Definitions for Multichar_Symbols

Analysis symbols The morphological analyses of wordforms for the UDMURT language are presented in this system in terms of the following symbols. (It is highly suggested to follow existing standards when adding new tags).

  • +WORK The parts-of-speech are:
  • +N Noun
  • +A Adjective
  • +Adv Adverb
  • +Det Determiner
  • +V Verb
  • +Pron Pronoun
  • +CS Subordinating conjunction
  • +CC Coordinating conjunction
  • +Adp Adposition
  • +Po Postposition
  • +Pr Preposition
  • +Interj Interjection
  • +Pcle Particle
  • +Num Numeral

The parts of speech are further split up into:

  • +Prop Proper
  • +Pers Personal
  • +Dem Demonstrative
  • +Interr Interrogative
  • +Refl Reflexive
  • +Recipr Reciprocal
  • +Rel Relative
  • +Indef Indefinite

The Usage extents are marked using following tags:

  • +Err/Orth Not in norm
  • +Use/-Spell Not in speller

The nominals are inflected in the following Number

  • +Sg Singular
  • +Du Dual
  • +Pl Plural

The nominals are inflected in the following Case TODO: Document case names!

  • +Abs Absolute form 2019-06-03
  • +Nom Nominative
  • +Acc Accusative
  • +Gen Genitive
  • +Abl Ablative
  • +Dat Dative
  • +Ins Instrumental
  • +Abe Abessive
  • +Advl Adverbial
  • +Ine Inessive
  • +Ill Illative
  • +Ela Elative
  • +Egr Egressive
  • +Ter Terminative
  • +Prl Prolative
  • +Apr Approximative

The possession is marked as such:

  • +PxSg1
  • +PxSg2
  • +PxSg3
  • +PxPl1
  • +PxPl2
  • +PxPl3

The comparative forms are:

  • +Comp Comparative
  • +Superl Superlative

Numerals are classified under:

  • +Attr Attributive form (adnominal)
  • +Card Cardinal
  • +Ord Ordinal

Verb moods are: +Cond Conditional +Imprt Imperative +Ind Indicative +Opt Optional

Verb tenses are: +Fut Future +Prs Present +PrtI Preterite One +PrtII Preterite Two

Verb personal forms are:

  • +Sg1
  • +Sg2
  • +Sg3
  • +Du1
  • +Du2
  • +Du3
  • +Pl1
  • +Pl2
  • +Pl3

Other verb forms are: (TODO: Document the tags)

  • +Inf Infinitive
  • +Ger Gerund
  • +ConNeg Connegative (used with verb of negation)
  • +ConNegII Connegative (used with verb of negation) ?Does this apply to Udmurt?
  • +Neg Negation, (used to mark verb of negation)
  • +ImprtII Imperative II, ?Does this apply to Udmurt? +PrcPrsPos Participle present positive +PrcPrfAdn Participle perfect adnominal +PrcPrfPred Participle perfect predicative +PrcPrfNeg Participle perfect negative +GerPos мыныса Gerund positive +GerNeg мынытэк Gerund negative +GerTer мынытозь Gerund terminative +GerTemp мыныку Gerund temporal
  • +Sup Supine
  • +VGen Verbal genitive
  • +VAbess Verbal abesive
  • +Prc This is only for the dictionary at present 2019-06-04
  • +ABBR Abbreviation
  • +Symbol = independent symbols in the text stream, like £, €, ©
  • +ACR Acronym

Special symbols are classified with:

  • +CLB Clause boundary
  • +PUNCT Punctuation
  • +LEFT The left in paired punctuation, e.g. %‹+PUNCT+LEFT
  • +RIGHT The right in paired punctuation, e.g. %)+PUNCT+RIGHT

The verbs are syntactically split according to transitivity:

  • +TV Transitive
  • +IV Intransitive

Special multiword units are analysed with:

  • +Multi Multiword phrase tag Non-dictionary words can be recognised with:
  • +Guess machine guessed

Question and Focus particles:

  • +Qst Question
  • +Foc Focus
  • +Sem/Act Activity
  • +Sem/Amount Amount
  • +Sem/Ani Animate
  • +Sem/Aniprod Animal Product
  • +Sem/Body Bodypart
  • +Sem/Body-abstr siellu, vuoig?a, jierbmi
  • +Sem/Build Building
  • +Sem/Build-part Part of Bulding, like the closet
  • +Sem/Cat Category
  • +Sem/Clth Clothes
  • +Sem/Clth-jewl Jewelery
  • +Sem/Clth-part part of clothes, boallu, sávdnji...
  • +Sem/Ctain Container
  • +Sem/Ctain-abstr Abstract container like bank account
  • +Sem/Ctain-clth
  • +Sem/Curr Currency like dollár, Not Money
  • +Sem/Dance Dance
  • +Sem/Dir Direction like GPS-kursa
  • +Sem/Domain Domain like politics, reindeerherding (a system of actions)
  • +Sem/Drink Drink
  • +Sem/Dummytag Dummytag
  • +Sem/Edu Educational event
  • +Sem/Event Event
  • +Sem/Feat Feature, like Árvu
  • +Sem/Feat-phys Physiological feature, ivdni, fárda
  • +Sem/Feat-psych Psychological feauture
  • +Sem/Feat-measr Psychological feauture
  • +Sem/Fem Female name
  • +Sem/Food Food
  • +Sem/Food-med Medicine
  • +Sem/Furn Furniture
  • +Sem/Game Game
  • +Sem/Geom Geometrical object
  • +Sem/Group Animal or Human Group
  • +Sem/Hum Human
  • +Sem/Hum-abstr Human abstract
  • +Sem/Ideol Ideology
  • +Sem/Lang Language
  • +Sem/Mal Male name
  • +Sem/Mat Material for producing things
  • +Sem/Measr Measure
  • +Sem/Money Has to do with money, like wages, not Curr(ency)
  • +Sem/Obj Object
  • +Sem/Obj-clo Cloth
  • +Sem/Obj-cogn Cloth
  • +Sem/Obj-el (Electrical) machine or apparatus
  • +Sem/Obj-ling Object with something written on it
  • +Sem/Obj-rope flexible ropelike object
  • +Sem/Obj-surfc Surface object
  • +Sem/Org Organisation
  • +Sem/Part Feature, oassi, bealli
  • +Sem/Perc-cogn Cognative perception
  • +Sem/Perc-emo Emotional perception
  • +Sem/Perc-phys Physical perception
  • +Sem/Perc-psych Physical perception
  • +Sem/Plant Plant
  • +Sem/Plant-part Plant part
  • +Sem/Plc Place
  • +Sem/Plc-abstr Abstract place
  • +Sem/Plc-elevate Place
  • +Sem/Plc-line Place
  • +Sem/Plc-water Place
  • +Sem/Pos Position (as in social position job)
  • +Sem/Process Process
  • +Sem/Prod Product
  • +Sem/Prod-audio Audio product
  • +Sem/Prod-cogn Cognition product
  • +Sem/Prod-ling Linguistic product
  • +Sem/Prod-vis Visual product
  • +Sem/Rel Relation
  • +Sem/Route Name of a Route
  • +Sem/Rule Rule or convention
  • +Sem/Semcon Semantic concept
  • +Sem/Sign Sign (e.g. numbers, punctuation)
  • +Sem/Sport Sport
  • +Sem/State
  • +Sem/State-sick Illness
  • +Sem/Substnc Substance, like Air and Water
  • +Sem/Sur Surname
  • +Sem/Symbol Symbol
  • +Sem/Time Time
  • +Sem/Tool Prototypical tool for repairing things
  • +Sem/Tool-catch Tool used for catching (e.g. fish)
  • +Sem/Tool-clean Tool used for cleaning
  • +Sem/Tool-it Tool used in IT
  • +Sem/Tool-measr Tool used for measuring
  • +Sem/Tool-music Music instrument
  • +Sem/Tool-write Writing tool
  • +Sem/Txt Text (girji, lávlla...)
  • +Sem/Veh Vehicle
  • +Sem/Wpn Weapon
  • +Sem/Wthr The Weather or the state of ground

Semantics are classified with

Derivations are classified under the morphophonetic form of the suffix, the source and target part-of-speech.

  • +V→N
  • +V→V
  • +V→A +Der/ку мыныку ужаку +Der/ны мыныны ужаны +Der/Он мынон ужан +Der/Оно мыноно ужано +Der/тозь мынытозь ужатозь +Der/тэм мынӥсьтэм ужасьтэм +Der/Эм мынэм ужам +Der/Эмтэ мынэмтэ ужамтэ +Der/Этӥ ordinals

Dialectical variation

  • +Dial/North
  • +Dial/South

Morphophonology To represent phonologic variations in word forms we use the following symbols in the lexicon files:

%^@ This apparently causes : о +V+Ind+PrtII: %>еме%>%^@ +V+Ind+Fut: %>о%>%^@ +V+Ind+PrtI: %>и%>%^@

  • %^Ы2 morpheme initial disappears after vowel
  • %^Е2 morpheme initial disappears after vowel
  • %^И2 morpheme initial disappears after vowel
  • %^О2 morpheme initial disappears after vowel also ло after stem-final а
  • %^Е3 Acc, Ill е э ы
  • %^А3 Ine а, я
  • %^К3 нюлэс: нюлэсК3
  • %^М3 син: синМ3
  • %{еэ%} morpheme initial vowel е э , e.g. Acc

And following triggers to control variation

  • %^RusJa Эстония: Эстониез
  • %^SYNC
  • %^ЫLossVar This is used for мыныны: мыны ~ мын
  • %^ЫLoss This is used for мыныны: мын

Flag diacritics

We have manually optimised the structure of our lexicon using following flag diacritics to restrict morhpological combinatorics - only allow compounds with verbs if the verb is further derived into a noun again:

@P.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@D.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@C.NeedNoun@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised

For languages that allow compounding, the following flag diacritics are needed to control position-based compounding restrictions for nominals. Their use is handled automatically if combined with +CmpN/xxx tags. If not used, they will do no harm.

@P.CmpFrst.FALSE@ Require that words tagged as such only appear first
@D.CmpPref.TRUE@ Block such words from entering ENDLEX
@P.CmpPref.FALSE@ Block these words from making further compounds
@D.CmpLast.TRUE@ Block such words from entering R
@D.CmpNone.TRUE@ Combines with the next tag to prohibit compounding
@U.CmpNone.FALSE@ Combines with the prev tag to prohibit compounding
@P.CmpOnly.TRUE@ Sets a flag to indicate that the word has passed R
@D.CmpOnly.FALSE@ Disallow words coming directly from root.

Use the following flag diacritics to control downcasing of derived proper nouns (e.g. Finnish Pariisi -> pariisilainen). See e.g. North Sámi for how to use these flags. There exists a ready-made regex that will do the actual down-casing given the proper use of these flags.

@U.Cap.Obl@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.
@U.Cap.Opt@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.

The word forms in Udmurt language start from the lexeme roots of basic word classes, or optionally from prefixes:

  • ABBR_udm2x ; abbreviations
  • N_NEWWORDS ; These are new nouns without translations

ABBREVIATIONS these still need development 2015-11-03

AdjTag ; AdvTag ; AdjTag ; AdvTag ; DescrTag ; AdjTag ; AdvTag ; PcleTag ; AdjTag ; NumTag ; AdjTag ; NTag ; AdjTag ; NTag ; AdvTag ; AdjTag ; PrcTag ; NTag ; AdvTag ; AdjTag ; AdvTag ; AdjTag ; NTag ; AdvTag ; AdjTag ; PronTag ; AdvTag ; NTag ; AdvTag ; NTag ; PoTag ; AdvTag ; PoTag ; AdvTag ; PronTag ; AdvTag ; PronTag ; NumTag ; DescrTag ; AdjTag ; DescrTag ; AdvTag ; NTag ; DescrTag ; NTag ; DescrTag ; NTag ; AdjTag ; GerTag ; ConjTag ; GerTag ; PoTag ; AdjTag ; NumTag ; NTag ; AdjTag ; PcleTag ; NTag ; AdvTag ; NTag ; AdvTag ; DescrTag ; NTag ; DescrTag ; NTag ; NumTag ; NTag ; PrcTag ; PcleTag ; NTag ; PcleTag ; NTag ; PoTag ; NTag ; VTag ; NTag ; VTag ; PronTag ; PcleTag ; AdjTag ; AdvTag ; PoTag ; PcleTag ; PoTag ; AdvTag ; PronTag ; PronTag ; NumTag ; PronTag ; NumTag ; AdvTag ; PronTag ; PcleTag ;