UDMURT Noun inflection

Nouns in Udmurt inflects for case, number, and possession. Following are some notes for things that need to be done so far, and also an overview of nominal inflection types.

Most Udmurt nouns (the vast majority) do not require changes to the stem as a result of inflection. These nouns however, for FST purposes, fall into some subcategories:

  • Vowel-final stems, which also take inflectional suffixes ending on (non-yod) vowels (excepting the adverbial)
  • Consonant-final stems, which take endings beginning on a yodified vowel, if one exists
  • Diphthongal stems, which also take the yodified vowels.

Some inflectional endings thus may have two alternatives:

Case Non-yod Yod
Nominative plural ос ёс
Accusative singular эз ез
Instrumental singular эн ен
Illative singular э е
Prolative singular этӥ етӥ

Other cases do not vary depending on these environments.

Note that depending on the palatal/nonpalatal status of the last segment, the yodified vowel series may be preceded by a <ъ>. According to references though, the palatal marker <ь> must remain even when followed by this series. Udmurt also has a unique way of handling hiatus relationships, where the non-yod series follows vowels, and the yod series follows consonants.

Also note that though stems may not change, orthographically, there may need to be a hard sign inserted to maintain the non-palatal pronunciation of certain consonant segments.

Some examples:

-V stems

NomSg NomPl IneSg GenSg Advl Sg
бачка бачкаос бакчаын бакчалэн бачкая
дунне дуннеос дуннеын дуннелэн дуннея
ты тыос тыын тылэн тыя

-C stems

NomSg NomPl IneSg GenSg Advl Sg
гурт гуртъёс гуртын гуртлэн гуртъя
тэль тельёс тэлъын тэлълэн тэлья
вить витьёс витьын витьлэн витья


NomSg NomPl IneSg GenSg Advl Sg
уй уйёс уйын уйлэн уйя

Russian loans ending in -ия/-ие

Russian loanwords ending on these segments delete the final yodified vowel in all cases, except for the singular adverbial and nominative singular.


Nominative Singular конференци–0–я собрани–0–е
Nominative Plural конференци–0–ос собрани–0–ос
Inessive Singular конференци–0–ын собрани–0–ын
Genitive Singular конференци–0–лэн собрани–0–лэн
Adverbial Singular конференци–я–я собрани–е–я

Note also that Russian stress is preserved in Nominative Singular, but Udmurt stress takes over for inflected forms, and shifts to the final vowel.

This applies to all sorts of Russian words, also including placenames ending in -я, excepting biblical place names, and Russian personal names.

TODO: implement in propernouns

  • Финляндия - Финляндиын
  • Эстония - Эстониын


  • Самария – Самарияын
  • Евгения – Евгения–лы
  • Юлия – Юлия–лы

There are also some subtypes, where this deletion does not occur even though the word ends in -я:

  • Non-russian words ending in -я (Loans from Tatar): чия kirsikka - чия–лы

Place names based on names of old tribes

See affixes/propernouns.lexc, but quickly:

These typically end on -я, –га, –ка, –ра, –ла. When inflecting in some cases, they take an infix which is optional. The optional infix causes short versions of case suffixes, otherwise the words take the long version.

корка / куала

The words корка, куала have some forms similar to the tribe/place names, and some cases behave differently: Inessive, Elative have the short consonant-only suffix, but unlike the tribe/place names, there is no -ла- infix.

TODO: write tests

"Old" Finno-ugric stems (-м-, -г-, -т-)

TODO: add these to lexicon, and add morphology. Consider marking in morphology in a way that NDS can present: син син(м)- TODO: write tests TODO: how to mark the inflectional stems in the lexicon for display in dictionaries, similar to smenob?


Some particularly old words have since experienced some amount of deletion and simplification of clusters. Deleted segments reappear in some forms (inflectional, derivational), but their appearance isn't completely regular, in that some variation exists, and sometimes the "short" stem without this segment appears where the "long" stem usually would.

Usually, these will also be marked in dictionaries. син син(м)-.

When the possessive is applied to nominative versions of these forms, the possessive will have the vowel -ы- instead of -э- or -е-. Also, the 'old' segments appear.



син син–тэм синм–ысь сынм–ы
silmä sokea (elat.) (px. y. 1. p.)
визь визь–тэк визьм–о  
järki (abess.) viisas  
куйнь куйнь–лэсь куйньм–ой  
kolme (abl.) 3:n päivän kuluessa  
  куйнь–етй ~ куйньм–етӥ  
  kolmas kolmas  
ин   инм–ын  
taivas   (iness.)  


кус кус–лы куск–ын куск–ы
lantio (dat.) (iness.) (Px Sg1)
улеп улеп–лы улепк–ын  
elävä (dat.) (instr.)  
nюлэс нюлэс–лы нюлэск–ын  
metsä (dat.) (iness.)  
вис вис–лы виск–ын  
tauko (dat.) (iness.)  


кык кык–намы кыкт–о
kaksi me kaksin kaksoset
  кык–етӥ кыкт–ой
  toinen kahden päivän kuluessa

Vowel deletion stems

  • TODO: add to lexicon, also need a morphophonological symbol for these
  • TODO: write tests

Some stems also delete vowels in specific cases, generally when the stem is attached to a vowel-initial suffix. Alternatively, the vowels may remain, but a epenthetic consonant may appear: -к-

Optional deletion

сэрег серг–ын | 
nurkka (iness.) | 
сюлэм сюлм–ыд сюлэм–ыд
sydän (Px Sg2) (Px Sg2)

Deletion or epenthesis

вадес вадьс-ын вадеск–ын
aika, hetki (iness.) (iness.)
paikka, palsta      
пыдэс пыдс–ын пидэск–ын
pohja (iness.) (iness.)
урдэс урдс–ын урдэск–ын
vierus (iness.) (iness.)

NB: palatal quality implied by the yodified vowel in the first example is preserved via a soft sign.

Suffix ordering with possessive construction

The possessive construction results in different case ordering:


  • Genetive
  • Ablative
  • Dative
  • Abessive
  • Adverbial
  • Approximative
  • Terminative


  • Inessive
  • Elative
  • Illative
  • Egressive
  • Prolative
  • Instrumental

Note that since the adjective 'determinative' is essentially the 3rd person singular possessive, the above ordering also follows for adjective inflection. Also note, some cases have atlernate forms for when tehy come before the possessive.

Cases with alternate forms:

  • Accusative singular, plural
  • Inessive singular, plural
  • Illative singular, plural
  • Elative singular, plural



Px 1pSg Px 2pSg Px 3pSg
бакча-е-лэн бакча-ед-лэн бакча-ез-лэн
бакча-ос-ы-лэн бакча-ос-ыд-лэн бакча-ос-ыз-лэн


Px 1pSg Px 2pSg Px 3pSg
бакча-я-м бакча-я-д бакча-я-з
бакча-ос-а-м бакча-ос-а-д бакча-ос-а-з


Px 1pSg Px 2pSg Px 3pSg
бакча-ысьты-м бакча-ысьты-д бакча-ысьты-з
бакча-ос-ысьты-м бакча-ос-ысьты-д бакча-ос-ысьты-з
  • TODO: write tests for these ordering situations
  • TODO: implement these in lexc

Noun Lexica

Words from lexicon N_ are mostly covered. These are from the main class of nouns described in more depth above.

this nouns, as well as коала, have special +N+Sg+Ine endings in "н" TODO: +N+Sg+Ine endings in "н"

Words from Russian in N_RUS_JA end in –ия, our lexicon entries set the stem as ending in –ия, but there is a trigger that causes the final "я" to disappear in some situations.

Words from Russian in N_RUS_JE end in –ие, our lexicon entries set the stem as ending in –ие, but there is a trigger that causes the final "е" to disappear in some situations.

Words from Tatar in N_TAT preserve the original stem я in all cases.

À la Jaska