ǩiđđ: ǩiiđ

  • ǩi%^1VOWđđ%^V2VV%^CC2C
  • ǩiiđ000
  • o%^1VOWđđâs%^Pen%^V2VV%^Pen%^CC2C
  • oođ0âs0000

Even syllabic verbs I, cg for r - used with võrr: võõr

  • võ%^1VOWrr%^V2VV%^CC2C
  • võõr000
  • paarr%^CC2C
  • paar00
  • jä%^1VOWu0rr%^V2VV%^PAL%^CC2C
  • jääuʹr0000 čårsted+V+Inf: descriminate/syrjiä
  • čåårrast%^Pen%^VV2V%^Pen%^CC2C%^RmVow%>ed
  • čå0r00st00000%>ed
  • *čåårrast%^Pen%^VV2V%^Pen%^CC2C%^RmVow%>ed (is not standard language)
  • *čå0rr0st00000%>ed (is not standard language)

Even syllabic verbs I, cg for l - used with vuʹvll+N+Sg+Gen: vuuʹl deriving

  • to%^1VOWll%^V2VV%^CC2C
  • tool000
  • stä%^1VOW0llj%^V2VV%^PAL%^CC2C
  • stääʹl0j000 alttõõlli+N+NomAg+Pl+Gen
  • alttõõll{ʼØ}i%^CC2C
  • alttõõl00i0

pääʹljes+N+Sg+Nom: path/polku

  • pä%^1VOW0lljes%^Pen%^V2VV%^Pen%^PAL%^Pen%^CC2C
  • pääʹl0jes000000

vuʹvll+N+Sg+Gen:

  • vu%^1VOWv0ll%^PAL%^XYY2VY
  • vu0uʹl000

deriving kueʹll+N+Sg+Gen: kueʹl

  • kuâ0ll%^V2VV%^PALE%^PAL%^CC2C
  • kueʹl00000

j:0 - used in

ǩeʹrjj+N+Pl+Nom: book/kirja

  • ǩẹ%^1VOW0rjj%^V2VV%^PAL%^XYY2XY
  • ǩeeʹrj0000 tuâjj+N+Sg+Acc: work/työ
  • tuâjj%^CC2C
  • tuâj00
  • tuâjj%^J2I%^CC2C
  • tuâi000
  • po%^1VOWjjâs%^Pen%^V2VV%^Pen%^CC2C
  • pooj0âs0000

Even syllabic verbs I, cg for g - used in cõõggâlm+N+Sg+Ill

  • cõõggâlm%^Pen%^VV2V%^Pen%^CC2C%^RmVow%>a
  • cõ0g00lm00000%>a
  • ǩeâlggal%^Pen%^XYY2XY
  • ǩeâlǥ0al00

äiʹǧǧ+N+Sg+Gen: time/aika

  • ä%^1VOWi0gg%^V2VV%^PAL%^XYY2XY
  • ääiʹj0000 reäiʹǧǧ+N+Pl+Nom: hole/reikä
  • reäi0gg%^PAL%^XYY2XY
  • reäiʹj000

GEMINATE TO WEAK QUALITY GEMINATE Even syllabic nouns I, with extra lengthening of vowel V>VV and KK>ǤǤ - used in used with +N+Sg+Nom > +N+Sg+Gen for cases like lookki > looǥǥi.

čâustõk+N+Sg+Gen

  • čâustõ%^1VOW%{ʹØ%}k%{XC%}%^V2VV%^K2GG
  • čâustõõ0ǥǥ00 with allegro čâustõk+N+Sg+Ela+PxSg3
  • čâustõ%{ʹØ%}k%^K2GAllegro%>stes
  • čâustõ0ǥ0%>stes
  • jo%^1VOWkk%^V2VV%^KK2GG
  • jooǥǥ00 čuâǥǥas+N+Sg+Nom road
  • čuâkˈk%^KKK2GG%>as
  • čuâǥ0ǥ0%>as

loǥškueʹtted begin to read

  • loo%{ʹØ%}kk%^VV2V%^KK2GAllegro»škueʹtted
  • lo00ǥ000»škueʹtted

čõõǥǥâs

  • čõ%^1VOWkkâs%^Pen%^V2VV%^Pen%^KK2GG
  • čõõǥǥâs0000

Even syllabic nouns I, with extra lengthening of vowel V>VV and k:j - used in used with > . tuʹmstõk+N+Der/Dimin+N+Pl+Nom: decision/päätös, mietintö

  • tuʹmstõ%^1VOW0k%{XC%}%^V2VV%^PAL%^K2GG%>e
  • tuʹmstõõʹjj000%>e

with allegro

  • suä0kk%^PALẸ%^PAL%^KK2GG
  • suẹʹjj000
  • jeä0kˈkel%^Pen%^PALE%^Pen%^PAL%^Pen%^KKK2GG%^RmVow%>až
  • jeeʹj0j0l0000000%>až

Even syllabic nouns I, with extra lengthening of vowel V>VV and ǩ:j - used in used with > .

Even syllabic verbs I, Voicing š:ž - ss: zz, +Imp+Sg2, +Ind+Prs+ConNeg, double consonants at coda become voiced in gradation lookkmõš+N+Sg+Gen

  • lookkmõ%^1VOWš%{XC%}%^V2VV%^K2GG
  • lookkmõõžž00 with allegro
  • pååss%^VV2V%^KK2GAllegro»škuätt
  • på0z000»škuätt

mainstummuš+N+Sg+Gen:

  • mainstummuš%^VC
  • mainstummuž0

Even syllabic verbs I, Voicing c:ʒ - cc: zz, +Imp+Sg2, +Ind+Prs+ConNeg, double consonants at coda become voiced in gradation

  • čää0cc%^PAL%^KK2GG
  • čääʹʒʒ00 čääʹcc+N+Sg+Loc+PxSg3
  • čää0cc%^VV2V%^PAL%^KK2GAllegro%>stes
  • čä0ʹʒ0000%>stes
  • čää0cc%^PAL%^KK2GG%>stes
  • čääʹʒʒ00%>stes
  • puõcˈc%^VOWLower%^PALÄ%^KKK2GG
  • puäʒ0ʒ000
  • pååss%^VV2V%^KK2GAllegro»škuätt
  • på0z000»škuätt

õõʒʒâs+N+Sg+Nom: high water/vuoksi

  • õ%^1VOWccâs%^Pen%^V2VV%^Pen%^KK2GG
  • õõʒʒâs0000

Even syllabic verbs I, Voicing č:j - ss: zz, +Imp+Sg2, +Ind+Prs+ConNeg, double consonants at coda become voiced in gradation

  • pååss%^VV2V%^KK2GAllegro»škuätt
  • på0z000»škuätt

Even syllabic verbs I, Voicing after long vowel or diphthong s:z s:z - ss: zz, +Imp+Sg2, +Ind+Prs+ConNeg, double consonants at coda become voiced in gradation tääʹss+N+Sg+Gen: level/taso

  • tää0ss%^PAL%^KK2GG
  • tääʹzz00
  • mättʼtõ%^1VOWs%{XC%}%^V2VV%^K2GG
  • mättʼtõõzz00 with allegro

cieʹǩǩes+N+Sg+Gen: trick, type of ear mark/tikki, pykälä

  • *ciâkˈkes%^Pen%^VOWLower%^PenVow2a%^VC (is not standard language)
  • *ceäkˈkas0000 (is not standard language)
  • pååss%^VV2V%^KK2GAllegro»škuätt
  • på0z000»škuätt

čårrõs+N+Sg+Gen

  • čårrõ%^1VOW%{ʹØ%}s%{XC%}%^V2VV%^K2GG
  • čårrõõ0zz00

Even syllabic verbs I, second consonant loss t:0 - used in autt+N+Pl+Nom car/auto

  • a%^1VOWutt%^V2VV%^CC2C
  • aaut000 põrtt+N+Pl+Nom house/talo
  • põ%^1VOW%{ʹØ%}rtt%^V2VV%^XYY2XY
  • põõ0rt000
  • ko%^1VOWnttâr%^Pen%^V2VV%^Pen%^XYY2XY
  • koont0âr0000 piiutâs+N+Sg+Nom clothing/vaate
  • pi%^1VOWhttâs%^Pen%^V2VV%^Pen%^XYY2VY
  • piiut0âs0000

Even syllabic verbs I, third consonant loss - lgg: lǥ, Vow Ca Cx Cx: 0, +Imp+Sg2, +Ind+Prs+ConNeg, double consonants following consonant at coda that become single consonants in gradation

šapšš+N+Sg+Gen white fish/siika

  • ša%^1VOWpšš%^V2VV%^XYY2XY
  • šaapš000

Consonant loss s:0 - used in

  • sä%^1VOWhss%^V2VV%^XYY2VY%>am
  • sääus000%>am

âʹpsted+V+Inf: smell a little/haiskahtaa

  • ââʹpsest%^Pen%^VV2V%^RmVow
  • â0ʹp00st000

uhss+N+Sg+Gen door

  • uhss%^XYY2VY
  • uus00

Consonant loss ŋ:0 - used in

Consonant loss h:0 - used in ruʹhss+N+Sg+Loc+PxSg3:

  • ru%^1VOW0hss%^VV2V%^PAL%^XYY2VY%>stes
  • ru0ʹ0s0000%>stes

Even syllabic verbs I, t>đ - tt: đ ǩiõtt+N+Sg+Loc+PxSg1 hand,arm/käsi

  • ǩiõ0tt%^Allegro%^PAL%^CC2CAllegro%>stan
  • ǩiõʹđ0000%>stan autt+N+Pl+Nom car/auto
  • *a%^1VOWutt%^V2VV%^CC2C (is not standard language)
  • *aauđ000 (is not standard language) puuttâd+V+Ind+Prt+Sg3: end/loppua
  • puutt%^CC2C%>i
  • puuđ00%>i

Even syllabic nouns I, p>v - pp: v

  • ǩiâpp%^CC2C
  • ǩiâv00
  • heäpˈpaš%^Pen%^CCC2C
  • heäv00aš00

Consonant quality change ǥ:j - used in

  • lääi0ǥ%^PAL
  • lääiʹj0

Even syllabic verbs I, second consonant loss k:0 - used in loǥškueʹtted begin to read

  • lookk%^VV2V%^KK2GAllegro»škueʹtted
  • lo0ǥ000»škueʹtted mieʹlǩǩ+N+Sg+Acc: milk/maito
  • meâ0lkk%^VOWRaise%^PALE%^PAL%^CC2C
  • mieʹlǩ00000
  • pååss%^VV2V%^KK2GAllegro»škuätt
  • på0z000»škuätt taalkâs+N+Sg+Nom
  • ta%^1VOWlkkâs%^Pen%^V2VV%^Pen%^XYY2XY
  • taalk0âs0000
  • jeä0kˈkel%^Pen%^PALE%^Pen%^PAL%^Pen%^KKK2ZERO
  • jeeʹ000el000000 nââʹer+N+Sg+Nom sleep
  • nâ%^1VOW0kker%^Pen%^V2VV%^Pen%^PAL%^Pen%^KK2ZERO
  • nââʹ00er000000

Even syllabic verbs I, second consonant loss ǩ:0 - used in

eʹǩrded+V+Inf

  • eeʹǩǩerd%^Pen%^VV2V%^Pen%^CC2C%^RmVow%>ed
  • e0ʹǩ00rd00000%>ed

Even syllabic verbs I, second consonant loss ǥ:0 - used in

påǥsted+V+Inf

  • pååǥǥast^Pen^VV2V^Pen^CC2C^RmVow>ed
  • på0ǥ00st00000>ed

Even syllabic verbs I, lgg>lǥ vueʹlǧǧed+V+Ind+Prs+Sg2

  • vuâ{ʹØ}lgg^XYY2XY>ak
  • vuâ0lǥ00>ak
  • *vuâ{ʹØ}lgg^XYY2XY>ak (is not standard language)
  • *vuâ0lg00>ak (is not standard language) õlggâd+V+Cond+Sg3
  • õ^1VOW{ʹØ}lgg^V2VV^XYY2XY>či
  • õõ0lǥ000>či
  • *õ^1VOW{ʹØ}lgg^V2VV^XYY2XY>či (is not standard language)
  • *õõ0lg000>či (is not standard language)
  • ǩeâlggal^Pen^XYY2XY
  • ǩeâlǥ0al00
  • aaggâst^Pen^VV2V^Pen^CC2C^RmVow>ed
  • a0g00st00000>ed

even syllabic verbs I, 'lgg>'lj - used in vueʹlǧǧed+V+Ind+Prt+Pl1

  • vuâ0lgg^VOWRaise^PAL^XYY2XY>im
  • vuõʹlj0000>im
  • ä^1VOWi0gg^V2VV^PAL^XYY2XY
  • ääiʹj0000 reäiʹǧǧ+N+Pl+Nom
  • reäi0gg^PAL^XYY2XY
  • reäiʹj000

Rules for cleaning up and composing end result

  • Strengthening Consonant Cluster
  • V shortening and C lengthening
  • %^C2CC is generally used in conjunction with a preceding %^VV2V
  • In verbs this will be observed in finite forms
  • In derivational morphology, e.g. -škuetted, this is not the case

Orthographic Consonant lengthening Weak to strong %{XC%}:Cx - used in

  • čââʹlmtẹ^1VOWm{XC}^C2CC>a
  • čââʹlmtẹ0mm0>a kaađneǩ+N+Sg+Gen
  • kaađnẹ%^1VOW{ʹØ}ǩ{XC}%^PALNo%^C2CC>a
  • kaađnẹ00kk00>a

Orthographic Consonant lengthening Weak to strong %{XC%}:Cx for n and l- used in

  • ma^1VOWnn^V2VV^VOWLower^CC2C
  • mään0000
  • puärˈr^VOWLower^CCC2C
  • puär0000

suâl+N+Sg+Nom island

  • suõlˈl^VOWLower^CCC2C
  • suâl0000
  • čââʹlmtẹ^1VOWm{XC}^C2CC>a
  • čââʹlmtẹ0mm0>a

kååvas+N+Sg+Nom: kota

  • kå^1VOWvvas^Pen^V2VV^Pen^CC2C
  • kååv0as0000

kõõnjâl+N+Sg+Nom tear

  • kõ^1VOWnnjâl^Pen^V2VV^Pen^CC2C
  • kõõn0jâl0000

suâl+N+Nom island/saari

  • suõlˈl^VOWLower^CCC2C
  • suâl0000

ǩeâlǥal+N+Sg+Nom kilkura

  • ǩeâlggal^Pen^XYY2XY
  • ǩeâlǥ0al00
  • dura^1VOWk{XC}^C2CC>a
  • dura0kk0>a kaađneǩ+N+Sg+Ill:
  • kaađne^1VOWǩ{XC}^PALNo^C2CC>a
  • kaađne0kk00>a

čårrõs+N+Sg+Gen

  • čårrõ^1VOWs{XC}^V2VV^K2GG
  • čårrõõzz00

lookkmõš+N+Sg+Gen

  • *lookkmõ^1VOWš{XC}^V2VV^K2GG (is not standard language)
  • *lookkmõ0žž00 (is not standard language)

čâustõk+N+Sg+Gen

  • čâustõ^1VOWk{XC}^V2VV^K2GG
  • čâustõõǥǥ00

čâustõk+N+Sg+Gen

  • čâustõ^1VOW0k{XC}^V2VV^PAL^K2GG
  • čâustõõʹjj000

CONSONANT QUALITY CHANGE

Pedagogical X3 length mark after diphthongs in vertical line ˈ

Adding X3 length mark

Consonant X3 lengthening after diphthong in vertical line ˈ character - used in +N+Sg+Ill jeäll:jiâlˈlu, b c č ǯ d đ g ǧ k ǩ l m n p r s š t v also htˈt nˈnj

  • kuâl0l%^CC2CCC%>a
  • kuâlˈl0%>a

Removing X3 length mark

Removing Consonant X3 length mark after diphthong in vertical line ˈ LEFT ARROW - deriving b c č ǯ d đ g ǧ k ǩ l m n p r s š t v also htˈt nˈnj


Removing Consonant X3 length mark after diphthong in vertical line ˈ LEFT ARROW - $ Sakssa-jânnam

Hyphen for splitting between look-alikes - used in Kääzzkõsraajõstuâjj-joouk

Sakssajânnam+N+Prop+Sg+Nom: (��) Germany/Saksa

  • Sakssa#jânnam
  • Sakssa#jânnam
  • *Sakssa#jânnam (is not standard language)
  • *Sakssa-jânnam (is not standard language)

tuâjj+N+Cmp/SgNom+Cmp#joukk+N+Sg+Nom: team/työryhmä

  • tuâjj#joukk
  • tuâjj%-joukk
  • *tuâjj#joukk (is not standard language)
  • *tuâjj#joukk (is not standard language) sääʹmm+N+Cmp/SgGen+Cmp#musikk+N+Sg+Nom: Skolt Sámi music/kolttamusiikki sää0mm%PAL%^CC2C%{%-Ø%}#musikk sääʹm000%-#musikk