adjectives-affixes

Skolt Saami adjective declension

  • : ADJ-DER/COMP_ab ; This has a Comp+Attr

CLASS 1 HIGH VOWEL, NO PALATALIZATION NOMINALS

  • LEXICON A_PAPP papp: papp
  • LEXICON A_ALGG põrtt: põrtt friskk
  • LEXICON A_AUTT autt: a%^1VOWutt friskk
  • LEXICON A_MUORR muõrr: muõrr
  • LEXICON A_NUORR nuõrr: nuõrr
  • LEXICON A_SHIOGHGH šiõǥǥ: šiõǥǥ Need work on derivation since this only has positive form. 2018-10-13
  • LEXICON A_KOOKKA kookka length of/pituinen no gradation, has preceding genitive 2018-10-13
  • LEXICON A_KUOCC kuõcc: kuõcc
  • LEXICON A_CHUOSHKK čuõškk: čuõškk tuõlbb
  • LEXICON A_MIYRKK sǩiâŋkk: sǩiâŋkk hiâlpp
  • LEXICON A_PLAAN plaan: plaan
  • LEXICON A_SUYMMM suâmm: suâmˈm
  • LEXICON A_MODDAI moddai: modd

CLASS 1 LOW VOWEL, NO PALATALIZATION NOMINALS

  • Yaml: A-vaeaezhzh

CLASS 1 LOW VOWEL, PALATALIZATION, ILLATIVE IN U NOMINALS

CLASS 1 HIGH VOWEL, PALATALIZATION NOMINALS

  • LEXICON A_NUQBB nuʹbb: nubb
  • Yaml: A-nubb
  • LEXICON A_KUEQLL kueʹll: kuâll
  • LEXICON A_MUEQRJJ mueʹrjj: mueʹrjj

CLASS 1 LOW VOWEL, PALATALIZATION NOMINALS

  • LEXICON A_LOAQDD väʹll: väll
  • LEXICON A_UQCC uʹcc: u%^1VOW%{ʹØ%}cc
  • LEXICON A_SAAQMM sääʹmm: sää%{ʹØ%}mm
  • LEXICON A_CHAAQCC čääʹcc: čää%{ʹØ%}cc
  • LEXICON A_KAQLBB käʹlbb: kälbb âʹlǧǧ: â%^1VOW%{ʹØ%}lgg
  • LEXICON A_HAAQSKH hääʹsǩ: hää%{ʹØ%}sk

no separate attribute form 2018-10-13 Russian loanword

  • LEXICON A_SEQTT seʹtt: sẹ%^1VOW%{ʹØ%}tt CHECKME
  • LEXICON A_KHEQRJJ ǩeʹrjj: ǩẹ%^1VOW%{ʹØ%}rjj
  • LEXICON A_JAUQRR jäuʹrr: jä%^1VOWu%{ʹØ%}rr
  • LEXICON A_PEIQVV peiʹvv: pẹ%^1VOWi%{ʹØ%}vv
  • LEXICON A_SUEAQKHKH sueʹǩǩ: suäkk cuẹʹǩǩ
  • LEXICON A_HIEAQNN hieʹnn: heänn
  • LEXICON A_JEAQNNN jeäʹnn: jeänˈn, jeäʹǧǧ: jeägˈg
  • LEXICON A_JEAQRMM jeäʹrmm: jeärmm
  • LEXICON A_CHUAQRVV tuäʹŋǧǧ: tuäŋgg

CLASS denominals in -i cf. Feist (2012: 198-199) These will need their own expansions HOW DOES JIÕʹNNI decline?

  • LEXICON A_JIOQNNI jiõʹnni: jiõnn FIXME 2016-04
  • LEXICON A_PAERRAI pärrai: pärr
  • LEXICON A_SAELTTAI sälttai: sältt

CLASS

-õs ending

  • +Pl+Nom: až ENDLEX ; Check this 2015-02-22
  • LEXICON A_VOONYS võõnâs: võnn
  • +Pl+Nom: ENDLEX ; Check this 2015-02-22
  • LEXICON A_OODHYS oođâs: ođđ
  • LEXICON A_KOODDYS kõõddâs: kõdd
  • +Pl+Nom: %>âz ENDLEX ; Check this 2015-02-22
  • LEXICON A_MOOCHCHYS mooččâs: močč
  • LEXICON A_JOOSKYS jõõskâs: jõskk
  • LEXICON A_PIIUTYS piiutâs: pihtt
  • LEXICON A_FIINYS fiinâs: fijnn
  • LEXICON A_RUODDYS ruõddâs: ruõdˈd
  • LEXICON A_TUOVYS tuõvâs: tuõvv
  • LEXICON A_VUOIVYS vuõivâs: vuõivv
  • LEXICON A_KUORMYS kuõrmâs: kuõrmm
  • LEXICON A_KOAOAVAS kååvas: kåvv
  • LEXICON A_KOAOADDAS kååddas: kåådd
  • LEXICON A_TOBDDSALLASH tobddsallaš: tobddsallaš
  • LEXICON A_JAELLASH jällaš: jällaš
  • LEXICON A_VAALMYSH vaalmâš: va%^1VOWlmmâš
  • LEXICON A_VEEIDAS veeidas: veidd
  • LEXICON A_CEAEGGAS ceäggas: ceägˈg
  • LEXICON A_AANAR späʹsseb: späʹsseb
  • LEXICON A_KUQCCER kuʹccer: kuʹccer
  • LEXICON A_KAAQMES kääʹmes: kämm
  • : es A-01_OAQVES ; kääʹmes: kämmez
  • LEXICON A_KAAQLLES kääʹlles: kä%^1VOWll
  • : es A-01_KAAQLLES ; kääʹmes: kämmez
  • LEXICON A_PUUQTTES puuʹttes: pu%^1VOWtt
  • : A-01_PUUQTTES ; puuʹttes: pu%^1VOWttes
  • LEXICON A_KOAQSHKHES kååʹšǩes: kåškk
  • LEXICON A_KHEEQLES ǩeeʹles: ǩeâlˈl
  • : es A-01_KHEEQLES ; ǩeeʹles: ǩeâlˈles
  • LEXICON A_PUAQRES puäʹres: puärˈr
  • : es A-01_PUAQRES ; puäʹres: puärˈres
  • LEXICON A_CHUEQDHES čueʹđes: čuâtˈt
  • : es A-01_CHUEQDHES ; puäʹres: puärˈrez
  • LEXICON A_PUEAQRDES čueʹcǩes: čuäckkez
  • : es A-01_PUEAQRDES ; čueʹcǩes: čuäckkez
  • LEXICON A_TUEJJEEJA tuejjeeja: tuejjẹẹja
  • LEXICON A_PRSPRC-EEI tuejjeei: tuejjee
  • +Attr: jas ENDLEX ; c.f. sjm faʹlsǩeejas
  • LEXICON A_PRSPRC-EEQJJ tuejjeei: tuejjẹẹ

WORK HERE 2015-10-14 deverbals

  • LEXICON A_PRSPRC-NOGRADE-I uuidi: uuidi
  • LEXICON A_PRSPRC-VCC-I cõggi: cõggi
  • LEXICON A_PRSPRC-VHYY-I aʹhtti: a%^1VOWhtti
  • LEXICON A_PRSPRC-VWCCC-I kuõʹddi: kuõʹdˈdi
  • LEXICON A_PRSPRC-VWHYY-AI veâhssai
  • LEXICON A_PRSPRC-VVCC-I jõõvvi: jõõvvi
  • Yaml: A-vaeaezhzh
  • LEXICON A_PRSPRC-VVKK-I lookki: lookki
  • LEXICON A_KOBDDI kobddi: kobddi SEE following A_TOBDDI diff
  • LEXICON A_PRSPRC-VWKK-I ǩiõssi: ǩiõssi
  • LEXICON A_PRSPRC-VWCC-I vuõlli: vuõlli
  • LEXICON A_PRSPRC-VWXYY-I kuõskki: kuõskki
  • LEXICON A_PRSPRC-VCC-AI kåččai: kåččai
  • LEXICON A_PRSPRC-VVCC-AI peellai: peellai
  • LEXICON A_PRSPRC-VVKK-AI pååssai: pååssai
  • LEXICON A_PRSPRC-VXYY-AI särnnai: särnnai
  • LEXICON A_PRSPRC-VWCC-AI vuejjai: vuejjai
  • LEXICON A_PRSPRC-VWKK-AI reäkkai: reäkkai
  • LEXICON A_PRSPRC-VWCCC-AI vuäggai: vuägˈgai
  • LEXICON A_PRSPRC-VWXYY-AI meälttai: meälttai
  • LEXICON A_PRSPRC-VXYY-I äjjnõʹstti: äjjnõʹstti
  • LEXICON A_LIEQDHDHDHI lieʹđđi: lieʹđˈđi
  • LEXICON A_PRSPRC-VWHCC-I viõhssi: viõhssi
  • LEXICON A_VUOIQNNI vuõiʹnni: vuõiʹnn%{ʼØ%}i
  • LEXICON A_JUURD juurd: ju%^1VOWrdd
  • LEXICON A_MAADD maadd: ma%^1VOWdd

check this 2015-11-10

2. WORDS WITH MULTI-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:293)

2.3 Sg.Loc in -est. e-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

2.3.2 Sg.Ill in -a

2.3.2.1 Has Gradation

2.3.2.1.1 Second syllable vowel loss (Sg.Ill, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com; Ess, Par; Pl.Obl)

  • Yaml: A-chaalmtem

CLASS 11 ADJECTIVES

  • LEXICON A_SHIYLGGYD šiâlggâd: šiâlgg
  • LEXICON A_VISKKYD viskkâd: viskk
  • LEXICON A_MOASHSHAD måššad: måšš
  • LEXICON A_AQKHKHED âʹǩǩed: âʹǩǩ

säʹmmlaž: säʹmml

ânnʼjõž: ânnʼj

muõrâž: muõr

  • +Der+Der/toovvyd: »tõõvv IV_LAUKKOOLLYD ; privative = carative + translative

Class 12 Feist 163

  • +Comp: »ba A-02_SG-ILL ; Sammallahti (1991: 188)
  • +Comp: »be A-02_SG-LOC ; Sammallahti (1991: 188)
  • +Comp: »b A-02_SG-COM_IN ; Sammallahti (1991: 188)
  • +Comp: »b A-02_PL-OBL ; Sammallahti (1991: 188)

Sammallahti 2010: 151

N›A derivation in +Der+Der/N2A 1A (Feist 2011: 198-199)

1B (Feist 2011: 198-199)

1C (Feist 2011: 198-199)

determiner

determiner

determiner

determiner determiner

  • LEXICON DET_NEELLJAD neelljad: neellj similar_to: A_MOASHSHAD
  • LEXICON DET_DOHTAD doohhtad: doohht

CLASS 1 HIGH VOWEL, NO PALATALIZATION NOMINALS pa%{a0%}%{ʹ0%}%{p0%}p V%{V0%}%{ʹ0%}%{C0%}C Sg_Nom: high-vowel=yes monophthong=yes long-vowel=yes palatalization=no consonantism=quant-gem long-consonant=yes

1.1.1.1.1.1. Sg_Nom="short_vowel|geminate" Sg_Gen="long_vowel|geminate"

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:167)

1.1 Sg.Loc in -âst (no vowel shift, all raised)

â-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.1.1 Sg.Ill vowel -e

1.1.1.1 Has Palatalization

1.1.1.1[1](Palatalization pattern)

Palatalized: Sg.Ill Not Palatalized: ELSE Sg.Ill in palatalization and -e

1.1.1.1[1].1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.1.1.1[1].1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.1.1.1[1].1.1[](Monophthong + Consonant Geminate alternation)

Extra strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Extra strong grade: Sg.Ill Strong grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

  • Yaml: N-papp strong_geminate, short_vowel
  • : A-02_SG-NOM ; papp
  • : %>â A-02_ESS/PAR ; pappân, pappâd strong_geminate, short_vowel, palatalization
  • : %^PAL%>e A-02_SG-ILL ; paʹppe

strong_geminate, long_vowel

  • : %^V2VV A-02_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN-PL-NOM ; paapp
  • : %^V2VV%>â A-02_SG-LOC ; paappâst
  • : %^V2VV A-02_SG-COM_IN/PL-OBL ; paappi, paappid, paappid, paappin, paappivuiʹm, paappitaa
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^V2VV A-02_MUORYZH-WITHOUT-PAL ; paapp-
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^V2VV%^PAL A-02_MUORYZH-WITH-PAL ; paaʹpp-

e.g. e.g. +Use/NG+Sg+Loc+PxSg3

Sg_Nom: vow_mono: vow_short: vow_high: pal_no: cns_xyy similar_to: N_TAALKYS, N_KOONTYR 1.1.1.1.1.1. Sg_Nom="short_vowel|long_cluster" Sg_Gen="long_vowel|short_cluster"

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:167)

1.1 Sg.Loc in -âst (no vowel shift, all raised)

â-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.1.1 Sg.Ill vowel -e

1.1.1.1 Has Palatalization

1.1.1.1[1](Palatalization pattern)

Palatalized: Sg.Ill Not Palatalized: ELSE Sg.Ill in palatalization and -e

1.1.1.1[1].1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.1.1.1[1].1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.1.1.1[1].1.1[](Monophthong + Consonant Cluster alternation)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

  • Yaml: N-portt
  • : A-02_SG-NOM ; põrtt
  • : %^V2VV%^XYY2XY A-02_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN ; põõrt
  • : %^V2VV%^XYY2XY A-02_PL-NOM ; põõrt
  • : %^PAL%>e A-02_SG-ILL ; põʹrtte
  • : %^V2VV%^XYY2XY%>â A-02_SG-LOC ; põõrtâst
  • : %^V2VV%^XYY2XY A-02_SG-COM_IN ; põõrtin
  • : %>â A-02_ESS/PAR ; põrttân
  • : %^V2VV%^XYY2XY A-02_PL-OBL ; põõrti
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^V2VV%^XYY2XY A-02_MUORYZH-WITHOUT-PAL ; põõrt-
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^V2VV%^PAL%^XYY2XY A-02_MUORYZH-WITH-PAL ; põõʹrt-

Sg_Nom: vow_mono: vow_short: vow_high: pal_no: cns_vyy 1.1.1.1.1.1. Sg_Nom="short_vowel|long_V-cluster" Sg_Gen="long_vowel|short_V-cluster"

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:167)

1.1 Sg.Loc in -âst (no vowel shift, all raised)

â-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.1.1 Sg.Ill vowel -e

1.1.1.1 Has Palatalization

1.1.1.1[1](Palatalization pattern)

Palatalized: Sg.Ill Not Palatalized: ELSE Sg.Ill in palatalization and -e

1.1.1.1[1].1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.1.1.1[1].1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.1.1.1[1].1.1[](Monophthong + Consonant Cluster alternation)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

  • Yaml: N-autt
  • : A-02_SG-NOM ; autt
  • : %^V2VV%^XYY2XY A-02_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN ; aaut
  • : %^PAL%>e A-02_SG-ILL ; auʹtte
  • : %^V2VV%^XYY2XY%>â A-02_SG-LOC ; aautâst
  • : %^V2VV%^XYY2XY A-02_SG-COM_IN ; aautin
  • : %>â A-02_ESS/PAR ; auttân
  • : %^V2VV%^XYY2XY A-02_PL-NOM ; aaut
  • : %^V2VV%^XYY2XY A-02_PL-OBL ; aauti
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^V2VV%^XYY2XY A-02_MUORYZH-WITHOUT-PAL ; aaut-
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^V2VV%^PAL%^XYY2XY A-02_MUORYZH-WITH-PAL ; aauʹt-

Sg_Nom: vow_di: vow_high: pal_no: cns_xyy 1.1.1.1.1.1. Sg_Nom="diphthong|long_cluster" Sg_Gen="diphthong|short_cluster"

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:167)

1.1 Sg.Loc in -âst (no vowel shift, all raised)

â-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.1.1 Sg.Ill vowel -e

1.1.1.1 Has Palatalization

1.1.1.1[1](Palatalization pattern)

Palatalized: Sg.Ill Not Palatalized: ELSE Sg.Ill in palatalization and -e

1.1.1.1[1].1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.1.1.1[1].1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.1.1.1[1].1.1[](Monophthong + Consonant Cluster alternation)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

  • Yaml: N-chuoskk
  • : A-02_SG-NOM ; (1) čuõskk
  • : %^XYY2XY A-02_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN ; (2) čuõsk
  • : %^PAL%>e A-02_SG-ILL ; (3) čuõʹsǩǩe
  • : %^XYY2XY%>â A-02_SG-LOC ; (4) čuõskest
  • : %^XYY2XY A-02_SG-COM_IN ; (5) čuõskin
  • : %>â A-02_ESS/PAR ; (6) čuõskkân
  • : %^XYY2XY A-02_PL-NOM ; (2) čuõsk
  • : %^XYY2XY A-02_PL-OBL ; (5) čuõskin
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^XYY2XY A-02_MUORYZH-WITHOUT-PAL ; čuõsk-
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^PAL%^XYY2XY A-02_MUORYZH-WITH-PAL ; čuõʹsǩ-

Sg_Nom: vow_di: vow_high: pal_no: cns_xyy 1.1.1.1.1.1. Sg_Nom="diphthong|long_cluster" Sg_Gen="diphthong|short_cluster" Sg_Ill="diphthong|vowel_e-coloration|long_cluster"

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:167)

1.1 Sg.Loc in -âst (no vowel shift, all raised)

â-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.1.1 Sg.Ill vowel -e

1.1.1.1 Has Palatalization

1.1.1.1[1](Palatalization pattern)

Palatalized: Sg.Ill Not Palatalized: ELSE Sg.Ill in palatalization and -e

1.1.1.1[1].1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.1.1.1[1].1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.1.1.1[1].1.1[](Monophthong + Consonant Cluster alternation)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

  • Yaml: N-skjiankk
  • : A-02_SG-NOM ; (1) Sg.Nom: sǩiâŋkk
  • : %^XYY2XY A-02_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN-PL-NOM ; (2) Pl.Nom: sǩiâŋk
  • : %^PALE%^PAL%>e A-02_SG-ILL ; (3) Sg.Ill: sǩieʹŋǩǩe
  • : %^XYY2XY%>â A-02_SG-LOC ; (4) Sg.Loc: sǩiâŋkâst
  • : %^XYY2XY A-02_SG-COM_IN ; (5) Sg.Com: sǩiâŋkin
  • : %>â A-02_ESS/PAR ; (6) Ess: sǩiâŋkkân
  • : %^XYY2XY A-02_PL-OBL ; (8) Pl.Acc: sǩiâŋkid
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^XYY2XY A-02_MUORYZH-WITHOUT-PAL ; sǩiâŋk-
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^PALE%^PAL%^XYY2XY A-02_MUORYZH-WITH-PAL ; sǩieʹŋǩ-

Sg_Nom: vow_mono: vow_short: vow_high: pal_no: cns_gem 1.1.1.1.1.2. Sg_Nom="short_vowel|geminate" Sg_Gen="long_vowel|single_consonant"

See also: NMN_TOLL-PLC, which is the same, but minus PL forms and certain cases

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:167)

1.1 Sg.Loc in -âst (no vowel shift, all raised)

â-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.1.1 Sg.Ill vowel -e

1.1.1.1 Has Palatalization

1.1.1.1[1](Palatalization pattern)

Palatalized: Sg.Ill Not Palatalized: ELSE Sg.Ill in palatalization and -e

1.1.1.1[1].1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.1.1.1[1].1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.1.1.1[1].1.1[](Monophthong + Consonant and Consonant Geminate alternation)

Extra strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Extra strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

  • Yaml: N-kidd, N-soll, N-toll, N-vorr strong_geminate, short_vowel, no_palatalization, high_stem_vowel
  • : A-02_SG-NOM ; toll
  • : %>â A-02_ESS/PAR ; tollân strong_geminate, short_vowel, palatalization, high_stem_vowel
  • : %^PAL%>e A-02_SG-ILL ; toʹlle single_consonant, long_vowel, no_palatalization, high_stem_vowel
  • : %^V2VV%^CC2C A-02_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN ; tool
  • : %^V2VV%^CC2C A-02_PL-NOM ; tool
  • : %^V2VV%^CC2C%>â A-02_SG-LOC ; toolâst
  • : %^V2VV%^CC2C A-02_SG-COM_IN ; toolin
  • : %^V2VV%^CC2C A-02_PL-OBL ; tooli, toolid, toolid, toolin, toolivuiʹm, toolitaa
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^V2VV%^CC2C A-02_MUORYZH-WITHOUT-PAL ; tool- single_consonant, long_vowel, palatalization, high_stem_vowel
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^V2VV%^PAL%^CC2C A-02_MUORYZH-WITH-PAL ; tooʹl-
  • LEXICON A-01_LUOSS luõss: luõss Sg_Nom: vow_di: vow_high: pal_no: cns_gem_ss_type 1.1.1.1.1.4. Sg_Nom="diphthong|geminate" Sg_Gen="diphthong|voiced_geminate"

THIS IS NOT THE SAME AS N_MUORR

  • Yaml: N-luoss
  • : A-02_SG-NOM ;
  • : %^KK2GG A-02_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN-PL-NOM ; luõzz
  • : %^PAL%^CC2CCC%>e A-02_SG-ILL ; luõʹsˈse
  • : %^KK2GG%>â A-02_SG-LOC ; luõzzâst
  • : %^KK2GG A-02_SG-COM_IN ;
  • : %>â A-02_ESS/PAR ;
  • : %^KK2GG A-02_PL-OBL ; luõzzi
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^KK2GG A-02_MUORYZH-WITHOUT-PAL ; luõzz-
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^PAL%^KK2GG A-02_MUORYZH-WITH-PAL ; luõʹzz-

Sg_Nom: vow_di: vow_high: pal_no: cns_gem 1.1.1.1.1.1. Sg_Nom="diphthong|geminate" Sg_Gen="diphthong|single_consonant"

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:167)

1.1 Sg.Loc in -âst (no vowel shift, all raised)

â-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.1.1 Sg.Ill vowel -e

1.1.1.1 Has Palatalization

1.1.1.1[1](Palatalization pattern)

Palatalized: Sg.Ill Not Palatalized: ELSE Sg.Ill in palatalization and -e

1.1.1.1[1].2 Has Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

Sg.Ill:

1.1.1.1[1].2.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.1.1.1[1].2.1[](Diphthong + Consonant and Consonant Geminate alternation)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Extra strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

  • Yaml: N-muorr
  • : A-02_SG-NOM ; muõrr
  • : %^CC2C A-02_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN ; muõr
  • : %^PAL%^CC2CCC%>e A-02_SG-ILL ; muõʹrˈre
  • : %^CC2C%>â A-02_SG-LOC ; muõrâst
  • : %^CC2C A-02_SG-COM_IN ; muõrin
  • : %>â A-02_ESS/PAR ; muõrrân
  • : %^CC2C A-02_PL-NOM ; muõr
  • : %^CC2C A-02_PL-OBL ; muõri
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^CC2C A-02_MUORYZH-WITHOUT-PAL ; muõr-
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^PAL%^CC2C A-02_MUORYZH-WITH-PAL ; muõʹr-

FORMS

similar_to: N_VUYHSS

  • Yaml: N-miwhtt
  • : %^XYY2VY A-02_SG-COM_IN ; miõutin
  • : %^XYY2VY A-02_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN-PL-NOM ; miõut
  • : %^PAL%>e A-02_SG-ILL ; miõʹhtte
  • : A-02_SG-NOM ; miõhtt
  • : %^XYY2VY%>â A-02_SG-LOC ; miõutâst
  • : â A-02_ESS/PAR ; miõhttân
  • : %^XYY2VY A-02_PL-OBL ; miõuti
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: A-02_MUORYZH-WITHOUT-PAL ; miõhtt-
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^PAL A-02_MUORYZH-WITH-PAL ; riiʹǩǩ-

Sg_Ill="palatalization|e-final"

2. WORDS WITH TWO-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:288)

2.1 Sg.Loc in -âst. â-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

2.1.3 Sg.Ill in palatalization and -e

2.1.3.3 Lacks Gradation (in last syllable)

2.1.3.3.1 Monophthong

2.1.3.3.1.3 Consonant always short

2.1.3.3.1.3.4 Sg.Nom long vowel AND Short consonant

2.1.3.3.1.3.4.1.Sg.Gen Weak Grade

2.1.3.3.1.3.4.1.3 Sg.Ill Weak Grade

plaan: plaan

  • Yaml: N-plaan
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: A-02_MUORYZH-WITHOUT-PAL ; paar-
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^PAL A-02_MUORYZH-WITH-PAL ; paaʹr-

CLASS 1 LOW VOWEL, MONOPHTHONG, NO PALATALIZATION NOMINALS

a-stems

Sg_Nom: vow_mono: vow_short: vow_low: pal_no: cns_gem 1.1.1.2.1. stem_with_gradation: yes 1.1.1.2.1.1. Sg_Nom="short_vowel|geminate" Sg_Gen="long_vowel|geminate"

Is for nouns with -ast Loc

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:180)

1.2 Sg.Loc in -ast (vowel shift)

Raised: Sg.Ill Lowered: ELSE a-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.2.2 Sg.Ill vowel -u

1.2.2.2 Lacks Palatalization

1.2.2.2.1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.2.2.2.1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.2.2.2.1.1[](Monophthong + Consonant Geminate alternation)

Extra strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Extra strong grade: Sg.Ill Strong grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

N_A-URaise3-32

  • Yaml: N-pess, N-pall strong_geminate, short_vowel, no_palatalization, high_stem_vowel
  • : %^VOWRaise%>u A-02_SG-ILL ; (3) Sg.Ill: pissu Sg_Ill

strong_geminate, short_vowel, no_palatalization, low_stem_vowel

  • : A-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN ; (5) pess Ess_Px..., Sg_Ill..., N»A

strong_geminate, short_vowel, no_palatalization, low_stem_vowel

  • : A-02_A-STEM_SG-NOM ; (1) Sg.Nom: pess Sg_Nom, Sg_Nom..., Sg_Abe_Px1, Sg_Acc_Px1, Sg_Gen_Px1, Pl_Nom_Px1

strong_geminate, short_vowel, no_palatalization, low_stem_vowel, stem_vowel: a

  • : %>a A-02_ESS/PAR ; (6) Ess: pessan

strong_geminate, long_vowel, no_palatalization, low_stem_vowel

  • : %^V2VV A-02_A-STEM_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN-PL-NOM ; (2) Pl.Nom: peess Sg_Abe, Sg_Acc, Sg_Gen, Pl_Nom, +Use/NG_Sg_Loc_Px..., stem_vowel: a : Sg_Loc, Sg_Com, Pl_Gen, Pl_Acc, Pl_Ill, Pl_Loc, Pl_Com, Pl_Abe

strong_geminate, long_vowel, no_palatalization, high_stem_vowel

  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^V2VV%^VOWRaise%> A-01_PIISSUZH ; (9) Dim.N.Sg.Nom: piissuž
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^V2VV%> A-01_PEESSAZH ; (9) Dim.N.Sg.Nom: pẹẹssaž

Sg_Nom: vow_mono: vow_long: vow_low: pal_no: cns_gem Is for nouns with -ast Loc

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:180)

1.2 Sg.Loc in -ast (vowel shift)

Raised: Sg.Ill Lowered: ELSE a-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.2.2 Sg.Ill vowel -u

1.2.2.2 Lacks Palatalization

1.2.2.2.1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.2.2.2.1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.2.2.2.1.1[](Monophthong + Consonant Geminate alternation)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Extra strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

N_A-URaise3-32

  • Yaml: soomm grade: neutral (short_vowel, long_cluster), vowel: neutral (low)
  • : A-02_A-STEM_SG-NOM ; (1) Sg.Nom: šoomm Sg_Nom, Sg_Nom..., Sg_Abe_Px1, Sg_Acc_Px1, Sg_Gen_Px1, Pl_Nom_Px1

grade: weakened (long_vowel, short_cluster), vowel: neutral (low)

  • : %^CC2C A-02_A-STEM_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN-PL-NOM ; (2) Pl.Nom: šoom Sg_Abe, Sg_Acc, Sg_Gen, Pl_Nom, +Use/NG_Sg_Loc_Px..., stem_vowel: a : Sg_Loc, Sg_Com, Pl_Gen, Pl_Acc, Pl_Ill, Pl_Loc, Pl_Com, Pl_Abe

grade: strengthened (short_vowel, long_cluster), vowel: raised

  • : %^VV2V%^VOWRaise%>u A-02_SG-ILL ; (3) Sg.Ill: šummu Sg_Ill

grade: strengthened (short_vowel, long_cluster), vowel: neutral (low)

  • : %^VV2V A-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN ; (5) šomm Ess_Px..., Sg_Ill..., N»A

grade: neutral (short_vowel, long_cluster), vowel: neutral (low), stem_vowel: a

  • : %>a A-02_ESS/PAR ; (6) Ess: šoomman

grade: weakened (long_vowel, short_cluster), vowel: raised, stem_vowel: u/a

  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^VOWRaise%^CC2C%> A-01_PIISSUZH ; (9) Dim.N.Sg.Nom: šuumuž
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^CC2C%> A-01_PEESSAZH ; (9) Dim.N.Sg.Nom: šoomaž

grade: neutral (short_vowel, long_cluster), vowel: neutral (low)

  • : A-02_A-STEM_SG-NOM ; (1) äldd Sg_Nom, Sg_Nom..., Sg_Abe_Px1, Sg_Acc_Px1, Sg_Gen_Px1, Pl_Nom_Px1

grade: weakened (long_vowel, short_cluster), vowel: neutral (low)

  • : %^V2VV%^XYY2XY A-02_A-STEM_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN-PL-NOM ; (2) ääld Sg_Abe, Sg_Acc, Sg_Gen, Pl_Nom, +Use/NG_Sg_Loc_Px..., stem_vowel: a : Sg_Loc, Sg_Com, Pl_Gen, Pl_Acc, Pl_Ill, Pl_Loc, Pl_Com, Pl_Abe

grade: strengthened (short_vowel, long_cluster), vowel: raised

  • : %^VOWRaise%>u A-02_SG-ILL ; (3) alddu Sg_Ill

grade: strengthened (short_vowel, long_cluster), vowel: neutral (low)

  • : A-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN ; (5) äldd Ess_Px..., Sg_Ill..., N»A

grade: neutral (short_vowel, long_cluster), vowel: neutral (low), stem_vowel: a

  • : %>a A-02_ESS/PAR ; (6) älddan

grade: weakened (long_vowel, short_cluster), vowel: raised, stem_vowel: u/a

  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^V2VV%^VOWRaise%^XYY2XY A-01_PIISSUZH ; (9) Dim.N.Sg.Nom: aalduž (2009: 312-313)
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^V2VV%^XYY2XY%> A-01_PEESSAZH ; (9) Dim.N.Sg.Nom: ääldaž

grade: allegro (short_vowel, short_cluster), vowel: neutral (low)

  • LEXICON A-02_A-STEM_SG-NOM (1)
  • LEXICON A-02_A-STEM_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN-PL-NOM (2)

CLASS 1 LOW VOWEL, DIPHTHONG, NO PALATALIZATION NOMINALS

Sg_Nom: vow_di: vow_short: vow_low: pal_no: cns_gem_long Is for nouns with -ast Loc

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:180)

1.2 Sg.Loc in -ast (vowel shift)

Raised: Sg.Ill Lowered: ELSE a-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.2.2 Sg.Ill vowel -u

1.2.2.0 Lacks Palatalization

1.2.2.0.2 Has Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.2.2.0.2.0 Lack Orthographic Gradation

1.2.2.0.2.0[](Diphthong + Consonant Geminate alternation)

Extra strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Extra strong grade: Sg.Ill Strong grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

  • Yaml: N-neavvv
  • : A-02_A-STEM_SG-NOM ; neävˈv Sg_Nom, Sg_Nom..., Sg_Abe_Px1, Sg_Acc_Px1, Sg_Gen_Px1, Pl_Nom_Px1
  • : %^CCC2CC A-02_A-STEM_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN-PL-NOM ; neävv Sg_Abe, Sg_Acc, Sg_Gen, Pl_Nom, +Use/NG_Sg_Loc_Px..., stem_vowel: a : Sg_Loc, Sg_Com, Pl_Gen, Pl_Acc, Pl_Ill, Pl_Loc, Pl_Com, Pl_Abe
  • : %^VOWRaise%>u A-02_SG-ILL ; niâvˈvu Sg_Ill
  • : A-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN ; (5) neävˈv Ess_Px..., Sg_Ill..., N»A
  • : %>a A-02_ESS/PAR ; neävˈvan
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^VOWRaise%^CCC2CC%> A-01_PIISSUZH ; niâvvuž
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^CCC2CC%> A-01_PEESSAZH ; (9) Dim.N.Sg.Nom: neävvaž

similar_to: N_PLAAN gradation: no vowel_shift: no Is for nouns with -ast Loc a-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

  • Yaml: N-pealdd
  • : A-02_A-STEM_SG-NOM ; kapteän Sg_Nom, Sg_Nom..., Sg_Abe_Px1, Sg_Acc_Px1, Sg_Gen_Px1, Pl_Nom_Px1
  • : A-02_A-STEM_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN-PL-NOM ; kapteän Sg_Abe, Sg_Acc, Sg_Gen, Pl_Nom, +Use/NG_Sg_Loc_Px..., stem_vowel: a : Sg_Loc, Sg_Com, Pl_Gen, Pl_Acc, Pl_Ill, Pl_Loc, Pl_Com, Pl_Abe
  • : %>a A-02_SG-ILL ; kapteän Sg_Ill
  • : A-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN ; (5) kapteän Ess_Px..., Sg_Ill..., N»A
  • : %>a A-02_ESS/PAR ; kapteänan
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^XYY2XY%> A-01_PEESSAZH ; (9) Dim.N.Sg.Nom: kapteänaž

Sg_Nom: vow_mono: vow_long: vow_low: pal_no: cns_gem_dd_type Is for nouns with -ast Loc, No gradation N_A-U1-11

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:180)

1.2 Sg.Loc in -ast (no vowel shift, all lowered)

a-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.2.2 Sg.Ill vowel -u

1.2.2.2 Lacks Palatalization

1.2.2.2.1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.2.2.2.1.2 Lacks Orthographic Gradation

1.2.2.2.1.2[](Monophthong + Consonant)

Weak grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Weak grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

  • Yaml: A-vaeaezhzh
  • : A-02_SG-NOM ; vääžž
  • : A-02_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN-PL-NOM ; vääžž
  • : %^VOWRaise%>u A-02_SG-ILL ; vaažžu
  • +Use/NG: %>a A-02_SG-ILL ; vääžža
  • : %>a A-02_SG-LOC ; vääžžast
  • : %>a A-02_SG-COM_IN ; vääžžain
  • : %>a A-02_ESS/PAR ; vääžžan
  • : %>a A-02_PL-OBL ; vääžžai
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^VOWRaise A-01_PIISSUZH ; vaažžuž
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: A-01_PEESSAZH ; (9) Dim.N.Sg.Nom: vääžžaž
  • +Use/NG+Der+Der/Dimin+N: N_KUYLAZH ; vääžžaž

CLASS 1 HIGH VOWEL TYPE, NO PALATALIZATION NOMINALS

CLASS 1 HIGH VOWEL, PALATALIZATION NOMINALS

Sg_Nom: vow_mono: vow_short: vow_high_u: pal_yes: cns_gem_dd_type

1.3 Sg.Loc in -est (vowel shift)

Raised: Sg.Com, Pl.Obl Lowered: ELSE e-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.3.2 Sg.Ill vowel -a

1.3.2.1 Has Palatalization

Palatalized: ELSE Not Palatalized: Sg.Ill

1.3.2.1.1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1[](Monophthong + Consonant Geminate Variation)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Extra strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

NumContLex="1.113"

  • Yaml: N-nubb
  • There are several stem types
  • E-STEM-PX-RETAIN-WITHOUT-PAL ; (10) nubb
  • : %^PAL%^CC2CAllegro E-STEM-PX-ALLEGRO ; (11) nuʹbb-
  • : %^PAL E-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN-WITH-PAL ; (12) nuʹbb Ess+Px..

Bahuvriihi: årddnjuuʹnn

  • Yaml: N-njuunn
  • E-STEM-PX-RETAIN-WITHOUT-PAL ; (10) njuunn-
  • : %^VV2V%^PAL%^CC2CAllegro E-STEM-PX-ALLEGRO ; (11) njuʹn-
  • : %^VV2V%^PAL E-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN-WITH-PAL ; (12) njuʹnn Ess+Px..

FORMS

(1) Sg.Nom:juʹvjj

(2) Pl.Nom:juuʹj

(3) Sg.Ill:joujja

(4) Sg.Loc:juuʹjest

(5) Sg.Com:juuʹjin

(6) Ess:juʹvjjen

(7) Par:juʹvjjed

(8) Pl.Acc:juuʹjid

(9) Der/Dimin.N.Sg.Nom:joujjaž

NumContLex="1.113" Is for nouns with -est Loc, Extra long vowel

  • Yaml: N-juvjj
  • E-STEM-PX-RETAIN-WITHOUT-PAL ; (10) juvjj-
  • : %^VV2V%^PAL%^XYY2VY E-STEM-PX-ALLEGRO ; (11) juʹj-
  • : %^PAL E-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN-WITH-PAL ; (12) juʹvjj Ess+Px..

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:180, 197-199)

1.3 Sg.Loc in -est (no vowel shift, all lowered)

e-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.3.2 Sg.Ill vowel -a

1.3.2.1 Has Palatalization

Palatalized: ELSE Not Palatalized: Sg.Ill

1.3.2.1.2 Has Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1[](Diphthong + Consonant and Geminate variation)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Extra strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com, Dim

FORMS

(1) Sg.Nom:kueʹll

(2) Pl.Nom:kueʼl

(3) Sg.Ill:kuâlˈla

(4) Sg.Loc:kueʹlest

(5) Sg.Com:kuõʹlin ~ kueʹlin

(6) Ess:kueʹllen

(7) Par:kueʹlled

(8) Pl.Acc:kuõʹlid ~ kueʹlid

(9) Der/Dimin.N.Sg.Nom:kuâlaž

  • Yaml: N-kuell
  • There are several stem types
  • kueʹll: kuâll
  • E-STEM-PX-RETAIN-WITHOUT-PAL ; (10) kuâll-
  • : %^PALE%^PAL%^CC2CAllegro E-STEM-PX-ALLEGRO ; (11) kueʹl-
  • : %^PALE%^PAL%^CC2CCC E-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN-WITH-PAL ; (12) kueʹlˈl Ess+Px..

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:180)

1.3 Sg.Loc in -est (vowel shift)

Raised: Sg.Com, Pl.Obl Lowered: ELSE e-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.3.2 Sg.Ill vowel -a

1.3.2.1 Has Palatalization

Palatalized: ELSE Not Palatalized: Sg.Ill

1.3.2.1.1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1[](Monophthong + Consonant Cluster)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

NumContLex="1.113" Is for nouns with -est Loc, Extra long vowel

  • Yaml: N-muerjj
  • : %^PALE%^PAL%^XYY2XY DenominalAdjsCShort ;
  • : %^PALE%^PAL A-02_E-STEM_SG-NOM ; (1) Sg.Nom: mueʹrjj
  • : %^PALE%^PAL%^XYY2XY A-02_E-STEM_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN ; (2) Pl.Nom: mueʹrj
  • : %^PALE%^PAL%^XYY2XY A-02_PL-NOM ; (2) Pl.Nom: mueʹrj
  • : A-02_E-STEM_SG-ILL ; (3) Sg.Nom: muârjja
  • : %^PALE%^PAL%^XYY2XY%>e A-02_SG-LOC ; (4) Sg.Loc: mueʹrjest
  • : %^VOWRaise%^PAL%^XYY2XY A-02_SG-COM_IN ; (5) Sg.Com: muõʹrjin
  • +Use/NG: %^PALE%^PAL%^XYY2XY A-02_SG-COM_IN ; (5) Sg.Com: mueʹrjin
  • : %^VOWRaise%^PAL%^XYY2XY A-02_E-STEM_PL-OBL ; (5) Sg.Com: muõʹrjin
  • +Use/NG: %^PALE%^PAL%^XYY2XY A-02_E-STEM_PL-OBL ; (5) Sg.Com: mueʹrjin
  • : %^PALE%^PAL%>e A-02_ESS/PAR ; (6) Pl.Nom: mueʹrjjen
  • : %^XYY2XY A-02_E-STEM_N_KUYLAZH ; (9) Der/Dimin.N.Sg.Nom: muârjaž
  • E-STEM-PX-RETAIN-WITHOUT-PAL ; (10) muârjj-
  • : %^VOWRaise%^PALE%^PAL%^XYY2XY E-STEM-PX-ALLEGRO ; (11) mueʹrj-
  • : %^PALE%^PAL E-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN-WITH-PAL ; (12) mueʹrjj Ess+Px..

CLASS 1 LOW VOWEL, PALATALIZATION, ILLATIVE IN U NOMINALS

WORK NEEDED

CLASS 1 LOW VOWEL, PALATALIZATION, ILLATIVE IN A NOMINALS

e-stems

similar_to: N_PAPP vowel: monophthong vowel_shift: yes consonantism: geminate

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:204)

1.3 Sg.Loc in -est (vowel shift)

Raised: Sg.Com, Pl.Obl Lowered: ELSE e-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.3.2 Sg.Ill vowel -a

1.3.2.1 Has Palatalization

Palatalized: ELSE Not Palatalized: Sg.Ill

1.3.2.1.1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1[](Monophthong + Consonant Geminate Variation)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Extra strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

NumContLex="1.113"

  • Yaml: N-vaell, N-kall strong_geminate, short_vowel, palatalization, low_stem_vowel strong_geminate, short_vowel, depalatalization, low_stem_vowel strong_geminate, long_vowel, palatalization, low_stem_vowel strong_geminate, long_vowel, palatalization, high_stem_vowel strong_geminate, long_vowel, depalatalization, low_stem_vowel
  • : E-STEM-PX-RETAIN-WITHOUT-PAL ; (10) väll-
  • : %^PAL%^CC2CAllegro E-STEM-PX-ALLEGRO ; (11) väʹl-
  • : %^PAL E-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN-WITH-PAL ; (12) väʹll Ess+Px..

similar_to: N_PAPP vowel: monophthong vowel_shift: ?? consonantism: geminate

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:204)

1.3 Sg.Loc in -est (vowel shift)

Raised: Sg.Com, Pl.Obl Lowered: ELSE e-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.3.2 Sg.Ill vowel -a

1.3.2.1 Has Palatalization

Palatalized: ELSE Not Palatalized: Sg.Ill

1.3.2.1.1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1[](Monophthong + Consonant Geminate Variation)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Extra strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

NumContLex="1.113"

  • Yaml: A-ucc strong_geminate, short_vowel, palatalization, low_stem_vowel strong_geminate, short_vowel, depalatalization, low_stem_vowel strong_geminate, long_vowel, palatalization, low_stem_vowel strong_geminate, long_vowel, palatalization, high_stem_vowel strong_geminate, long_vowel, depalatalization, low_stem_vowel
  • : E-STEM-PX-RETAIN-WITHOUT-PAL ; (10) ucc-
  • : %^PAL%^CC2CAllegro E-STEM-PX-ALLEGRO ; (11) uʹc-
  • : %^PAL E-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN-WITH-PAL ; (12) uʹcc Ess+Px..

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:204)

1.3 Sg.Loc in -est (vowel shift)

Raised: Sg.Com, Pl.Obl Lowered: ELSE e-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.3.2 Sg.Ill vowel -a

1.3.2.1 Has Palatalization

Palatalized: ELSE Not Palatalized: Sg.Ill

1.3.2.1.1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1[](Monophthong + Consonant Geminate Variation)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Extra strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

NumContLex="1.113"

  • Yaml: N-saeaemm
  • E-STEM-PX-RETAIN-WITHOUT-PAL ; (10) säämm-
  • : %^VV2V%^PAL%^CC2CAllegro E-STEM-PX-ALLEGRO ; (11) säʹm-
  • : %^VV2V%^PAL E-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN-WITH-PAL ; (12) säʹmm Ess+Px..

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:204)

1.3 Sg.Loc in -est (vowel shift)

Raised: Sg.Com, Pl.Obl Lowered: ELSE e-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.3.2 Sg.Ill vowel -a

1.3.2.1 Has Palatalization

Palatalized: ELSE Not Palatalized: Sg.Ill

1.3.2.1.1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1[](Monophthong + Consonant Geminate Variation)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Extra strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

NumContLex="1.113"

  • Yaml: caacc
  • There are several stem types
  • čääʹcc: čääʹcc
  • : %^PAL A-02_E-STEM_SG-NOM ; (1) čääʹcc
  • : %^PAL%^KK2GG A-02_E-STEM_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN ; (2) čääʼʒʒ
  • : %^PAL%^KK2GG A-02_PL-NOM ; (2) čääʼʒʒ
  • : %^VV2V A-02_E-STEM_SG-ILL ; (3) čäcca
  • : %^PAL%^KK2GG%>e A-02_SG-LOC ; (4) čääʼʒʒest
  • : %^VOWRaise%^PAL%^KK2GG A-02_SG-COM_IN ; (5) čaaʼʒʒin
  • : %^VOWRaise%^PAL%^KK2GG A-02_E-STEM_PL-OBL ; (5) čaaʼʒʒin
  • : %^PAL%>e A-02_ESS/PAR ; (6) čääʼccen
  • : %^KK2GG A-02_E-STEM_N_KUYLAZH ; (9) čääʒʒaž
  • E-STEM-PX-RETAIN-WITHOUT-PAL ; (10) čääcc-
  • : %^VV2V%^PAL%^KK2GAllegro E-STEM-PX-ALLEGRO ; (11) čäʹʒ-
  • : %^VV2V%^PAL E-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN-WITH-PAL ; (12) čäʹcc Ess+Px..

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:180)

1.3 Sg.Loc in -est (vowel shift)

Raised: Sg.Com, Pl.Obl Lowered: ELSE e-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.3.2 Sg.Ill vowel -a

1.3.2.1 Has Palatalization

Palatalized: ELSE Not Palatalized: Sg.Ill

1.3.2.1.1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1[](Monophthong + Consonant Cluster)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

NumContLex="1.113" Is for nouns with -est Loc, Extra long vowel

  • Yaml: N-algg
  • : %^PAL A-02_E-STEM_SG-NOM ; (1) Sg.Nom: âʹlǧǧ
  • : %^V2VV%^PAL%^XYY2XY A-02_E-STEM_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN ; (2) Pl.Nom: ââʹlj
  • : A-02_E-STEM_SG-ILL ; (3) Sg.Ill: âlgga
  • : %^V2VV%^PAL%^XYY2XY%>e A-02_SG-LOC ; (4) Sg.Loc: ââʹljest
  • : %^V2VV%^VOWRaise%^PAL%^XYY2XY A-02_SG-COM_IN ; (5) Sg.Com: õõʹljin
  • : %^PAL%>e A-02_ESS/PAR ; (6) Ess: âʹlǧǧen
  • : %^V2VV%^XYY2XY A-02_E-STEM_N_KUYLAZH ; (9) Der/Dimin.N.Sg.Nom: ââlǥaž
  • E-STEM-PX-RETAIN-WITHOUT-PAL ; (10) kälbb-
  • : %^PAL%^XYY2XY E-STEM-PX-ALLEGRO ; (11) käʹlb-
  • : %^PAL E-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN-WITH-PAL ; (12) käʹlbb Ess+Px..
  • : %^V2VV%^PAL%^XYY2XY A-02_PL-NOM ; (2) Pl.Nom: ââʹlj
  • : %^V2VV%^VOWRaise%^PAL%^XYY2XY A-02_E-STEM_PL-OBL ; (5) Sg.Com: õõʹljin
  • Yaml: N-haeaesk
  • : %^PAL A-02_E-STEM_SG-NOM ; (1) Sg.Nom: hääʹsǩ
  • : %^PAL A-02_E-STEM_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN ; (2) Pl.Nom: hääʹsǩ
  • : %^PAL A-02_PL-NOM ; (2) Pl.Nom: hääʹsǩ
  • : A-02_E-STEM_SG-ILL ; (3) Sg.Ill: hääska
  • : %^PAL%>e A-02_SG-LOC ; (4) Sg.Loc: hääʹsǩest
  • : %^PAL A-02_SG-COM_IN ; (5) Sg.Com: hääʹsǩin
  • : %^PAL%>e A-02_ESS/PAR ; (6) Ess: hääʹsǩen
  • : %^PAL%> A-02_E-STEM_PL-OBL ; (8) Pl.Acc: hääʹsǩid
  • : A-02_E-STEM_N_KUYLAZH ; (9) Der/Dimin.N.Sg.Nom: hääskaž
  • E-STEM-PX-RETAIN-WITHOUT-PAL ; (10) hääsk-
  • : %^PAL E-STEM-PX-ALLEGRO ; (11) hääʹsǩ-
  • : %^PAL E-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN-WITH-PAL ; (12) hääʹsǩ Ess+Px..

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:180)

1.3 Sg.Loc in -est (NO vowel shift)

Raised: Sg.Com, Pl.Obl Lowered: ELSE e-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.3.2 Sg.Ill vowel -a

1.3.2.1 Has Palatalization

Palatalized: ELSE Not Palatalized: Sg.Ill

1.3.2.1.1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1[](Monophthong + Consonant Cluster)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

NumContLex="1.113 Is for nouns with -est Loc, Extra long vowel

  • Yaml: N-kerjj
  • : %^PAL A-02_SG-NOM ; (1) Sg.Nom: ǩeʹrjj
  • : %^V2VV%^PAL%^XYY2XY A-02_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN-PL-NOM ; (2) Pl.Nom: ǩeeʹrj
  • : A-02_E-STEM_SG-ILL ; (3) Sg.Ill: ǩerjja
  • : %^V2VV%^PAL%^XYY2XY%>e A-02_SG-LOC ; (4) Sg.Loc: ǩeeʹrjest
  • : %^V2VV%^PAL%^XYY2XY A-02_SG-COM_IN ; (5) Sg.Com: ǩeeʹrjin
  • : %^V2VV%^VOWRaise%^PAL%^XYY2XY A-02_SG-COM_IN ; (5) Sg.Com: ǩiiʹrjin
  • : %^PAL%>e A-02_ESS/PAR ; (6) Ess: ǩeʹrjjen
  • : %^V2VV%^VOWRaise%^PAL%^XYY2XY%> A-02_PL-OBL ; (8) Pl.Acc: ǩiiʹrjid
  • +Use/NG: %^V2VV%^PAL%^XYY2XY%> A-02_PL-OBL ; (8) Pl.Acc: ǩeeʹrjid
  • : %^V2VV%^XYY2XY A-02_E-STEM_N_KUYLAZH ; (9) Der/Dimin.N.Sg.Nom: ǩeerjaž

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:180)

1.3 Sg.Loc in -est (NO vowel shift)

Raised: Sg.Com, Pl.Obl Lowered: ELSE e-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.3.2 Sg.Ill vowel -a

1.3.2.1 Has Palatalization

Palatalized: ELSE Not Palatalized: Sg.Ill

1.3.2.1.1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1[](Monophthong + Consonant Cluster)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

Is for nouns with -est Loc, Extra long vowel

  • Yaml: N-jaurr

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:180)

1.3 Sg.Loc in -est (no vowel shift, all lowered)

e-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.3.2 Sg.Ill vowel -a

1.3.2.1 Has Palatalization

Palatalized: ELSE Not Palatalized: Sg.Ill

1.3.2.1.1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1[](Monophthong + Consonant Cluster variation)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

  • Yaml: N-peivv
  • : %^PAL A-02_E-STEM_SG-NOM ; (1) Sg.Nom: peiʹvv
  • : %^V2VV%^PAL%^XYY2XY A-02_E-STEM_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN ; (2) Pl.Nom: peeiʼv
  • : %^V2VV%^PAL%^XYY2XY A-02_PL-NOM ; (2) Pl.Nom: peeiʼv
  • : A-02_E-STEM_SG-ILL ; (3) Sg.Ill: pẹivva
  • : %^V2VV%^PAL%^XYY2XY%>e A-02_SG-LOC ; (4) Sg.Loc: peeiʹvest
  • : %^V2VV%^PAL%^XYY2XY A-02_SG-COM_IN ; (5) Sg.Com: peeiʹvin
  • : %^PAL%>e A-02_ESS/PAR ; (6) Ess: peiʹvven
  • : %^V2VV%^PAL%^XYY2XY A-02_E-STEM_PL-OBL ; (8) Pl.Acc: peeiʹvid
  • : %^V2VV%^XYY2XY A-02_E-STEM_N_KUYLAZH ; (9) Der/Dimin.N.Sg.Nom: pẹẹivaž
  • E-STEM-PX-RETAIN-WITHOUT-PAL ; (10) pẹivv-
  • : %^PAL%^XYY2XY E-STEM-PX-ALLEGRO ; (11) peiʹv-
  • : %^PAL E-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN-WITH-PAL ; (12) peiʹvv Ess+Px..

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:204)

1.3 Sg.Loc in -est (vowel shift)

Raised: Sg.Com, Pl.Obl Lowered: ELSE ẹ, ä e-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.3.2 Sg.Ill vowel -a

1.3.2.1 Has Palatalization

Palatalized: ELSE Not Palatalized: Sg.Ill

1.3.2.1.1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1[](Monophthong + Consonant Geminate Variation)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Extra strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

NumContLex="1.113"

  • Yaml: N-suekkj
  • E-STEM-PX-RETAIN-WITHOUT-PAL ; (10) suäkk-
  • : %^VOWRaise%^PALẸ%^Allegro%^PAL%^KK2GAllegro E-STEM-PX-ALLEGRO ; (11) suẹˈʹj-
  • : %^PAL%^CC2CCC E-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN-WITH-PAL ; (12) suäʹǩˈǩ Ess+Px..

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:204)

1.3 Sg.Loc in -est (vowel shift)

Raised: Sg.Com, Pl.Obl Lowered: ELSE ẹ, ä e-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.3.2 Sg.Ill vowel -a

1.3.2.1 Has Palatalization

Palatalized: ELSE Not Palatalized: Sg.Ill

1.3.2.1.1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1[](Monophthong + Consonant Geminate Variation)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Extra strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

NumContLex="1.113"

  • Yaml: N-kuett
  • There are several stem types
  • E-STEM-PX-RETAIN-WITHOUT-PAL ; (10) hiänn-
  • : %^PAL%^CC2C E-STEM-PX-ALLEGRO ; (11) hiẹʹn-
  • : %^PAL%^CC2CCC E-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN-WITH-PAL ; (12) hiäʹnˈn- Ess+Px..

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:204)

1.3 Sg.Loc in -est (vowel shift)

Raised: Sg.Com, Pl.Obl Lowered: ELSE ẹ, ä e-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.3.2 Sg.Ill vowel -a

1.3.2.1 Has Palatalization

Palatalized: ELSE Not Palatalized: Sg.Ill

1.3.2.1.1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1[](Monophthong + Consonant Geminate Variation)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Extra strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

(1) Sg.Nom:vuẹiʹvv

(2) Pl.Nom:vuẹiʼv

(3) Sg.Ill:vuäivva

(4) Sg.Loc:vuẹiʹvest

(5) Sg.Com:vueiʹvin

(6) Ess:vuẹiʹvven

(7) Par:vuẹiʹvved

(8) Pl.Acc:vueiʹvid

(9) Der/Dimin.N.Sg.Nom:vuäivaž

NumContLex="1.113"

  • Yaml: N-vueivv
  • There are several stem types
  • E-STEM-PX-RETAIN-WITHOUT-PAL ; (10) vuäivv-
  • : %^VOWRaise%^PALẸ%^PAL%^XYY2XY E-STEM-PX-ALLEGRO ; (11) vuẹiʹv-
  • : %^PAL E-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN-WITH-PAL ; (12) vuäiʹvv- Ess+Px..

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:204)

1.3 Sg.Loc in -est (vowel shift)

Raised: Sg.Com, Pl.Obl Lowered: ELSE ẹ, ä e-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.3.2 Sg.Ill vowel -a

1.3.2.1 Has Palatalization

Palatalized: ELSE Not Palatalized: Sg.Ill

1.3.2.1.1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1[](Monophthong + Consonant Geminate Variation)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Extra strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

(1) Sg.Nom:čuäʹrvv

(2) Pl.Nom:čuẹʼrv

(3) Sg.Ill:čuärvva

(4) Sg.Loc:čuẹʹrvest

(5) Sg.Com:čueʹrvin

(6) Ess:čuäʹrvven

(7) Par:čuäʹrvved

(8) Pl.Acc:čueʹrvid

(9) Der/Dimin.N.Sg.Nom:čuärvaž

NumContLex="1.113"

  • Yaml: N-chuaervv
  • There are several stem types
  • E-STEM-PX-RETAIN-WITHOUT-PAL ; (10) čuärvv-
  • : %^PALẸ%^PAL%^XYY2XY E-STEM-PX-ALLEGRO ; (11) čuẹʹrv-
  • : %^PAL E-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN-WITH-PAL ; (12) čuäʹrvv Ess+Px..

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:180, 197-199)

1.3 Sg.Loc in -est (vowel shift)

Raised: ELSE Lowered: Sg.Ill e-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.3.2 Sg.Ill vowel -a

1.3.2.1 Has Palatalization

Palatalized: ELSE Not Palatalized: Sg.Ill

1.3.2.1.1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1[](Diphthong + Consonant Geminate variation)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Extra strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com

FORMS

  • Yaml: N-jeaggj
  • There are several stem types
  • A-02_E-STEM_SG-ILL ; (3) jeägˈga
  • : %^PAL A-02_E-STEM_SG-NOM ; (1) jeäʹǧˈǧ
  • : %^VOWRaise%^PALẸ%^PAL%^CCC2CC A-02_E-STEM_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN ; (2) jiẹʹǧǧ
  • : %^VOWRaise%^PALẸ%^PAL%^CCC2CC A-02_PL-NOM ; (2) jiẹʹǧǧ
  • : %^VOWRaise%^PALẸ%^PAL%^CCC2CC%>e A-02_SG-LOC ; (4) jiẹʹǧǧest
  • : %^VOWRaise%^PALE%^PAL%^CCC2CC A-02_SG-COM_IN ; (5) jieʹǧǧin
  • : %^VOWRaise%^PALE%^PAL%^CCC2CC A-02_E-STEM_PL-OBL ; (5) jieʹǧǧin
  • : %^PAL%>e A-02_ESS/PAR ; (6) jeäʹǧˈǧen, (7) jeäʹǧˈǧed
  • : %^CCC2CC A-02_E-STEM_N_KUYLAZH ; (9) jeäggaž
  • E-STEM-PX-RETAIN-WITHOUT-PAL ; (10) jeägˈg-
  • : %^VOWRaise%^PALẸ%^Allegro%^PAL%^CCC2CAllegro E-STEM-PX-ALLEGRO ; (11) jiẹˈʹǧ-
  • : %^PAL E-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN-WITH-PAL ; (12) jeäʹǧˈǧ
  • +Use/NG: %^VOWRaise%^PALẸ%^PAL%^CCC2CC E-STEM-PX-ALLEGRO ; (2)
  • LEXICON A-02_E-STEM_SG-NOM (1)
  • LEXICON A-02_E-STEM_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN (2) e.g. +Sg+Acc+PxPl3 e.g. +Use/NG+Sg+Loc+PxSg1
  • LEXICON A-02_E-STEM_SG-ILL (3)
  • LEXICON A-02_E-STEM_N_KUYLAZH (9)

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:180, 197-199)

1.3 Sg.Loc in -est (no vowel shift, all lowered)

e-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.3.2 Sg.Ill vowel -a

1.3.2.1 Has Palatalization

Palatalized: ELSE Not Palatalized: Sg.Ill

1.3.2.1.2 Has Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.3.2.1.1.1[](Diphthong + Consonant and Geminate variation)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Extra strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com, Dim

FORMS

  • Yaml: N-jeaerggj, N-keadgg
  • There are several stem types
  • jeäʹrǧǧ: jeäʹrǧǧ
  • E-STEM-PX-RETAIN-WITHOUT-PAL ; (10) jeärgg-
  • : %^PALẸ%^PAL%^XYY2XY E-STEM-PX-ALLEGRO ; (11) jiẹʹrj-
  • : %^PAL E-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN-WITH-PAL ; (12) jeäʹrmm Ess+Px..

WHAT IS THIS CLASS

  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^V2VV A-02_MUORYZH-WITHOUT-PAL ; paar-
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^V2VV%^PAL A-02_MUORYZH-WITH-PAL ; paaʹr-

e.g. e.g. +Use/NG+Sg+Loc+PxSg3 e.g. +Sg+Loc+PxSg1

CLASS 2 NOMINALS with high stem vowel and i-stems

  • LEXICON A-01_JUURD juurd: jurdd is for nouns with stem i + -est +Sg+Loc; all stem other than the +Sg+Nom are X3; the i does not occur in +Par N_GEN2I-ILLAX3-LOCEX3-NOM1X1
  • Yaml: N-juurd
  • There are several stem types
  • juurd: juurd
  • LEXICON A_KOSSI kõssi: kõ%^1VOW%{ʹØ%}ss
  • LEXICON A-01_KOSSI kõssi: kõ%^1VOW%{ʹØ%}ss
  • LEXICON A-01_MAADD maadd: madd is for nouns with stem i + -est +Sg+Loc; all stem other than the +Sg+Nom are X3; the i does not occur in +Par
  • Yaml: N-maadd
  • There are several stem types
  • maadd: maadd strong_geminate, long_vowel, no-palatalization, high_stem_vowel strong_geminate, short_vowel, no-palatalization, high_stem_vowel

CLASS 2 NOMINALS with low stem vowel and u-stems

u-stems

CLASS 2 NOMINALS with high stem vowel and â-stems

CLASS 3 HIGH VOWEL, MONOPHTHONG, NO PALATALIZATION NOMINALS

m-stems

  • LEXICON A-01_SOOUS sõõus: sõ%^1VOWhss

CLASS 3

n-stems

CLASS 3

CLASS 4 BISYLLABIC, HIGH VOWEL, MONOPHTHONG, NO PALATALIZATION IN PENULTIMATE Â: 0

  • LEXICON A-01_VOONYS võõnâs: võnnâs like TOLL

N_GEN2X3-NOM2X1

  • Yaml: N-voonas
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; võnns-
  • LEXICON A-01_KOODDYS kõõddâs: kõddâs like N_PODD, N_PAPP, N_LUUBBYL
  • Yaml: N-kooddas
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; võnns-
  • LEXICON A-01_TAALKYS taalkâs: talkkâs like PÕRTT
  • Yaml: N-taalkas
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; võnns-
  • LEXICON A-01_PIIUTYS piiutâs: pi%^1VOWhttâs like N_VAHTT stemtype n-stem piiutâs: piiutâs
  • Yaml: N-piiutas
  • : %^Pen%^V2VV%^Pen%^XYY2VY A-02_SG-NOM ; piiutâs
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; võnns-
  • LEXICON A-01_FIINYS fiinâs: fijnnâs stemtype n-stem fiinâs: fiinâs
  • Yaml: A-fiinas
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; võnns-

CLASS 4 BISYLLABIC, HIGH VOWEL, DIPHTHONG, NO PALATALIZATION

  • LEXICON A-01_TUOVYS tuõvâs: tuõvˈvâs
  • Yaml: N-tuovas
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; võnns-
  • LEXICON A-01_VUOIVYS vuõivâs: vuõivvâs
  • Yaml: N-vuoivas
  • : %^Pen%^XYY2XY A-02_SG-NOM ; (1) Sg_Nom: vuõivâs
  • : %^VC A-02_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN-PL-NOM ; (2) Pl_Nom: vuõivvâz
  • : %^RmVow%>a A-02_SG-ILL ; (3) Sg_Ill: vuõivvsa
  • : %^RmVow%>e A-02_SG-LOC ; (4) Sg_Loc: vuõivvsest
  • : %^RmVow A-02_SG-COM_IN/PL-OBL ; (5) Sg_Com: vuõivvsin
  • : %^RmVow%>e A-02_ESS/PAR ; (6) Ess: vuõivvsen
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; võnns-
  • LEXICON A-01_RUODDYS ruõddâs: ruõdˈdâs N_GEN2X3-NOM2X1
  • Yaml: N-tuoddar
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; võnns-

CLASS 4 BISYLLABIC, LOW VOWEL, MONOPHTHONG, NO PALATALIZATION

  • LEXICON A-01_KOAOADDAS kååddas: kåddas N_GEN2X3-NOM2X1
  • Yaml: N-kååddas
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; kådds-
  • LEXICON A-01_KOALVAK kåålvak: kåålvak stemtype n-stem kåålvak: kåålvak Palatalization loss in Sg.Ill
  • Yaml: N-paattakj
  • : %^RmVow%>a A-02_SG-ILL ; +Sg+Ill: kåålvka
  • : %^RmVow%^PALK%>e A-02_SG-LOC ; +Sg+Loc: kåålvǩest
  • : %^RmVow%^PALK VOONYS-STEM-PX ; såbbr-
  • LEXICON A-01_AACCIKH pååttaǩ: pååttaǩ stemtype n-stem pååttaǩ: pååttaǩ Palatalization loss in Sg.Ill
  • Yaml: N-paattakj
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; såbbr-

stemtype n-stem jânnam: jânnam N_GEN2X3-NOM2X1

  • Yaml: N-jânnam
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; såbbr-
  • LEXICON A-01_KOAOAVAS kååvas: kåvvas
  • Yaml: N-kaavas
  • : %^VC A-02_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN-PL-NOM ; kåvvaz
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; såbbr-
  • LEXICON A-01_PAEAELKAS päälkas: pälkkas
  • Yaml: N-paalkas
  • : %^VC A-02_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN-PL-NOM ; pälkkaz
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; såbbr-
  • LEXICON A-01_CEAEGGAS ceäggas: ceägˈgas
  • Yaml: N-ceaeggas
  • : %^VC A-02_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN-PL-NOM ; ceägˈgaz
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; såbbr-

CLASS 4 BISYLLABIC, LOW VOWEL, DIPHTHONG, NO PALATALIZATION IN PENULTIMATE A: 0

2. WORDS WITH TWO-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:252)

2.3 Sg.Loc in -est. e-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

2.3.2 Sg.Ill in -a

2.3.2.2 LACKS Gradation

2.3.2.2.1 Penultimate stem vowel loss:(Sg.Ill, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com; Ess, Par; Pl.Gen, Pl.Acc, Pl.Ill, Pl.Loc, Pl.Com, Pl.Abe)

2.3.2.2.1.1 The Sg.Com vowel i appears before final n

  • Yaml: N-juaghghas
  • : %^VC A-02_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN-PL-NOM ; juâkˈkaz
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; såbbr-

CLASS 4 BISYLLABIC, LOW VOWEL, MONOPHTHONG, PALATALIZATION

  • LEXICON A_MUYLAS muâlas: muâlˈlas
  • LEXICON A-01_MUYLAS muâlas: muâlˈlas
  • Yaml: N-muylas
  • : %^VC SG-ABE/ACC/GEN ; muâlˈlaz
  • : %^VC PL-NOM ; muâlˈlaz
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; såbbr-
  • Yaml: kerres
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; võnns-

CLASS 4 BISYLLABIC, LOW VOWEL, DIPHTHONG, PALATALIZATION IN PENULTIMATE E: 0

  • LEXICON A-01_KAAQLLES kääʹlles: källes
  • Yaml: N-kaeaelles
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; källs-
  • LEXICON A-01_OAQVES ååʹves: åvves
  • Yaml: N-aaves
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; åvvs-
  • LEXICON A-01_KAAQRBES kääʹrbes: kärbbes
  • Yaml: N-kaeaerbes
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; kärbbs-
  • LEXICON A-01_PUAQRES puäʹres: puärˈres
  • Yaml: N-puaeres
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; puärˈrs-
  • LEXICON A-01_PUUQTTES puuʹttes: pu%^1VOWtt
  • Yaml: A-puuqttes
  • : %^VOWLower%>s VOONYS-STEM-PX ; potts-

-stems

  • LEXICON A-01_CHUEQDHES čueʹđes: čuâttes
  • Yaml: N-chuedhes
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; võnns-
  • LEXICON A-01_KHEEQLES ǩeeʹles: ǩeâlˈles
  • Yaml: N-chuedhes
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; võnns-
  • LEXICON A-01_PUEAQRDES pueʹrdes: puä%{ʹØ%}rddes
  • Yaml: N-chuaeckes
  • : %^RmVow VOONYS-STEM-PX ; võnns-
  • Yaml: N-sett
  • There are several stem types

e-a-stems

čâustõk+N+Sg+Gen: čâustõõǥǥ

  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %{XC%}%^V2VV%^K2GG A-02_MUORYZH-WITHOUT-PAL ; kuuzz-
  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %{XC%}%^V2VV%^PAL%^K2GG A-02_MUORYZH-WITH-PAL ; kuuʹzz-
  • Yaml: N-radio
  • A-02_SG-NOM ; (TSA-1) +Sg+Nom:
  • A-02_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN ; (=TSA-2)
  • : %^1VOW%^V2VVʹje A-02_SG-ILL ; (TSA-3) +Sg+Ill:
  • +Use/NG: A-02_SG-ILL ; (TSA-3) +Sg+Ill:
  • A-02_SG-LOC ; ()
  • A-02_SG-COM_IN ; (=TSA-4)
  • A-02_ESS/PAR ; ()
  • A-02_PL-NOM ; (TSA-2) +Pl+Nom:
  • A-02_PL-OBL ; (TSA-4) +Pl+Gen:
  • LEXICON A-01_NALLSHEM čââʹlmteʹm: čââʹlmtẹ%^1VOWm 292-295
  • Yaml: A-chaalmtem Ǩiõllkaʹlddi. 2017-04-04
  • čââʹlmtẹ%^1VOWm
  • čââʹlmtẹ0m

Stem types from the grammar

These are still not fixed.

  • LEXICON A-01_PRSPRC-EEI tuõđšteei: tueʹjjee tuõđšteei: tueʹjjee
  • Yaml: N-tuodhshteei
  • LEXICON A-01_PRSPRC-EEQJJ tuõđšteei: tueʹjjẹẹ tuõđšteei: tueʹjjẹẹ
  • Yaml: N-tuodhshteeqjj

Class 5 according to Feist 152

k-stems

stemtype

  • Yaml: N-chaustok

Class 6 according to Feist 153-154 PRESENT A-02_PARTICIPLES

  • LEXICON A-01_PRSPRC-NOGRADE-I uuidi: uuidi
  • Yaml: N-joovvi
  • There are several stem types
  • cõggi: cõggi NumContLex="1.2"
  • LEXICON A-01_PRSPRC-VCC-I cõggi: cõggi
  • Yaml: N-joovvi
  • There are several stem types
  • cõggi: cõggi NumContLex="1.2"
  • LEXICON A-01_PRSPRC-VVCC-I jõõvvi: jõõvvi
  • Yaml: N-joovvi
  • There are several stem types
  • jõõvvi: jõõvvi NumContLex="1.2"
  • : A-02_SG-NOM ; (1) jõõvvi
  • : A-02_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN ; (2) jõõvvi
  • : %^I2J%>a A-02_SG-ILL ; jõõvvja
  • : %^I2J%>e A-02_SG-LOC ; jõõvvjest
  • : %^I2J A-02_SG-COM_IN ; jõõvvjin
  • : %^I2J%>e A-02_ESS/PAR ; jõõvvjen
  • : %^CC2C A-02_PL-NOM ; jõõvi
  • : %^I2J A-02_PL-OBL ; jõõvvji
  • +Use/NG: %^CC2C%^I2J A-02_PL-OBL ; jõõvji
  • +Use/NG: A-02_PL-NOM ; jõõvvi
  • LEXICON A-01_PRSPRC-VVKK-I lookki: lookki
  • Yaml: lookk
  • There are several stem types
  • lookki: lookki NumContLex="1.2"
  • LEXICON A-01_PRSPRC-VWKK-I ǩiõssi: ǩiõssi
  • Yaml: N-joovvi
  • There are several stem types
  • sirddi: sirddi NumContLex="1.2"
  • LEXICON A-01_PRSPRC-VWCC-I vuõlli: vuõlli
  • Yaml: N-vuolli
  • There are several stem types
  • vuõlli: vuõlli NumContLex="1.2"
  • LEXICON A-01_PRSPRC-VWCCC-I kuõʹddi: kuõʹdˈdi
  • Yaml: N-vuolli
  • There are several stem types
  • vuõlli: vuõlli NumContLex="1.2"
  • LEXICON A-01_PRSPRC-VWXYY-I suõskki: suõskki
  • Yaml: suoskki
  • LEXICON A-01_PRSPRC-VCC-AI kåččai: kåččai
  • Yaml: kachchai
  • There are several stem types NumContLex="
  • : A-02_SG-NOM ;
  • : A-02_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN ;
  • : %^RmVow%^I2J%>a A-02_SG-ILL ;
  • : %^RmVow%^I2J%>e A-02_SG-LOC ;
  • : %^RmVow%^V2VV A-02_SG-COM_IN ;
  • : %^I2J%>e A-02_ESS/PAR ;
  • : %^Pen%^V2VV A-02_PL-NOM ;
  • : %^RmVow%^I2J A-02_PL-OBL ;
  • +Use/NG: A-02_PL-NOM ;
  • +Use/NG: %^Pen%^V2VV%^RmVow%^I2J A-02_PL-OBL ;
  • LEXICON A-01_PRSPRC-VVCC-AI peellai: peellai
  • Yaml: paassai
  • There are several stem types NumContLex="
  • : A-02_SG-NOM ; Sg.Nom.Indef: peellai
  • : A-02_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN ;
  • : %^RmVow%^I2J%>a A-02_SG-ILL ; Sg.Ill.Indef: peellja
  • : %^RmVow%^I2J%>e A-02_SG-LOC ;
  • : %^RmVow%^V2VV A-02_SG-COM_IN ;
  • : %^I2J%>e A-02_ESS/PAR ;
  • : %^Pen%^CC2C A-02_PL-NOM ; Pl.Nom.Indef: peelai
  • : %^RmVow%^I2J A-02_PL-OBL ;
  • +Use/NG: A-02_PL-NOM ;
  • +Use/NG: %^Pen%^CC2C%^RmVow%^I2J A-02_PL-OBL ;
  • LEXICON A-01_PRSPRC-VVKK-AI pååssai: pååssai
  • Yaml: paassai
  • There are several stem types NumContLex="
  • : A-02_SG-NOM ; Sg.Nom.Indef: pååssai
  • : A-02_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN ;
  • : %^RmVow%^I2J%>a A-02_SG-ILL ; Sg.Ill.Indef: pååssja
  • : %^RmVow%^I2J%>e A-02_SG-LOC ;
  • : %^RmVow%^I2J A-02_SG-COM_IN ;
  • : %^I2J%>e A-02_ESS/PAR ;
  • : %^Pen%^KK2GG A-02_PL-NOM ; Pl.Nom.Indef: pååzzai
  • : %^RmVow%^I2J A-02_PL-OBL ;
  • +Use/NG: A-02_PL-NOM ;
  • +Use/NG: %^Pen%^KK2GG%^RmVow%^I2J A-02_PL-OBL ;
  • LEXICON A-01_PRSPRC-VXYY-AI särnnai: särnnai
  • Yaml: sarnnai
  • There are several stem types
  • särnnai: särnnai NumContLex="
  • LEXICON A-01_PRSPRC-VWCC-AI vuejjai: vuejjai
  • Yaml: N-vuejjai
  • There are several stem types
  • vuejjai: vuejjai NumContLex="
  • LEXICON A-01_PRSPRC-VWKK-AI reäkkai: reäkkai
  • Yaml: N-reakkai
  • There are several stem types
  • reäkkai: reäkkai NumContLex="
  • LEXICON A-01_PRSPRC-VWCCC-AI vuäggai: vuägˈgai
  • Yaml: N-reakkai
  • There are several stem types
  • vuägˈgai: vuägˈgai NumContLex="
  • LEXICON A-01_PRSPRC-VWXYY-AI meälttai: meälttai
  • Yaml: sarnnai
  • There are several stem types
  • meälttai: meälttai NumContLex="
  • LEXICON A-01_ZHEEVAI žeevai: žẹẹvai
  • Yaml: zheevai NumContLex="

participles in -I from verbs in ʹ-ed

  • LEXICON A-01_PRSPRC-VXYY-I äjjnõʹstti: äjjnõʹstti
  • Yaml: lookk
  • There are several stem types
  • äjjnõʹstti: äjjnõʹstti NumContLex="1.2"
  • sirddi: sirddi NumContLex="1.2"
  • LEXICON A-01_PRSPRC-VHYY-I aʹhtti: a%^1VOWhtti
  • Yaml: lookk
  • There are several stem types
  • äjjnõʹstti: äjjnõʹstti NumContLex="1.2"
  • sirddi: sirddi NumContLex="1.2"
  • LEXICON A-01_PRSPRC-VWHYY-AI veâhssai: veâhssai
  • Yaml: lookk
  • There are several stem types
  • äjjnõʹstti: äjjnõʹstti NumContLex="1.2"
  • sirddi: sirddi NumContLex="1.2"
  • Yaml: N-suvddi
  • There are several stem types NumContLex="1.2"
  • LEXICON A-01_LIEQDHDHDHI lieʹđđi: lieʹđˈđi
  • Yaml: N-liedhdhdhi NumContLex="1.2"
  • Yaml: lookk
  • There are several stem types
  • vueʹstti: vueʹstti NumContLex="1.2"
  • LEXICON A-01_PRSPRC-VWHCC-I viõhssi: viõhssi
  • LEXICON A-01_VUOIQNNI vuõiʹnni: vuõiʹnni
  • Yaml: lookk
  • There are several stem types
  • vuõiʹnni: vuõiʹnni NumContLex="1.2"

Class 7 according to Feist 154-155

i-stems

  • LEXICON A-01_HOQPPI hõʹppi: hõʹppi
  • Yaml: hoppi
  • There are several stem types
  • hõʹppi: hõʹppi
  • LEXICON A-01_KAAMMI kaammi: kaamm
  • Yaml: piannai
  • There are several stem types kaammi käʹmme kaammjen käʹmmi

Class 8 according to Feist 155-157

Class 9 according to Feist 158

  • Yaml: A-saemmlazh ânnʼjõž: ânnʼj
  • Yaml: A-saemmlazh säʹmmlaž: säʹmmlaž

Diminutive derivations

(2009: 306)

  • muõrâž: muõr
  • Yaml: N-muorazh
  • LEXICON A-02_MUORYZH-WITHOUT-PAL paapp-
  • : âž A-02_SG-NOM ; paappâž
  • : že A-02_SG-ILL ; paappže
  • : že A-02_ESS/PAR ; paappžen
  • LEXICON A-02_MUORYZH-WITH-PAL paaʹpp-
  • : %>e A-02_SG-ABE/ACC/GEN ; paaʹppe
  • : %>e A-02_SG-LOC ; paaʹppest
  • : %>e A-02_SG-COM_IN ; paaʹppein
  • +Use/NG: A-02_SG-COM_IN ; paaʹppin
  • : %>e A-02_PL-NOM ; paaʹppe
  • : %>e A-02_PL-OBL ; paaʹppei Merja differentiates from regular pl
  • +Use/NG: A-02_PL-OBL ; paaʹppi
  • Yaml: N-muorazh
  • : HatY-STEM-PX-WEAKEN_LARGO ; säʹmmlõõžž- Sg_Loc_PxSg1
  • : %^PAL HatY-STEM-PX-WEAKEN_LARGO ; säʹmmlõõʹžž- Sg_Loc_PxSg1
  • LEXICON A-01_PEESSAZH piissuž: pẹẹss
  • LEXICON A_PIISSUZH piissuž: piiss

(2009: 310)

  • piissuž: piiss
  • Yaml: N-piissuzh
  • kuâlaž: kuâl
  • Yaml: N-kualazh kuâla, kuâlže
  • : LOAOADDAZH-STEM-PX-ALLEGRO ; This should go to each stem type ERROR

Class 11 according to Feist 162

Class 12 Feist 163

Noun phrase heads

Pl

Number and case tags

Used with words like juurd: jurddǥatta

Sg_Nom: vow_di: vow_short: vow_low: pal_no: cns_gem Is for nouns with -ast Loc

1. WORDS WITH SINGLE-SYLLABLE NOMINATIVE SINGULARS (2009:180)

1.2 Sg.Loc in -ast (vowel shift)

Raised: Sg.Ill Lowered: ELSE a-stems (Sg.Loc, Ess, Par).

1.2.2 Sg.Ill vowel -u

1.2.2.2 Lacks Palatalization

1.2.2.2.1 Lacks Specifically Pedagogical Gradation

1.2.2.2.1.1 Has Orthographic Gradation

1.2.2.2.1.1[](Monophthong + Consonant Geminate alternation)

Strong grade: Sg.Nom, Ess, Par Extra strong grade: Sg.Ill Weak grade: Pl.Nom, Sg.Loc, Sg.Com uâ: uõ, eä: iâ

FORMS

N_A-URaise3-32

  • Yaml: N-vuarr grade: neutral (short_vowel, long_cluster), vowel: neutral (low) Sg_Nom, Sg_Nom..., Sg_Abe_Px1, Sg_Acc_Px1, Sg_Gen_Px1, Pl_Nom_Px1

grade: weakened (long_vowel, short_cluster), vowel: neutral (low) Sg_Abe, Sg_Acc, Sg_Gen, Pl_Nom, +Use/NG_Sg_Loc_Px..., stem_vowel: a : Sg_Loc, Sg_Com, Pl_Gen, Pl_Acc, Pl_Ill, Pl_Loc, Pl_Com, Pl_Abe

grade: strengthened (short_vowel, long_cluster), vowel: raised Sg_Ill

grade: strengthened (short_vowel, long_cluster), vowel: neutral (low)

  • : A-STEM-PX-STRENGTHEN ; (5) vuârr Ess_Px..., Sg_Ill..., N»A

grade: neutral (short_vowel, long_cluster), vowel: neutral (low), stem_vowel: a

grade: weakened (long_vowel, short_cluster), vowel: raised, stem_vowel: u/a

  • +Der+Der/Dimin+A: %^CC2C%> A-01_PEESSAZH ; (9) Dim.N.Sg.Nom: vuâraž

grade: allegro (short_vowel, short_cluster), vowel: neutral (low)

Adjectives -- to be moved