Udmurt verb inflection Udmurt verbs are mainly split into two types:

  • conjugation I, whose stems mostly end on ы (ex. мыны-ны 'go', юы-ны 'drink', вераськы-ны 'speak')
  • conjugation II, whose stems mostly end on а/я (ex. ужа.ны 'work', келя.ны 'send, put', кырӟа.ны 'sing')

Conjugation I verbs also may have a 'short' stem, which subtracts the final ы. The rule is not necessarily as simple as suffixes that begin on consonants require a vowel-ending stem, because there are some exceptions. Following is a list of things that use the short stem (so far incomplete, but feel free to add to it)

  • All forms of the present affirmative
  • All forms of the present negative
  • All forms of the future affirmative
  • All forms of the future negative
  • Preterite II Negative?
  • Caritive gerund?

And the long stem:

  • Infinitive
  • Conditional affirmative, negative
  • basic gerund, temporal gerund, fourth gerund ?
  • gerunds: instrumental -(э)мен/-(е)мен, elative -(э)мысь/-(е)мысь ?

There are some orthographic things to consider, and they show up in the way verbs are inflected. The palatizing series [d z l n s t] is represented in two ways: vowel letters following, or by the palatizing symbol.

возьыны .. возе .. возисько бертыны .. бертэ .. бертӥсько

LEXICON V_ Verb type is still to be determined.

Typical V_MONO entry is the long stem, ending on <ы> берты, возьы

бертыны: берт V_MONO "mennä kotiin" ;

Lexicon V_MONO мыныны: мыны

  • Yaml: mynyny, This is first declension

Lexicon V_UZA

  • Yaml: uzhany, this is second declension

Mutual à la Jaska мыныны: мыны Lexicon V_МЫНЫНЫ

  • Yaml: mynyny

Lexicon APRS




Lexicon COND

Lexicon IMPRT

Lexicon OPT