Greenlandic morphological analyser

Fil for at generere de centrale morfologiske processer i vor grønlandske analysator

Multicharacter symbols

  • v2 = Alternativt /v/ i låneord, der ikke skal slettes efter /u/
  • AA+ = præfiks
  • TA+ = præfiks

Tags for POS (primary tags)

Main Word Classes

  • +N = Noun
  • +V = Verb
  • +Pali = Particle-like - partikellignende
  • +Conj = Conjunction
  • +Adv = Adverb
  • +Interj = Interjection
  • +Pron = Pronoun
  • +Prop = Propernoun
  • +Num = Numeral
  • +Symbol = independent symbols in the text stream, like £, €, ©

Secondary tags

Tags for Verbs

  • +Gram/IV = Intransitive Verb !PL 20180319 ny formalisme gennemført livm 20180324
  • +Gram/TV = Transitive Verb !PL 20180319 ny formalisme gennemført livm 20180324
  • +Gram/HV = Non-marked agentive Verb (used as Half-transitive)
  • +Gram/Db = Double-transitive Verb. PL tilføjet 20180319
  • +Gram/Exclm = Exclamation !Flyttet fra primære tags 20180420 PL

Tags for Pronouns

  • +Gram/Int = Interrogative Pronoun
  • +Gram/Pers = Personal Pronoun
  • +Gram/Coref = Reflexive Pronoun
  • +Gram/Indef = Indefinitive Pronoun

Tags for Other Word Classes

  • +Gram/Dem = Demonstative pronoun, demonstrative adverb or demonstrative interjection
  • +Gram/Cong = Various Pronoun, eg. tamaq, kisi (personkongruensdeklination)
  • +Gram/Abbr = Abbreviation
  • +Gram/ACR = Acronyms
  • +Gram/Adj = Adjektiver optaget direkte inkl. ubøjet anvendelse før kerne


  • +Sem/Geo = Geographical Propernoun
  • +Sem/Hum = Non-geographical Propernoun
  • +Sem/Time = Temporal particle !The random adverbial 'phrases' like -riutaa -isaa etc.
  • +Sem/FirstName = Attributive
  • +Sem/Unit = Unit !Til besværlige låneord som 'time' etc., der optræder absolut
  • +Sem/Url tag til adresser af typen
  • +Sem/Mailadresse tag til adresser af typen
  • +Sem/Mask Forsøg med en ny tag til fornavne af maskulinum
  • +Sem/Fem Forsøg med femininum sml. Sem/Mask
  • +Sem/LastName Efternavne
  • +Sem/Be <fn: Be> !#náipoĸ
  • +Sem/ModeOfMovement <fn: ModeOfmovement> !#nâgpoĸ


  • +Gram/Comp = Composita !Særlig tag til NIQ ajor/saper/artor/nalu- konstruktioner ved transitive verber
  • +Gram/TUT_IP = Composita !tag til at slette overtallige ip hvis der ikke står tut ved siden af
  • +Gram/Refl = Reflexive, reciprocal or passive !asavoq
  • +Gram/Reci = Reciprocal !naapipput
  • +Gram/Pass = Passive !used when a derivational morpheme not explicitely denotes a passivisation, or when intransitive flexion changes an active verb into a passive
  • +Gram/PlurTant = plurale tantum noun: ilaqutariit
  • +Gram/SingTant = singulare tantum noun: sila
  • +Gram/Ord = Ordinal number !pingajuat
  • +Gram/Hyb = Følger hybriderne for at bestemme stederne hvor strengene kan klippes i to ord ved hybriderne


  • +Der/Vok = Vocative
  • +Der/Guess = Guessed lemma and inflection which are not listed in the FST
  • +Der/Loan = Guessed stems which are not listed in the FST and contain non-Greenlandic characters or non-Greenlandic final character
  • +Der/Unk = Ukendt morfem !Ukendte morfemer i ellers analyserede stammer for at få rigtig lemmaanalyse, som orsoq+NNAP+nv+UNK+vn: orsunnattaaq
  • +Der/vv = verb to verb
  • +Der/nn = noun to noun
  • +Der/nv = noun to verb
  • +Der/vn = verb to noun
  • +Der/xx = Follows the enclitic suffix TUQ to be able to distinguish TUQ+xx from the derivational morpheme TUQ+vn in CG: qanortoq Citerede ordformer jf. Kleinschmidt ^rpoĸ


  • +Dial/Ngr = Northern dialect (such as ng for g; predictable dialectal changes might be dealt with in the postprosessor in stead)
  • +Dial/Sgr = Southern dialect (such as VVC for VVCC), aneeqavoq (and not aneeqqavoq)
  • +Dial/Egr = Eastern dialect
  • +Dial/Vgr = Western dialect (such as rng for rn)

Tags to mark loan word entries with a diverting orthography

That is, they need special treatment in e.g. speech syntesis.

  • +OLang/DAN = Danish stem: profet
  • +OLang/ENG = English stem: game
  • +OLang/DEU = German stem: bier


  • +Orth/Arch = Archaic language, (stem, morpheme, flexion, or sandhi): tikisimavoq, asallutigik, agpâ (for anípâ)
  • +Orth/Youth = Youth language: asallutigu
  • +Orth/Alt = Substandard language (hyphens among other things…): isissavoq, Qaanaaq-mut, fabrikki, poor’lu


  • +Use/-Spell = Do not include in speller
  • +Use/Hybrid = For generating split hybrids. Should not be included in speller, analyser, or norm-generator
  • +Err/Sub = Not authorized spelling: 2-imik

Tags for Inflection


  • +Sg = Singularis
  • +Du = Dualis
  • +Pl = Pluralis


  • +Abs = Absolutive
  • +Rel = Relative
  • +Trm = Terminalis
  • +Abl = Ablative
  • +Lok = Locative
  • +Aeq = Aequalis
  • +Ins = Instrumentalis
  • +Via = Vialis

Særlige 3./4. persons kasus med DivPron (Gram/Cong)

  • +Nom = Nominative
  • +Akk = Accusative


  • +Ind = Indicative
  • +Int = Interrogative
  • +Imp = Imperative
  • +Opt = Optative
  • +Cau = Causative
  • +Con = Conditional
  • +Par = Participium
  • +Cont = Infinitive
  • +ContNeg = Negated Infinitive
  • +IteCau = Iterative (morphologically: Causative)

Verb person-numerus

  • +1Sg = Subject 1.person singular
  • +2Sg = Subject 2.person singular
  • +3Sg = Subject 3.person singular
  • +4Sg = Subject 4.person singular
  • +1Pl = Subject 1.person plural
  • +2Pl = Subject 2.person plural
  • +3Pl = Subject 3.person plural
  • +4Pl = Subject 4.person plural
  • +1Du = Subject 1.person dual
  • +2Du = Subject 2.person dual
  • +3Du = Subject 3.person dual
  • +4Du = Subject 4.person dual
  • +1SgO = Object 1.person singular
  • +2SgO = Object 2.person singular
  • +3SgO = Object 3.person singular
  • +4SgO = Object 4.person singular
  • +1PlO = Object 1.person plural
  • +2PlO = Object 2.person plural
  • +3PlO = Object 3.person plural
  • +4PlO = Object 4.person plural
  • +1DuO = Object 1.person dual
  • +2DuO = Object 2.person dual
  • +3DuO = Object 3.person dual
  • +4DuO = Object 4.person dual

Possesive tags - Possessormarkering i possessum

  • +1SgPoss = Possessor 1.person singular
  • +2SgPoss = Possessor 2.person singular
  • +3SgPoss = Possessor 3.person singular
  • +4SgPoss = Possessor 4.person singular
  • +1PlPoss = Possessor 1.person plural
  • +2PlPoss = Possessor 2.person plural
  • +3PlPoss = Possessor 3.person plural
  • +4PlPoss = Possessor 4.person plural

Flag diacritics til pluralis tantum subjekter

Flag diacritics til verber med kun pluralis i objekterne

Test af boolsk variabel til ad hoc blokeringer

Off-flag sættes i verbs på transitive verber med usandsynlig Refl. On-flag på taggen Gram/Refl i gennemgangslexica

Off-flag på verber som akuaa, der ikke må lave metatese på NIQ

Off-flag på nominer, der SKAL opføre sig replacive som pilersaarusiorpoq og aqqusinniorpoq

Off-flag i nouns og Off-flag i der-inf når TUR og TUGAQ ikke må assibileres og On-flag, når de skal assibileres. Også for at forebygge assibilering efter HTR på nnip

Symbols that need to be escaped on the lower side (towards twolc)

  • »
  • « ()
  • > (written with square brackets as stem, to avoid collision with the morpheme boundary marker)
  • < (written with square brackets as stem, to avoid collision with the morpheme boundary marker)

Flag diacritics

We have manually optimised the structure of our lexicon using following flag diacritics to restrict morhpological combinatorics - only allow compounds with verbs if the verb is further derived into a noun again:

@P.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@D.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@C.NeedNoun@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised

For languages that allow compounding, the following flag diacritics are needed to control position-based compounding restrictions for nominals. Their use is handled automatically if combined with +CmpN/xxx tags. If not used, they will do no harm.

@P.CmpFrst.FALSE@ Require that words tagged as such only appear first
@D.CmpPref.TRUE@ Block such words from entering ENDLEX
@P.CmpPref.FALSE@ Block these words from making further compounds
@D.CmpLast.TRUE@ Block such words from entering R
@D.CmpNone.TRUE@ Combines with the next tag to prohibit compounding
@U.CmpNone.FALSE@ Combines with the prev tag to prohibit compounding
@P.CmpOnly.TRUE@ Sets a flag to indicate that the word has passed R
@D.CmpOnly.FALSE@ Disallow words coming directly from root.

Use the following flag diacritics to control downcasing of derived proper nouns (e.g. Finnish Pariisi -> pariisilainen). See e.g. North Sámi for how to use these flags. There exists a ready-made regex that will do the actual down-casing given the proper use of these flags.

@U.Cap.Obl@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.
@U.Cap.Opt@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: København > københavner.