Sentence delimiters are the following: <.> <!> <?> <...> <¶>



This section lists all the tags inherited from the fst, and used as tags in the syntactic analysis. The next section, Sets, contains sets defined on the basis of the tags listed here, those set names are not visible in the output.

Beginning and end of sentence


Parts of speech tags




Tags for POS sub-categories

Pers Dem Interr Indef Recipr Refl Rel Coll NomAg Prop Arab Romertall

Tags for morphosyntactic properties

Nom Acc Gen Ill Loc Com Ess Par Sg Du Pl Cmp/SplitR Cmp/SgNom Cmp/SgGen Cmp/SgGen Cmp/Attr PxSg1 PxSg2 PxSg3 PxDu1 PxDu2 PxDu3 PxPl1 PxPl2 PxPl3 Px

Comp Superl Attr Ord Qst IV TV Prt Prs Ind Pot Cond Imprt

Sg1 Sg2 Sg3 Du1 Du2 Du3 Pl1 Pl2 Pl3

Inf ConNeg Neg PrfPrc VGen PrsPrc Ger Sup Actio VAbess

Tags for clitic particles

Foc/ba Foc/be Foc/ba Foc/be Foc/be Foc/ges Foc/ges Foc/ges Foc/gis Foc/gis Foc/gis Foc/han Foc/han Foc/uv Foc/son Foc/uv

Derivation tags

Der/PassL Der/PassS Der/NomAg NomAg Der/AAdv Der/ag Der/ahasas Der/adda Der/alla Der/Car Der/Caus Der/d Der/Dimin Der/InchL Der/ivvaas Der/l Der/laakan Der/lasj Der/mas Der/NomAct Der/sasj Der/st Der/t Der/tt Der/taa Der/upmi Der/vualasas Der/vuota



Semantic tags





Syntactic tags


Sets containing sets of lists and tags

This part of the file lists a large number of sets based partly upon the tags defined above, and partly upon lexemes drawn from the lexicon. See the sourcefile itself to inspect the sets, what follows here is an overview of the set types.

Sets for Single-word sets

OKTA and go, and the set INITIAL for initial letters go INITIAL

Sets for word or not


Derivational affixes






Case sets




Verb sets


Sets for finiteness and mood









Sets for person



Sets consisting of forms of "leđe" (these ones need to be rewritten)

Pronoun sets

Adjectival sets and their complements

Adverbial sets and their complements

Sets for coordinators

Sets for adverbs that have lookalikes

Here come some adverbs that have identical twins in other POS. If these are found in Adv contexts, we treat them as adverbs.

Sets of elements with common syntactic behaviour

Sets for verbs

V is all readings with a V tag in them, REAL-V should be the ones without an N tag following the V. The REAL-V set thus awaits a fix to the preprocess V ... N bug.

  • The set COPULAS is for predicative constructions

TRANS-V is the set for verbs really taking objects

  • Sets for verbs choosing oblique objects or adverbials
  • STVLIST is the list of strictly transitive verbs. In the rules, refer not to STVLIST, but to the set STV defined below.

STRICT-TRANS-V is the set for verbs which don't let a GenAcc be a modifier of anything else than an object, e.g. Mun organiseren eatni gievkkanis. - eatni wants to be the object

Valency sets

  • PLACE-V Those get only not locative if the target is a member TOOL, ABSTR-TOOL or ANIMATE or CONCEPT. Selects more locatives than ONLY-PLACE-LOC-V

Adverb sets

Adjective sets

NP sets defined according to their morphosyntactic features

The PRE-NP-HEAD family of sets

These sets model noun phrases (NPs). The idea is to first define whatever can occur in front of the head of the NP, and thereafter negate that with the expression WORD - premodifiers.

The set NOT-NPMOD is used to find barriers between NPs. Typical usage: ... (*1 N BARRIER NPT-NPMOD) ... meaning: Scan to the first noun, ignoring anything that can be part of the noun phrase of that noun (i.e., "scan to the next NP head")

Other negatively defined morphosyntactic noun sets

Noun sets

Nominal sets defined according to their morphophonological properties Sets for lexeme homonymy (most of them are moved to where the actual rules are.)

The words in the set N-PO can be both N and Po, the set takes that into account.

Nominal sets defined according to their semantical properties

  • Spatial noun sets. These nouns behave like postpositions
  • Time sets
  • Amount sets


  • Sets for nouns with morpho-syntactic preferences
  • Number-related sets
  • Sets for case, possessive, etc.
  • Sets for nouns as pred
  • Sets for animals
  • Sets for things
  • Sets for qualities
  • Sets for things, not necessarily tools
  • Sets for things such that people can be inside them:
  • Sets for things such that people cannot be inside them:
  • Part-whole sets for human
  • Sets for places
  • Sets that can both be buildings/places and represent humans
  • Sets denoting relations

Miscellaneous sets

Border sets and their complements

Syntactic sets


These were the set types.


Here follow the rules.

This is the first section. Here we put safe rules with no or minimal context.

Removing unwanted names


  • Insertwww Inserts the Sem/Adr tag to all url expressions
  • ArabNom says that sentence-initial Arabic numeral is Nom unless followed by Po
  • Arab1 says that "1" is Nom, look at this
  • ArabNomPlc gives Nom tu numerls following placenames
  • Arab rule for Apertium
  • mustalid adds <vdic> to language of telling and quoting, like: ... dadjá Aili Kestkitalo.
  • PlcSur1 The Linda Englad rule: name is Sur not Plc if having a surname
  • PlcSur2
  • PlcSur4

Focus clitics

  • Qst removes Foc/uv if Qst and "?" at the ende of the sentence
  • FocUv is the revert rule, it removes Qst for Foc/uv if there is no "?"
  • NoWackern says that if the word is not number 2 in the sentence it is not Foc (todo: phrase level, not word)

SECTION 2, more context


  • NumRom in beginning of sentence
  • sasjnum chooses num gen to the left of sâš
  • NotOrdIfABBR


See also Imprt or Ind some sections down.

  • NotImprtAfterLede removes Imprt if leđe one to the left
  • ImprtInit selects sentence-initial imperative when followed by Ill
  • ImprtDál
  • ImprtComma
  • ImprtNotVGen
  • NotImprtInd
  • NotImprtConNeg
  • NotImprtA
  • NotImprtN
  • NotImprtVFIN

Lexicalised derivations

  • derN removes DER-N if lexicalised non-essives
  • derA removes DER-A if lexicalised A
  • derAdv removes DER-Adv if lexicalised Adv
  • derPass removes DER-PASS if lexicalised V
  • derV removes DER-V if lexicalised V,

Particular verbs

  • PrsPrcIfA


Removing or selecting proper nouns that are lookalikes

  • Removes PropPl, but problems with names as Davviriikkaid Ráđi, there we want Prop Pl
  • PronNotProp
  • PropAttrIfPropx removes Attr if no Prop on the right side
  • PropInsideProp Selects Prop if capital letter inside clause
  • PropAttr Removes (Prop Attr), but not if to the right is Prop or Ord OR ABBR
  • PropSur Selects (Prop Sem/Sur) if finite verb to the left. Immediately to the right is Sem/Fem OR Sem/Mal
  • r
  • PropAttr1 Selects Attr if you are Sem/Fem OR Sem/Mal, Sem/Sur or INITIAL and to your right is Prop which is Sem/Fem OR Sem/Mal or Sem/Sur



  • Removes derNEss if lexicalised, and both nouns are essive.


  • vazzid chooses väzziđ when Ill or čoođâ to the right -- vazzâđ venytellä vs. väzziđ kävellä

Adjectives or nouns

Adjectives, nouns, not adverbs

  • Aifeambbo selects A after eambbo




Adverbs or postpositions

Adverbs or nouns

Specific adverbs


  • IFF buotAdv: buot Adv in front of Superl ok smn
  • mannelTimeAdv golbma jagi maŋŋel
  • oovtast
  • AdvSTV váldit mielde, oahppat bajil. eará? STRICT-TRANS-V is too strong
  • pyereest
  • miätáV
  • oddasitAdv
  • oktanAdv
  • ovttasAdv
  • oktiiAdv select
  • ollasitAdv selects

Adverbs and not Pronouns

  • siste is adv


  • recipr, reciprPl select Recipr

Nouns, not verbs

puáttiđ, not pađđeeđ (Prt: Sg3 poođij, Du1 poođijm, Du2 poođijd, Du3 poođijn, Pl1 poođijm, Pl2 poođijd)

  • puáttiđ = tulla, pađđeeđ =käyttäytyä_levottomasti_(vasovasta_vaatimesta)
  • We will make rules for pađđeeđ when we see examples of its use.

Lexical selection - nouns

  • Some brave rules for removing Imprt

Verb or Noun?

  • datPers selects Pers. I made it stronger than it was. ref. r897 in sme-dis.rle

Px constraints

PX Number

From sme

First select Px, then remove all remaining Px

  • Set with adjectives, which are documented to have Px in our corpus
  • PxAlone Remove Px if it is only word in the sentence, and not a typical px-term
  • NPxPrfPrc Remove Px if PrfPrc with leat to the left
  • Nouns: NomPxSg1 (not Ess) as the only word in a sentence. Needs no disambiguation.
  • Nouns: AccPxSg1 after a TV verb. Exception for Aux.
  • Nouns: AccPxSg1 after a TV Inf verb.
  • PxSg1LocAcc is Acc to the right.
  • PxSg1Acc is Acc to the right.
  • coordination PxSg1coord
  • PxSg1coordLast for the last word of a coordination
  • PxSg2AccImprt if TV Imprt to the left
  • PxSg2AccPrfPrc after PrfPrc
  • NotPxSg2 if no Sg2
  • Nouns: PxSg3AccPrfPrc if PrfPrc and Sg3 to the left
  • PxSg3GenPo2 in front of Po, to the left of the owner
  • PxGenNorPo
  • PXAccCoor
  • PxSgIllPx

We end section 2 by removing all remaining Px

  • KillPx removes all remaining Px readings
  • NotVGenIfDer removes VGen if 0 = Der/Pass or Der...(r947)
  • NotImprtIfAttrLeft removes Imprt after attribute
  • NotImprtIfRel removes Imprt after Rel, unify this with other left context (r948)
  • VSg1IfLeftMun selects Sg1 when "mun" is to the left (r949)
  • VSG1IfRightMun selects Sg1 when "mun" is to the right (r950)

Sg2 - early cycle, safe rules

  • VSG2IfLeftDon selects Sg2 when "tun" is to the left (r951)
  • VSG2IfRightDon selects Sg2 when "tun" is to the right (r952)

Sg3 - early cycle, safe rules

  • VSG3IfLeftSon selects Sg3 when "sun" is to the left (r954)
  • VSG3IfRithgSon selects Sg3 when "sun" is to the right (r954)
  • VNotSg3When12Left removes Sg3 if 12 Pron immediate left (r955)
  • NegSg3BeforeFoc selects Neg before Foc/ge or ConNeg (r959)
  • vfin removes verb reading when the reading should be noun
  • VDu1IfMoaiLeft selects Du1 when "moai" left (r960)
  • VDu1IfMoaiRight selects Du1 when "moai" right (r961)

Pl3 - early cycle, safe rules


  • r976 SE V Pl1 if *-1 SII
  • r982 removes Prt Sg2 if Pl3 subject - 6002
  • VPl3Lookalikes removes "verbs" like "mane" and "peri" (r984) - 274
  • VSg3Lookalikes removes "verbs" like "skuvlii"

OBS: denne er ikke helt bra

  • NPlbeforeRel, NSgbeforeRel select N in front of Rel and MO

Adjectives and adverbs

Adv or not?

maid has many readings and as Rel it is a member of S-BOUNDARY. Therefore we need to disambiguate is early in this file. Most important is to select Adv. Because of that A ang N still can have Vfin readings, it is difficult to make very general rules.

  • vaikkomii
  • Interj or not
  • comparAdv
  • AttrABBRNum
  • PoParantes selects Po after paranteces
  • PrGen1 selects Pr
  • PrGen2 selects Pr
  • PrNoCompl removes Pr if no complement to the right
  • PoGen selects Po
  • vuollaiPo selects
  • gaskkasPo selects
  • NwhenPo removes N if Po
  • compNomHead NP-HEAD-NOM (ADVL) go NP-HEAD-NOM (ADVL). VFIN-NOT-IMPRT pga manglende disamgiguering
  • compMisc go geassebuođut, go dán áigge
  • compCoord coordination
  • compCoordAttr coordination again, now with Attr. Speacial rule because of that Attr also has other readings.
  • compInf
  • compInfCoor
  • killAllnotComp Removes analysis which are not @COMP-CS<


    Mostly we map both @CNP and @CVP, then we select @CNP, after that we remove them so @CVP remains

    • cnpCompSC Map @CNP if @COMP-CS< or COMPAR ahte
    • cnpCompSpec special rule because of PrfPrc = VFIN
    • CSasCNPCVP Map some CSs both @CNP @CVP
    • CSasCVP Map @CVP to CS
    • CCasCNPCVP Map (@CNP @CVP) to CC
    • ahteCNP ahte CC @CNP, remove the rest
    • killAllahtenotCS All other occurrences of "et" are CSs.
    • vaiCCCNP vai as CC or CS
    • vaiCC remove vai as CC
    • vaiCCNegQst1 vai CC @CVP before Neg or question
    • vaiCCNegQst2 vai CC @CNP in question about two alternatives
    • killAllvainotCSCVP Select all vai CS @CVP
    • CVPNPron No finite verb or verbalactivity in front N/Pron @CNP N/Pron
    • CVPnoVfin No potential finite verb following
    • CVPnoVfin Infitive following
    • CVPInfInf between to Inf
    • CVPadvladvl between to ADVL
    • CVPAdvAdv between to Adv
    • CVPActioNom
    • CVPnoVfinAdvl No finite verb in front ADVLCASE @CNP ADVLCASE
    • CVPMiella
    • CVPAdvNom Nom @CNP Adv Nom
    • CVPAccAdv Acc @CNP Adv Acc
    • CVP
    • CS
    • killAllCNP removes all remaining @CNP
    • XCC-CS removes CC and CS with no synttag
    • Interr selects interrogative pronouns in questions
    • InterrIfPot selects interrogative pronouns in potential sentences, and after that we remove the remaining Interr
    • munPl3 removes Pron Pers Pl3 if there is no verb agreement
    • Rel selects Rel
    • RelSg1, RelSg2 select Rel
    • RelPl selects Rel
    • RelPl removes Rel


    • NumAccCurrency Selects (Num Acc)
    • NumNom Selects (Num Nom)
    • NumNomCoord Selects (Num Nom)
    • r1082 Selects (Num Nom)
    • year Selects (Num Gen)
    • numunit Selects (Num Gen) + NUMUNIT
    • NumGenPo Selects Gen if you are Num and there is a Gen following the first Gen to the right gávcci máná njuni ovddas
    • jagiGen
    • Locattr
    • Illattr
    • LocIllattr
    • numPlAccn
    • WWNumOrdIllAttr selects Ill Attr and Loc Attr for numerals and ordinals
    • WWNumOrdAttr
    • galleIndef
    • galleIndef
    • galleNum
    • nubbiGen
    • nubbiIndef
    • nubbiOrd
    • nubbiOrdManu
    • nubbiOrdSuperl
    • nnubbiIndefIll
    • nnubbiOrdLex
    • nnubbiIndefOkta
    • nnubbiOrdEss
    • nnubbiIndefAcc
    • nnubbiAttr
    • nKillnubbiOrd

    Indefinite pronouns

    The rules are not documented yet

    • mihheen attr if neg + mihheen + NP
    • IndefAttr2 Selects (Indef Attr)
    • IndefAttr3 Selects (Indef Attr)
    • NoAttr Removes Attr if you are Pron and first one to your right is (Pron Rel)
    • NoIndefAttr Removes (Indef Attr) if first one to the right is (Pron Pers Loc)
    • NoIndefGen Removes (Pron Gen Indef) or (Pron Acc Indef) if intransitive mainverb to the left and end of sentence to the right muhto gávdnojit maid eará
    • IndefNotAdv
    • IndefNotAdvL
    • MiiPl
    • DemSgNom selects Dem Nom Sg if VFIN Sg3
    • sierraAAttr
    • Comp rules select Comp A

    Attribute disambiguation

    • AttrTitle
    • AttrVFIN removes Attr in front of VFIN
    • AttrnotNA removes Attr when no N or A to the right

    Rules for Attr between Dem and N

    • AAttrDemSg1, AAttrDemPl1
    • AAttrDemSg2, AAttrDemPl2
    • AAttrDemSg3, AAttrDemPl3
    • AAttrDemSgIll, AAttrDemPlIll
    • AAttrDemSgLoc, AAttrDemPlLoc
    • AAttrDemdakkar
    • AAttrN no copulas close to the left
    • AAttrCop copulas close to the left
    • AdvManimus
    • AttrAdv
    • Cmp/SplitRA
    • CopANom
    • ANom removes A Nom
    • AAttr selects A Attr
    • OrdAttr
    • AdvN removes Adv
    • AAttrPunct
    • AttrTIME
    • AAttrCoord1 coordination, first part
    • AAttrCoord2 coordination, first part
    • PrfPrcCoordA selects PrfPrc in coordination with an A
    • Remove Nom, Acc and Gen if Comp
    • APlNomafterCop selects A Pl Nom after copulas and Pl Nom OR Pl Pron
    • APlNomafterCop2 selects A Pl Nom after copulas and Pl Nom OR Pl Pron
    • APlNomafterDu selects A Pl Nom after copulas and Du
    • ASgNomNoSubj selects A Sg Nom after copulas Sg3 or Neg Sg3
    • ASgNomafterCop selects A Sg Nom after copulas and Sg Nom, not so strong constraint for the target
    • ASgNomEssCopNeg selects A Sg Nom after copulas Sg3 or Neg Sg3s,
    • dsfa
    • AcompGo Selects (A Comp Nom) even if there is no verb (ellipse)
    • Wr1775xc Selects (A Sg Nom) if you are (N Sg Loc), Der/NomAg or (NN A). Copulas is to the left. EOS or CLB is to the right
    • Wr1776xc selects (A Sg Nom)
    • Wr1777c
    • Wr1778xc
    • Wr1779xc
    • Wr1780c
    • Wr1781c
    • Wr1782
    • Wr1784
    • Wr1785
    • Wr1786xc
    • Wr1787c
    • Wr1788xc
    • Wr1789xc
    • Wr1791xc
    • Wr1796xc

    And now some rules for adverbs that modify adjectives

    • AdvModA2
    • AdvModA3
    • AdvModA4
    • NomAg
    • Nom
    • Nom
    • vfin

    ConNeg forms

    Number following the rule headers below refer to numbers of hit in a 13 053 859 word corpus.

    • ConNegImp selects ConNeg Imprt if Neg Imprt to the left. - 4265
    • PrfPrcConNeg to ConNeg Aux after PrfPrc
    • ConNegIfNeg selects Ind ConNeg if Neg Ind to the left. This is the main (and common) ConNeg rule. - 660327
    • ConNegPrfPrc selects ConNeg for leat when topicalised PrfPrc between Neg and leat - 713
    • NotConNegIfNotNeg removes ConNeg if no Neg to the left. Consider unifying with NotConNegNotNeg. - 1094269
    • NotConNegNotNeg removes remaining ConNegs whenever no Neg to the left. - 5862
    • VGen selects VGen after VGEN-V-TRIGGER-verb
    • VGen4
    • KillAllVGen removes all VGen (r1842)

    Supinum vs. potential -- no example found in large corpus

    Perfect Participle

    • r1844 removes PrfPrc if 0 is the second N in an N and ... N construction
    • r1844 removes PrfPrc if 0 is the second N in an N and Gen ... N construction (this is marginal)
    • r1852 selects PrfPrc if copula to the left
    • r1853 selects PrfPrc if Rel to the left which again is linked to copula

    Topicalized version

    the following chapter should be possible to unify.

    • r1855 selects PrfPrc if Nom to the left linked to copula
    • r1857 selects PrfPrc if Acc to the left linked to copula
    • r1858 selects PrfPrc if NP head to the left linked to copula
    • r1857 selects PrfPrc if copula to the left
    • r1861 selects PrfPrc if VFIN to the left
    • r3576 selects PrfPrc if Acc to the left linked to activity verb


    Present participle

    • orrut vs. orrot)

    Rules for "addit" (which is an adjective, but more often a verb)

    Actio Loc = N Loc

    • ActioLoc is an IFF rule, we also need rule for 'leat', like in lea go bieru oastimis

    Nouns or verbs

    The rules are no documented yet

    • VFINAttr
    • ActEssIfSensationv
    • NoActorIfSg3
    • GenIfPo

    Demonstrative pronouns, agreement in DP - should it be moved to after verbmappings?

    The rules are no documented yet

    • DemAttr
    • IndefAgree guhtege goappašat iešguhtege guhte
    • DemCASEPl
    • DemCASESg
    • DemAttrNum
    • DemAcc
    • DemAttr


    Lexical disambiguation of verbs

    Verbs as predicatives (@SPRED>) and (@<OPRED)

    The tags (@SPRED>) and (@<OPRED) target PrfPrc

    The rules are no documented yet

    Verbs as prenominal participles (@>N):

    • Some verbs will not be @>N
    • NPrfPrc1 with 1C N Nom
    • NPrfPrc2 with -1C Dem or Num or Attr or Indef
    • NPrfPrc3 with PrfPrc or ConNeg to the left, the N can be different cases
    • NPrfPrc4 mannat in front of TIME
    • NPrfPrcPr after Pr
    • NPrfPrcPo before Po
    • NPrfPrcGen after Gen
    • NPrfPrc6 the verb can be to the right
    • NPrfPrcCoor coordination

    (@+FAUXV) and (@+FMAINV) target Neg, orrut

    • +FAUXVNeg
    • +FMAINVorrut finite orrut
    • FAUXVorrut finite orrut
    • FAUXVorrut infinite orrut

    (@<SUBJ) target Inf

    • <SUBJInf2
    • r354
    • <SUBJInf3
    • <SUBJInf4
    • <SUBJInf6
    • SUBJ>Inf

    (@<SPRED) target Inf

    (@<ADVL) target Inf, Actio Ess

    @-F<OBJ target Inf

    (@A<) target Inf

    • AInf Inf

    (@N<) target Inf, Actio Ess

    • N<Infcoor

    (@<ADVL) target Inf, Actio Ess

    • ADVLActioEss Inf

    (@<OBJ) target Inf, Actio Ess, PrfPrc

    • OBJActioEss Inf
    • OBJPrfPrc PrfPrc

    (@+FMAINV) and (@+FAUXV) and (@-FAUXV)

    • +FMAINVcop COPULAS verbs
    • +FAUXVaux AUX verbs
    • +FAUXVboahtit boahtit as AUX
    • -FAUXVaux AUX verbs
    • +FMAINVcopInfconstr leat before Inf
    • +FAUXVCop copulas coming before the mainverb
    • +FAUXVCop copulas coming before the mainverb, relative clause inbetween
    • +FMAINVHabconstr in habitive constructions
    • +FMAINVCoopCoord coordination
    • +FAUXVleat
    • +FMAINVAux1
    • -FMAINVAux2
    • +FAUXVCop copulas coming after the mainverb
    • +FMAINVCop copulas

    The big general @+FMAINV rule

    • +FMAINV to the remaining finite verbs which are not AUX
    • +FMAINV to finite verb after mainverb

    (@-FMAINV) and (@-FAUXV)

    • -FAUXVConNegCop to ConNeg COPULAS
    • -FAUXVConNegAux to ConNeg AUX-OR-MAIN
    • -FAUXVConNegAux to ConNeg AUX
    • -FMAINVConNeg to ConNeg
    • -FMAINVConNeg to ConNeg
    • -FMAINVConNeg to ConNeg Aux after PrfPrc
    • -FAUXVPrfPrcAux to PrfPrc AUX before Inf or Actio Ess
    • -FMAINVPrfPrc to PrfPrc
    • -FMAINVPrfPrcEss to PrfPrc before Ess
    • -FMAINVPrfPrcleat to PrfPrc leat
    • -FMAINVPrfPrcafterAuxAux to PrfPrc after two Auxs
    • -FMAINVPrfPrccoord to PrfPrc coordination
    • -FMAINVPrfPrccoord to PrfPrc coordination
    • -FMAINVPrfbeforeAux to PrfPrc before the Aux
    • -FMAINVPrfafterMan to PrfPrc before the Aux
    • -FMAINVInf to Inf
    • -FMAUXVActioEss to Actio Ess
    • -FMAINVActioEss to Actio Ess
    • +FAUXV to Aux
    • NPrsPrc1 with 1C N Nom
    • ActioNom with 1C N Nom
    • <ADVLVAbessVAbess ADVL
    • <ADVLVGenVGen ADVL
    • ADVL>VGen VGen ADVL
    • <ADVLGerGerundium ADVL
    • ADVLGer>
    • -FMAINVLoc Actio Loc



    Num as subject, tricky cases - the rule should be here because of the verbdisambiguation



    Secure rules for choosing Acc

    • PGenN selects Gen when (Pron Pers) to the left and N to the right mu sámevuođa iđuid
    • CoGen1 (quite strict) selects the first of coordinated genitives riikkaid, čearuid ja boazoorohagaid ovttasbarggu

    Semantihkka:Choosing accusative or genitive semantically

    • vuoiAcc selects accusative if vuoi or vuoi surgat to the left
    • SEMnotPossessor Removes Gen if you are not a possible possessor (a human) # HAB-ACTOR
    • SEMnotHUM removes Gen. This is when an NP is thought to be the OBJ, because it's not in the human sets and to the right is NON-FAMILY njálgáid mánáide.
    • SEMXr2066 Removes Gen if there is a human or org to the right, exeption for čállingiela áhčči and so on
    • SEMXxr2071 Removes Gen: Nobody can possess a Proper name? Except from (Pron Pers) and Sem/Fem OR Sem/Mal
    • SEMXxPropOrg Removes Gen: Who can possess Prop Sem/Org?
    • SEMdep Select Gen if main-organization in front of department
    • SEMorghum select gen if organization or education in front of human
    • SEMXr2073 Remove Gen: Accusative in front of a human group loktema sámiid buorrin
    • SEMr2074 Selects Gen in front of HUMAN-GROUP
    • SEMactor Select Gen in front of ABSTRACT and RIEKTEDILLI unnitlogu oaidninčiegas
    • SEMXr2076 Selects Gen if you are HUMAN or Pron with an ABSTRACT to your right iežaset vuoigatvuođa
    • VocNom
    • SEMyouareNom Removes Gen and Acc when 0 FAMILY or PROFESSION because you are Nom. Not if -1 Num and VFIN is LEDE or IV Oahpai go Sire sámegiela
    • SEMyouareGen Removes Nom if movement verb to the left and illative to the right, because you are the modifier of Ill mannat Madame Tussaud kabinehttii
    • SEMnotNom Removes Nom if a Nom to the right followed by a transitive verb. 0 is animate and to the right is Ill. You are the modifier of Ill
    • GenModifiesN is a tentative rule to be modified
    • SEMXxr2081 Removes Gen if NATION or POLITICAL-PLACE are to your right dilálašvuođaid sámi
    • SEMXr2087 Selects Gen if you have "eennâm" or "guovu" immediately to your right Gomorra eatnamii
    • SEMplcGen2 Removes Gen in front of a GENERAL-PLACE or POLITICAL-PLACE, if you are a noun bidjen hildu sadjásis
    • SEMplcGen3 Removes Gen in front of GENERAL-PLACE or POLITICAL-PLACE, if you are ABSTR-TEXT or TEXT cealkámušaid guovlluid dearvvašvuođafitnodagaid jahkedieđáhusain
    • SEMXr2079 Removes Gen if you are Acc in front of MANNU guđii virggi skábmanánu 1. b.
    • SEMxhab Selects Acc if COPULAS to the left of HAB-ACTOR lea min
    • EMeallimamuorra Selects Gen eallima muorra
    • ACRGen Selects genitive: NRK Sápmi
    • ACRAttr Selects genitive: IL Nordlys
    • SEMXr2096 Removes genitive: because Accusative in front of an organization
    • SEMGenORG selects Gen (modifier): in front of an organization Stáhta Oahpahuskantuvra
    • SEMgen1 removes Acc if buot, gait or buohkat in front of a genitive, followed by a plural noun buot Norlándda ohppiid
    • SEMgen2 removes Acc if bargat or dihte are FMAINV or Inf and are found somewhere to the left of a Gen, which is followed by a noun bargame boazodoallolága ođastemiin
    • SEMXr2103 Selects accusative: OASSI is usually accusative hálddaša stuora oasi
    • SEMXxr2104 Selects accusative: if WRITING-ACTIVITY-V to the left and you are a TEXT čállá vaidaga
    • SEMXxacc Removes accusative: if WRITING-ACTIVITY-V to the left and a noun to the right čállit Norgga vásáhusaid
    • SEMXxr2108 Selects genitive if you are SAPMI with an Acc/Gen immediately to your left and a noun immediately to your right girji sámi áššiid (birra)
    • SEMsapmiModifier Selects genitive (modifier): Sámi, suoma or ruoŧa as modifier of noun sámi oahpahus
    • SEMtext (modifier) selects genitive (modifier) if you are a TEXT in front of KLASS doalloplána čuoggái
    • SEMgiella2 Gen if you are Pron followed by giella iežas giella

    Other genitive rules

    • topGEN Selects Gen if sentence intitial. To the right a Prf Prc that modifies nominative Stáhta nammadan láhtu
    • NomQst Selects Nom in a Qst-sentence. To the left is Nom and leat with a Qst-particle Leat go álbmotmeahcit veahkaváldi
    • lassinIll Selects Ill if first one to the left is lassin lassin Sarai

    Gen and preposition/postposition

    • GenAPP Selects genitive when a preposition to the left, or when a postposition to the right rastá riikarájiid
    • NomIfPo removes Nom if sentence initial, because it modifies Gen
    • GenPoCoordPunct Selects genitive for coordinated postpositions: with PUNKT to the left
    • GenPoCoord Selects genitive for coordinated postpositions ráŋggáštusa ja buhtadusa hárrái
    • GenGenPo (modifies pp-phrase) selects Gen in front of postposition-phrase álgojagiid soađi maŋŋá
    • GenORG (modifies Loc) selects Gen if you are MAIN-ORGANIZATION and to your right is Loc dearvvašvuođafitnodagaid jahkedieđáhusain
    • SEMnom (modifies Nom) removes Acc if sentence boundary or adv to the left. To the right is Nom followed by a transitive verb and Acc stálu beana njoallu háviid

    Genitive in place adverbials ROUTE

    • GenPlc Selects genitive if you are ROUTE, and there is a MOVEMENT-V to your left or right boahtiba dán geainnu

    Temporal adverbials:Choosing accusative or genitive TIME

    • GenMannuOrdRight selects Gen if you are mannu and to your right is A Ord miessemánu 10.
    • GenMannuOrdLeft selects Gen if you are mannu, to your left is Ord and to your right is a numeral
    • TIMEobs selects Gen if you are time, and to your right is an intransitive real-verb. No adverbials allowed to the right vuolggán bearjadaga
    • GenJuohke selects Gen if juohke or seamma to the left juohke dálvvi
    • GenJahkiNum selects Gen if you are jahki num with a numeral to your right Skuvlajagi 1998-99
    • AigiModifier (modifier) selects Gen if aigi to the right konferánssa áiggi
    • GenHávvi2 selects Gen for hávvi if a transitive verb cannot be found somewhere in the sentence
    • GenGeardi selects Gen if the beginning of the sentence to the left Eará háviid
    • GenRbeaivi (modifier) selects Gen if riegádanbeaivi to your right
    • GenDURadj1 selects Gen if a duration adverbial to the left
    • GenDURadj2 removes Gen for TIME-N, if duration adjective to the left olles dálvvi
    • NoTimeAccII removes Acc for time if POINT-IN-TIME verb to the left
    • timeADVL selects Gen for time: when perfectum participle or infinitive to the left are time adverbial verbs or not time object verbs, to the left of this there shall be an auxiliary lean čoavdán cealkagiid maŋimuš áiggi

    Accusative or Genitive

    • theAccusative selects Acc if you are a N or Pron with CC to your right, followed by Acc and a CLB or VFIN gápmagiid ja vuoddagiid, sii geavahedje
    • NotGenitive selects Acc if you are a N or Pron with punctuation marks to your right, followed by a noun-phrase boundary

    Reflexive pronouns:acc or gen

    • GenIES (modifier) selects (Pron Refl Gen) if NON-FAMILY OR ("piäládâh") OR SAMEDIGGI-GEN to the right iežaset mánáide
    • AccIES SELECTS accusative object (Pron Refl Acc)
    • AccIES (modifier) removes accusative object (Pron Refl Acc) if Ill or Loc to the right, but not if a transitive verb is found to the left
    • GenIESinf removes (Pron Refl Gen) if a transitive verb to the left and an Inf to the right

    Accusative object

    • AccActioEss Selects accusative: when a Strict transitive verb actio ess to the left, but not if there is an other Acc to the right followed by EOS
    • AccEss removes Acc when you are SAPMI-N-HEAD with an Ess to your right, but not if there is a transitive mainverb to the left dutkama duogážin
    • topOBJPers Removes Gen if you are Acc, and to you right is a Pron followed by a transitive verb. You have to be sentence initial
    • AccVAbess Selects Gen if to the right is abessive
    • topOBJ1 Selects accusative: when a Strict transitive verb to the right (topicalized object) beaskka geavahedje
    • topOBJ2 Selects Acc when a transitive finite mainverb to the right (less strict) dan juohkehaš fuobmá
    • topOBJ3 Selects Acc. It is not depending on a transitive verb like topOBJ1 and 2, but selects Acc when Aux to the left, but only if there is no chanse of it beeing a Nom
    • AccTV1 Selects accusative: when a Strict transitive verb to the left (barrier exludes everything but: adv, N Ess , N Loc and Pcle). No Acc allowed to the left of the verb. No Acc allowed to the right of you, except pronouns and education (sentenceboundary and N Ess as barriers). Only numunit numerals are allowed to the left. You are not Acc if you are: time, ruote or Pron Indef. Neither if you are Pron Refl with Gen to your right followed by N Ess. Neither if you are Pron Refl with Gen to your right followed by Po. N Nom and Ger not allowed immediatly to your right. You are not Acc if you are a Nom cased Prop and the verb is some kind of verbalactivityverb and ahte or sentenceboundary is to the right. Vdic not allowed immediately to your left. If váldit is the verb, you are likely to be a Gen if Ill-body noun is found to the right. oste mielkki gávppis
    • PronNP (removes Acc): selects Gen for Pron Pers if Acc or Ill to the right, given that there is a secure object or that no transitive verb is found bija ruđa mu kontoi
    • r2206 selects Gen when a finite verb to the left and Nom or Acc to the right lohkaba su girjji
    • r2271 Removes genitive when a transitive verb to the left and you (not if you are a pronoun) are followed by Ill/Loc/Com/Adv: doalvvui stálu meahccái
    • AccTV2 Selects accusative: when a transitive verb to the left. No Acc allowed to the left in the sentence (sentenceboundary as a barrier). No Acc allowed to the right (barriers are CC, comma and sentenceboundary). Note that Gen to the right followed by a noun is allowed. You shall not be: route, time, Pron Dem. You are not Acc if you are: Gen-cased Pron or Animate with Ill immediately to your right. No Acc, Com, N Nom or Gerundium allowed immediately to your right. No Gen followed by Po allowed immediately to your right. A SG3-verb is only allowed to your left (barriers excluding everything except NP-heads and adverbs, PrfPrc is also a barrier) if there is a Nom left to the SG3-verb. No vdic allowed immediately to your left. You are not Acc if: you are a Nom-cased Prop, followed by ahte or EOS and the verb found to the left (SV-boundary) is some kind of verbalactivityverb or a humanagentverb.
    • AccTV3 Selects accusative: when transitive verb to the left, if it doesn't find a barrier: comma, Num, real-v, Ess, s-boundary. Acc not allowed to the left of the verb. Not Acc if animate or Gen in front of Ill. Numerals the only Acc allowed to the right. Not Num, time route or adv. Not Com or Ger immediately to the right. Neither Po. Not Acc if sg3-verb to the left without a Nom to its left. Not Pron Dem followed by N, neither Pron Rel followed by time. No vdic immediately to your left. No Nom-cased Prop with some sort of verbal activity to its left is allowed..
    • OLDr2466 Selects accusative: when transitive verb to the left, but not if the TV is FAUX OR LOC-V
    • AccInf Selects Acc if the verb to the left is TV + Inf (you are the obj of the Inf). Differs from the other rules by not beeing restricted by an Acc to the right hállat eatnigiela
    • AccCOP Selects Acc if copulas to the left and nominative to the left of COP gápmagat leat áhči

    Gen modifiers inside NP

    • GenNP1 Selects Gen for Pron Pers (modifier): if NP-BOUNDARY OR Acc (but not if the finite verb is TV) to the left and N to right
    • GenNP2 Selects Gen for N (modifier): if CC "já" immediately to your left and accusative to your right ja sámi jurddašanvuogi
    • GenNP3 Selects Gen (modifier): if first one to right is Nom or Loc Norgga oaivegávpogis
    • GenNP4 (modifier) selects Gen -1 BOS or COMMA, 1 Nom nissoniid bargu
    • GenNPCo (modifier) Selects Pron Pers Gen if Nom to the left of ja Mun ja mu ustibat
    • GenRefl (modifier) selects Gen in front of a noun in accusative or nominative case iežaset oiviliid
    • AccAfterCC Select accusative: if genitiv to the left, and CC "já" to the left of genitive eamiálbmot- ja globaliserenprošeavtta koordináhtor

    Accusative in coordination

    • CoAcc1 Selects Acc when NP inbetween commas guolleoivviid, dáraid, debbuid, buđeittaid, boares rásiid
    • CoAcc2 Select Acc if coordinator to your left and accusative to the left of the coordinator deaja dahje sávtta
    • CoAcc3 Selects Acc in front of ja if there is a secure Acc to the right semináraid ja diehtojuohkinčoahkimiid
    • CoAccJA Selects Acc when "já" to the left and comma to the left of "já" with a secure Acc to the left of comma sámegiela, ja heajos dárogiela.
    • CoAccJA2 Selects Acc in front of Gen + Po if ja in front of Acc ja ruhtan sávzzaid ovddas

    Intransitive verbs can sometimes be transitive

    • IVasTV Selects Acc if you are GEOGRAPHICAL-PLACE, ABSTR-ROUTE or EDUCATION and somewhere in the sentence is a intransitive verb acting as a transitive verb sii vázzet skuvlla
    • IVsahttit Selects Acc
    • NewGen (complement of numerals) Selects Gen Sg when Num Sg to the left guhtta kilu
    • NewGenCo (coordinated complement of numerals) Selects Gen if Num Acc + NewGen found to the left of "já" máŋga dáhpáhusa ja digaštallama
    • ALU4 Selects Acc if you are Num and to your right Num Acc followed by MEASURE OR ALU/A guokte golbma mehtara alu
    • NumTimeMannel Selects Acc for Num before TIME MANNEL
    • GenBoaris Selects Gen in golbma jagi boaris
      • XXr2002 Selects genitive if there is a numeral immediately to your left, and you are TIME: golbma jagi


      • NumMoney Selects Gen if you are a numeral and immediately to your right is CURRENCY vihtta ruvnnu
      • NumAcc1 Selects Acc if you have a transitive verb to the left and you are a numeral followed by a noun oste guokte mielkki
      • NumJahki Removes Acc if you are a numeral and JAHKI-NUM is immediately to your left mávssii mannan jagi 43 ruvnnu
      • NomIfNum Removes Acc if Gen to the right (because you are Nom). Transitive verb with an Acc to the right máŋga gávpeolbmá lonuhedje fáhcaid
      • NumAcc2 Selects Acc for singular numerals if there is a transitive verb somewhere in the sentence and the numeral is followed by a noun logi báhkkoma OBS
      • GenIfNum (complement of numerals) Selects Gen Sg if there is a Num Sg to your left guđa geardde
      • NumAccCo (coordinated num) Selects Acc if you are Num Sg and to your right: CC with a Num to the right guokte ja eanemusat golbma
      • NumAccIV Selects Acc
      • NumAccPlRight Selects Acc when transitive verb to the left. You are Num Pl and to your right is Acc goarui viđaid gápmagiid
      • NumAccPlLeft Selects Acc when tranistive verb to the right (same as the previous. Only differs in which direction the verb is found). galliid sabehiid don ostet
      • NumAccPlLeft Selects Acc if you are N Acc Pl and to your left is Num Acc Pl galliid sabegiid
      • NumOkta Selects Acc if 0 okta followed by a noun. Transitive verb to the left oidnen ovtta nieidda
      • QUANgenCoord Selects Gen for coordinated complement of a numeral
      • QUANgen1 Selects Gen if a numeral with Nom-case to the left and 3Pl-verb to the right
      • QUANr2142 Selects Gen if a numeral to the left and genitive to the right. Transitive verb not allowed to the left.

      Leftover accusatives

      • COMPInfAcc Selects Acc if you are Gen and to the left is an Inf TV @COMP-CS<
      • AccInf2 Selects Acc if Inf immediately to the RIGHT guliid čoallut
      • AccNomCOPconstr Selects Acc in front of Inf; only if there is no chance for itself beeing Nom
      • AccTV4 Selects Acc if transitive mainverb to the left. Lots of restrictions to the right
      • AccPronRel Selects (Pron Rel Acc) when a secure Acc or Nom to the left gáibidedje internáhttaskuvlla man
      • AccPronRel2 Selects (Pron Rel Acc) when somewhere in the sentence is a Nom (barrier is sv-boundary), but only if leat isn't the main verb. geaid eamiálbmogat
      • AccPronRel3 Selects Acc if there is a (Pron Rel Nom) to the right. Obs: not hit nominatives, hence negations. eanu mii šealgá
      • AccActioLoc Selects Acc when transitive Actio Loc somewhere in the sentence guldeleames muitalusaid
      • AccAhte Selects Acc when ahte is found to the right
      • AccAux Selects Acc if beginning of sentence to the right and aux, not leat, is to the left. No Acc allowed to the left láđđi fertejetne oastit
      • HabGenAdvl Removes Acc; in a habitive adverbial construction with Gen, but only if there is no chans of 0 beeing Nom Dat lea áhči
      • AccIll Selects Acc if a strict transitive verb is found to the left and Ill to your right. You are not allowed to be a possible modifier of ill: Pron, Px. buktán heasttaid meahccái
      • Gerundium0 Selects Acc as the complement of Ger
      • Gerundium1 Removes Gen if no other object available for the preceding tv-verb
      • Gerundium2 Selects Acc in front of Ger, but not if it is not HAB-ACTOR/Pron Pers. No transitive verb allowed to the left, exept it it has an object of its own.
      • GerundiumTEST Selects Acc
      • GerundiumTEST selects Gen for HAB-ACTOR and Pron Pers in front of Ger, but only if there is an Acc belonging to a transitive to the left
      • NomIfProp Removes Acc and Gen when you Prop because you are Nom. To the left is a sg3-verb. Should not hit Prop that are Sem/Plc.
      • NomIfProp2 Removes Acc and Nom when you are Prop Sem/Plc because you are Gen. To the left is a sg3-verb. To the right is a noun.
      • NomSentFin Selects Nom if you are Acc or Gen and EOS is to yoru right. Copulas is found to the left

      Nominative and accusative

      • NAr2266 Selects Nom
      • NAAccEllipsis2 Selects Acc
      • NAr2288 Removes Nom


      • NDr2300 Selects Nom if Gen immediately to the left. You are N-SG-NOM and to your right is SG3-V Du ášši lea dehálaš
      • NDr2306 Selects Nom for (N Nom) if to the left is "ohtâ" or "nubbe" okta lihtter
      • NDr2308 Selects Nom for PROP

      Vocatives, subjects of sentence fragments

      • NDr2309 Selects Nom
      • NDr2310 Selects Nom
      • NDr2311 Selects Nom
      • NDr2313 Selects Nom
      • NDr2314 Selects Nom
      • NDr2315 Selects Nom

      Nominative in titles and sentence fragments

      • NDr2317 Selects Nom: A single word is nominative
      • NDr2318 Selects Nom: A single word with a numeral in front of it is nominative
      • NDr2319 Selects Nom: An NP head with a genitive modifier is nominative
      • NDr2320 Selects Nom: A title is nominative if it has a Nom reading at all
      • NDr2321 Selects Nom: An NP head with an Attr modifier is nominative
      • onlyProp Selects Nom

      Nominative after "ko", "mahte", "dugo" and "nugo"

      • NDr2325 Selects Nom
      • NDr2326 Selects Nom
      • NumNomgo Selects (Num Nom)

      Preverbal subjects

      • NDr2331 Selects (N Nom)
      • NDr2332 Selects (Num Nom)
      • NDr2333 Selects (Num Nom)
      • NDr2334 Selects Nom
      • NDr2335 Selects Nom
      • NDr2336 selects (N Sg Nom) when 1 SG3-V
      • NDr2338 Selects (N Sg Nom)
      • NDr2339 Selects (N Sg Nom)
      • NDr2341 Selects Nom
      • NDr2341 Selects Nom
      • NDr2343 Selects (Sg Nom)
      • NDr2345 Selects Nom
      • NDr2350 Selects Nom
      • NDr2351 Selects Nom
      • NDr2357 Selects (A Pl Nom)
      • NDr2359 Selects (A Pl Nom)

      Postverbal subjects

      • NDr2360 Selects Nom
      • NDr2361 Selects Nom
      • NDr2364 Selects (Sg Nom)
      • NDr2368 Selects (N Pl Nom)
      • NDr2370 Selects (Num Nom)
      • NDr2372 Selects (Pron Pl Nom)
      • NDr2373 Selects Nom
      • NDr2375 Selects Nom
      • NDr2376 Selects Nom
      • PostVNom Selects Nom if a singular third person verb to the left with no Nom to the left of it
      • PostVNomComp Selects (N Sg Nom)

      Nominative predicatives

      • NDr2378 Selects (Sg Nom)
      • ND selects Nom if; you are HUMAN and immediately to your right is a place. Leat is to the left, and there is HUMAN or Pers to the left of leat Son lei oahpaheaddji Kárášjogas
      • NDr2379 Selects (Sg Nom)
      • NDr2380 Selects (Pl Nom)
      • NDr2382 Selects (Pl Nom)
      • NDr2383 Selects Nom
      • NDr2384 Selects Nom
      • NDr2385 Selects Nom

      Nominative as objects in existential clauses

      • NDSgr2388 Selects Nom
      • NDPlr2388 Selects Nom
      • NDr2389 Selects Nom
      • NDr2390 Selects Nom
      • NDr2391 Selects Nom

      Nominative in coordination and apposition

      • NDr2399 Selects Nom
      • NDr2400 Selects Nom
      • NDr2401 Selects Nom
      • NDr2402 Selects Nom
      • NDr2403 Selects Nom
      • NDr3529 Selects Nom
      • NDr2406 Selects Nom
      • NDr2407 Selects Nom
      • NDr2408 Selects Nom
      • NDr2409 Selects Nom
      • NDr2411 Selects Nom
      • NDr2412 Selects Nom
      • NDr2413 Selects Nom
      • NomCCNom Selects Nom
      • NDr2416 Selects Nom
      • NDr2417 Selects Nom
      • NDr2418 Selects Nom

      Nominative in parallell constructions

      • NDr2422 Selects Nom
      • NDr2423 selects Nom if it finds a Nom to the left of CC and to the left of a verb. No verb allowed to the right eamit barggai vuođđoskuvllas ja isit fas gymnásas
      • nomHnoun Selects Nom
      • SOV Selects Nom in front of an Acc

      Not nominative

      • NDr2424 Removes Nom
      • NDr2425 Removes Nom
      • NDr2426 Removes Nom, but not Actio
      • ND Removes Nom

      Comitative rules

      Assuming there is Sg Com / Pl Gen homonymy in Inari Saami. There is, but far more marginal than for North Saami, the following rules should be revised to account for that.

      NP internal disambiguation of Com

      • PlSg-W removes Pl when SG-WORD
      • LocPlur removes Sg when PLURALIZER or OASSI OR HEADOFPARTS
      • NumCom selects Num Com: guvttiin nieiddain if not plural-noun like: guvttiin heajain
      • ComDemNum1 selects N Com if there is a Dem or Num or buorre + Com to the left: Exception for plural-nouns
      • Comburiin selects N Com if there is a safe N Com to the right: buriin vugiin
      • ComCOM-A selects Sg Com after COM-A
      • ComComAdv1 selects Com after COM-ADV or juohke

      Disambiguation based upon verb valency

      • LocLocVL1, LocLocVR select Pl Loc if there is a LOC-V
      • LLocAccLocVL select Pl Loc if there is a ACC-LOC-V
      • Loc-v select Sg Loc if LOC-V to the left in the clause. No mainverb to the right in the clause

      Disambiguation of Com depending on Adv or certain verb or N

      • ComComAdv1 selects Com for ACTOR OR ACTOR-ROLE after og before COM-ADV
      • ComComplPl-N selects Sg Com for HUMAN, ORGANIZATION, INSTITUTION, STATE, EVENT-TOOL-ACTIVITY, láhka when there is a COM-COMPL-N to the left or right
      • Comoktavuohta selects Sg Com when oktavuohta is to the left or right
      • ComDU-NR selects Sg Com after Pers dualis: moai áhčiin, munno vieljain
      • ComHumanOrg selects HUMAN Sg Com after HUMAN, ORGANIZATION, INSTITUTION

      Animate nouns

      • ComAnimate selecst Sg Com if there is an animate to the left, and the noun itself is not a ABSTR-TEXT, TEXT, PLACE, INDUSTRY, EDUCATION, INSTITUTION, ANIMATE
      • ComProp selecst Prop Sg Com for person names. Exception for habitive constructions.

      HAB-ACTOR in habitive-constructions

      • LocHab1, LocHab2 select Pl when HAB-ACTOR
      • LocHab1, LocHab2 select Pl when HAB-ACTOR

      Disambiguation based upon verb valency


      • ComVR, ComVL select Com when COM-V

      tools (concrete and abstract)

      • ComTool1, ComTool2, ComToolCoord select Com TOOL when ACTIVITY-V, MOVEMENT-V, PLACE-V-V
      • ComHumanVerbalV selects Com HUMAN when VERBAL-ACTIVITY-V or báhcit


      • LocdynamicVR, LocdynamicVL select Pl Loc if there is a DYNAMIC-V and the noun itself is not a TOOL, ABSTR-TOOL, WRITING-TOOL, CONCEPT, HUMAN, VEHICLE, buorre, Der/NomAc
      • LocdynamicVR selects Pl Loc
      • LocdynamicVL selects Pl Loc


      Most actio can be both tool and event.




      • ComboahtitR selects Sg Com
      • ComboahtitV– selects Sg Com for animate eller pron
      • ComMovemVL selects Sg Com over Pl Loc for a movement verb
      • ComMovemVR selects Sg Com over Pl Loc for a movement verb
      • ComDynV Dynamic-verbs selects Com when TOOL, ABSTR-TOOL, WRITING-TOOL, CONCEPT, EVENT-TOOL-ACTIVITY
      • Dynamic-verb selects Com when HUMAN, but not for HUMAN-SOURCE-VEHICLE-V
      • ComBody Body-activity-verb Selects Com when BODY, for BODY-ACTIVITY-V or VERBAL-ACTIVITY-V
      • LocCop selects Pl Loc if event
      • Coordination

      Locative and comitative - Disambiguation based upon coordination

      And then we remove the remaining Sg Com analysis

      • KillComSg This is the final Com/Loc rule, and it chooses Pl Loc. Remove this for grammar checker.
      • miiPlAcc selects acc noun if mii or kii to the left
      • AccTV1NoC was Eckhard's late version of AccTV1 without C. We will look at this.
      • AccEOS is The Dangerous Rule: it is the last rule before removing all leftover Acc. It only selects Acc if Nom is not an option, dont change this btw, and the end of the sentence is the next one to the right
      • genRel removes genitive if Rel to your right ožžot olbmot skoviid maid
      • genAcc selects Acc
      • genNom removes Acc
      • DemAcc selects Den Acc after the last acc-disambiguation of nouns
      • KillAcc Removes Acc if you are Gen


      Finite or not


      • r2906 Sg2 if Sg2

      Not Finite

      • r2824


      Indicative or imperative

      Verbs according to person and number

      Sg1 - First person singular

      Du1 - First person dual

      • Du1IfDu1 selects Du1 with a left context Du1 ... ja ...
      • NoDu1 removes Du1 if no MOAI or Du1 around.
      • Pl3IfPlSubj Pl3 if Pl noun to the left
      • Pl3IfPlSubj Pl3 if safe plural (incl pron) to the left
      • Sg2LeftDon selects Sg2 in Rel phrase if don to the left of it
      • allPrtSg2 removes PrtSg2 if PrsPl3



      Present Participle

      Actio/Perfect Participle


      Case rules

      Other rules for nouns and pronouns


      Adverbs and adjectives

      Adverbs not nouns


      Adverb or Participle

      Variant lemmas

      • Remove lemma2 if lemma 1
      • cleanSemClass cleans up if a word has more semclasses. This is just a start.

      And then we remove the verbs which didn't get any syntactic tag, in favour of verbs with syntactic tags.

      • realverbX
      • IfonlyVerb selects the FMAINV reading in the cohort
      • IfonlyConNeg ConNeg if it is @-FMAINV or @-FAUXV

      __killifVinCohort__This rule removes all other readings, if there is a mapped V reading in the same cohort. Every case which this goes wrong, should be fixed in mapping rules or previous disrules.

      • TEST selects some infinte verb readings in the cohort
      • X

      Removing Err/Orth

      Denne regelen fjerner Err/Orth når det er samme lemma, sjøl om morfologien er forskjellig.

      • errsub removes err/orth forms

      Substitute rules

      These 12 substitute rules add the <smn> language code to all words, to govern their behaviour in the subsequent cg files. The rules are removed when this file is ported to Apertium.