root-morphology

Morphology

INTRODUCTION TO MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSER OF THE Moksha LANGUAGE.

The morphological analyses of wordforms of the Moksha language are presented in this system in terms of following symbols. (It is highly suggested to follow existing standards when adding new tags). +TYÄ Underdeveloped.

The parts-of-speech are:

+A
adjective
+Adv
adverb
+CS
subordinating conjunction
+CC
coordinating conjunction
+Interj
interjection
+N
noun
+Pcle
particle
+Po
postposition
+Pron
pronoun
+Qnt
Quantifier
+V
verb

The parts of speech are further split up into: Nouns:

+Prop
proper
+CollN
used with paired nouns collective nouns Pronouns:
+Dem
demonstrative
+Indef
indefinite
+Dep
dependent word requiring the presence of another, e.g. мень
+Exclusive
ськамонза
+Intensive
intensive pronoun
+Interr
interrogative
+PerifMod
periferal modifier ськамонза, кавонест
+Pers
personal
+Recipr
reciprocal
+Refl
reflexive
+Rel
relative personal pronouns use additional tags:
  +Sg1 +Sg2 +Sg3 +Pl1 +Pl2 +Pl3 

Adverbs:

+Adv-Ideoph
These are ideophonic descriptors used to modify the verb: вырк ливтясь" flit and it flew off"
+AdA
Ad-adjective
+Manner
with reference to type of adverb
+Spat
spatial
+Temp
temporal

Interjections:

+Formulaic
greetings, The Usage extents are marked using following tags:
+Err/Orth
substandard / outside the written norm
  • _+Use/Marg_ * Marginal
  • _+Use/-Spell_ * Exclude from speller
  • _+Use/SpellNoSugg_ * recognized but not suggested in speller
  • _+Use/Circ_ * Circular path
  • _+Use/CircN_ * Circular number path
  • _+Use/-Ped_ * Remove from pedagogical speller
  • _+Use/NG_ * Do not generate, for isme-ped.fst and apertium
  • _+SerialVerb _ * serial verbs, is this necessary
  • _+Err/Lex_ * The lemma is not a Moksha word The nominals are inflected in the following Case and Number
+Sg
singular
+Pl
plural
+SP
both singular and plural
+Abe
abessive
+Abl
ablative
+Acc
accusative Not really necessary
+Cau
causatative
+Com
comitative
+Cmpr
comparative -шка
+Com/Sh
comitative
+Dat
dative
+Ela
elative
+Gen
genitive
+Ill
illative
+Ine
inessive
+Lat
lative
+Loc
locative
+Nom
nominative
+Prl
prolative
+Tra
translative
+Voc
Vocative

The possession is marked as such:

+PxSg1
first person singular
+PxSg2
second person singular
+PxSg3
third person singular
+PxPl1
first person plural
+PxPl2
second person plural
+PxPl3
third person plural
+Def
Definite The comparative forms are:
+Comp
comparative as opposed to superlative
+Superl
superlative

Particles

+Epist
epistemic Quantifiers and Numerals are classified under:
+Num
numeral
+Appr
Approximative numeral кафта-колма, колмошка "two or three"
+AssocColl
-ne- ; avide-
+Coll
Collective
+Card
cardinal
+Distr
Distributive
  • _+Iter_ Iterative This will be replaced by +Mult
  • _+Mult_ Multiplicative form expressing number of times; myv: кавксть, kpv: кыкысь
+Ord
ordinal
+Attr
attribute, premodifier

Verb voice:

+Act
active
+Pss
passive Verb moods are:
+Cond
conditional ндяря-
+Conj
conjunctional "Оль"
+Des
desiderative ксоль "was about to; wanted to"
+Ind
indicative
+Imprt
imperative
+Opt
optative

Verb tenses are +Prs present and future ! nominal conjugation as well +Prt1 preterite I ! only finite verbal +Prt2 preterite II ! nominal conjugation as well

Verb personal forms are:

+ScSg1 subject conjugation first person singular +ScSg2 subject conjugation second person singular +ScSg3 subject conjugation third person singular +ScPl1 subject conjugation first person plural +ScPl2 subject conjugation second person plural +ScPl3 subject conjugation third person plural

+OcSg1 objject conjugation first person singular +OcSg2 objject conjugation second person singular +OcSg3 objject conjugation third person singular +OcPl1 objject conjugation first person plural +OcPl2 objject conjugation second person plural +OcPl3 objject conjugation third person plural

Other verb forms are +ConNeg connegative, main verb complement to Neg, vowel-stem +ConNegII connegative, main verb complement to Neg, cons-stem +Ger gerund This is used with Der/Озь and VAbl +Inf infinitive +Neg verb of negation эзь, аволь, иля +Aux auxiliary verb +Prc participle +VGen Verb Genitive, genitive form participle +VAbl Verb Ablative "озадо"

+ABBR Abbreviation

  • +Symbol = independent symbols in the text stream, like £, €, © +ACR Acronym

Special symbols are classified with: The verbs are syntactically split according to transitivity: +TV transitive verb +IV intransitive verb Special multiword units are analysed with: Non-dictionary words can be recognised with:

Question and Focus particles:

  • +Sem/Act Activity
  • +Sem/Amount Amount
  • +Sem/Ani Animate
  • +Sem/Aniprod Animal Product
  • +Sem/Body Bodypart
  • +Sem/Body-abstr siellu, vuoig?a, jierbmi
  • +Sem/Build Building
  • +Sem/Build-part Part of Bulding, like the closet
  • +Sem/Cat Category
  • +Sem/Clth Clothes
  • +Sem/Clth-jewl Jewelery
  • +Sem/Clth-part part of clothes, boallu, sávdnji...
  • +Sem/Ctain Container
  • +Sem/Ctain-abstr Abstract container like bank account
  • +Sem/Ctain-clth
  • +Sem/Curr Currency like dollár, Not Money
  • +Sem/Dance Dance
  • +Sem/Dir Direction like GPS-kursa
  • +Sem/Domain Domain like politics, reindeerherding (a system of actions)
  • +Sem/Drink Drink
  • +Sem/Dummytag Dummytag
  • +Sem/Edu Educational event
  • +Sem/Event Event
  • +Sem/Feat Feature, like Árvu
  • +Sem/Feat-phys Physiological feature, ivdni, fárda
  • +Sem/Feat-psych Psychological feauture
  • +Sem/Feat-measr Psychological feauture
  • +Sem/Fem Female name
  • +Sem/Food Food
  • +Sem/Food-med Medicine
  • +Sem/Furn Furniture
  • +Sem/Game Game
  • +Sem/Geom Geometrical object
  • +Sem/Group Animal or Human Group
  • +Sem/Hum Human
  • +Sem/Hum-abstr Human abstract
  • +Sem/Ideol Ideology
  • +Sem/Lang Language
  • +Sem/Mal Male name
  • +Sem/Mat Material for producing things
  • +Sem/Measr Measure
  • +Sem/Money Has to do with money, like wages, not Curr(ency)
  • +Sem/Obj Object
  • +Sem/Obj-clo Cloth
  • +Sem/Obj-cogn Cloth
  • +Sem/Obj-el (Electrical) machine or apparatus
  • +Sem/Obj-ling Object with something written on it
  • +Sem/Obj-rope flexible ropelike object
  • +Sem/Obj-surfc Surface object
  • +Sem/Org Organisation
  • +Sem/Part Feature, oassi, bealli
  • +Sem/Perc-cogn Cognative perception
  • +Sem/Perc-emo Emotional perception
  • +Sem/Perc-phys Physical perception
  • +Sem/Perc-psych Physical perception
  • +Sem/Plant Plant
  • +Sem/Plant-part Plant part
  • +Sem/Plc Place
  • +Sem/Plc-abstr Abstract place
  • +Sem/Plc-elevate Place
  • +Sem/Plc-line Place
  • +Sem/Plc-water Place
  • +Sem/Pos Position (as in social position job)
  • +Sem/Process Process
  • +Sem/Prod Product
  • +Sem/Prod-audio Audio product
  • +Sem/Prod-cogn Cognition product
  • +Sem/Prod-ling Linguistic product
  • +Sem/Prod-vis Visual product
  • +Sem/Rel Relation
  • +Sem/Route Name of a Route
  • +Sem/Rule Rule or convention
  • +Sem/Semcon Semantic concept
  • +Sem/Sign Sign (e.g. numbers, punctuation)
  • +Sem/Sport Sport
  • +Sem/State
  • +Sem/State-sick Illness
  • +Sem/Substnc Substance, like Air and Water
  • +Sem/Sur Surname
  • +Sem/Symbol Symbol
  • +Sem/Time Time
  • +Sem/Tool Prototypical tool for repairing things
  • +Sem/Tool-catch Tool used for catching (e.g. fish)
  • +Sem/Tool-clean Tool used for cleaning
  • +Sem/Tool-it Tool used in IT
  • +Sem/Tool-measr Tool used for measuring
  • +Sem/Tool-music Music instrument
  • +Sem/Tool-write Writing tool
  • +Sem/Txt Text (girji, lávlla...)
  • +Sem/Veh Vehicle
  • +Sem/Wpn Weapon
  • +Sem/Wthr The Weather or the state of ground

Semantics are classified with

  • +Sem/Kin Kin term

Derivations are classified under the morphophonetic form of the suffix, the source and target part-of-speech.

Der begin

  • +Der In front of every derivation to make it possible to target derivations as a class e.g. in regular expressions etc
  • +Der/Poss possessive noun ава » аванне

+Der/Dimin diminutive markers in ня and кя seem to be subject of complementary distribution

Morphophonology To represent phonologic variations in word forms we use the following symbols in the lexicon files: %{ИЫЙ%} phasing out Ы2, eg кундамс: кундай %{ЕОØ%} morphemes requiring a preceding vowel; also пинге %{ЕО%} сельме %{ЕØ%} кече %{АЯ%} А2 in кундамс: кундан %{ВИУ%} lative %{Х%} This usually precedes the plural marker %{КТ%} used in imperative and connegative %{ЬØ%} after imperative Sg2 %{DIM%} This will be for diminutive initial consonant

2016-03-12 %^А2О used with final а in пула

А2 А2: а А2: я %{вгк%} %{вгк%}:г %{вгк%}:в %{вгк%}:к %{гк%} clitic in

 %{гк%} %{АЕ%} 

К1 К1: к К1: т %{АЕØ%} ConNeg with ашень, тят, афоль %{АО%} пула stem %{АОØ%} офта stem %{АЕ%} prolative Х1 Х1: х Х1: 0 Ь2 Ь2: ь Ь2: 0 %{ъØ%} This will represent schwa in first syllable

in ped realized as hard sign

And following triggers to control variation

  • %^RmVow for removing vowels %^Ь2ZERO removes soft sign before vowel or other combination %^Ъ2PED brings out hard sign, which is otherwise automatically removed %^Е2О Change stem-final vowel сембе: сембось %^Е2А Change stem-final vowel мельге: мельганза %^Я2А Change stem-final vowel рьвя: рьванц %^А2Е Change stem-final vowel мокша: мокшесь %^Devoice for devoicing изь: исть %^PXSG1 кядне, ярмаконе не vs %{ЕОØ%}не

Flag diacritics

We have manually optimised the structure of our lexicon using following flag diacritics to restrict morhpological combinatorics - only allow compounds with verbs if the verb is further derived into a noun again:

@P.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@D.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@C.NeedNoun@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised

For languages that allow compounding, the following flag diacritics are needed to control position-based compounding restrictions for nominals. Their use is handled automatically if combined with +CmpN/xxx tags. If not used, they will do no harm.

@P.CmpFrst.FALSE@ Require that words tagged as such only appear first
@D.CmpPref.TRUE@ Block such words from entering ENDLEX
@P.CmpPref.FALSE@ Block these words from making further compounds
@D.CmpLast.TRUE@ Block such words from entering R
@D.CmpNone.TRUE@ Combines with the next tag to prohibit compounding
@U.CmpNone.FALSE@ Combines with the prev tag to prohibit compounding
@P.CmpOnly.TRUE@ Sets a flag to indicate that the word has passed R
@D.CmpOnly.FALSE@ Disallow words coming directly from root.

Use the following flag diacritics to control downcasing of derived proper nouns (e.g. Finnish Pariisi -> pariisilainen). See e.g. North Sámi for how to use these flags. There exists a ready-made regex that will do the actual down-casing given the proper use of these flags.

@U.Cap.Obl@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.
@U.Cap.Opt@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.

@D.CONJ-MX.IND@ 2012-11-04 should this be D or N

The word forms in Moksha language start from the lexeme roots of basic word classes, or optionally from prefixes:

These have been slightly modified from kpv and myv

  • LEXICON PO-PRL_ЁНГА ёнга: ёнга
  • LEXICON PO-PRL_МЕЛЬГЕ мельге: мельге