The tags and root lexica of the morphological fst of Livvi

Multichar symbols

The morphological analyses of wordforms of Livvi are presented in this system in terms of following symbols. (It is highly suggested to follow existing standards when adding new tags).

  • +TYÄ This alerts workers of work to be done

The parts-of-speech are:

  • +A adjective
  • +Adp adposition
  • +Adv adverb
  • +CS subordinating conjunction
  • +CC coordinating conjunction
  • +Interj interjection
  • +N noun
  • +Pcle particle
  • +Po postposition
  • +Pr preposition
  • +Pron pronoun
  • +Qnt quantifier
  • +V verb
  • +Num numeral
  • +AdA Ad-adjective
  • +Bahuv Bahuvrihi
  • +Conj
  • +Prop


  • +Dem demonstrative
  • +Indef indefinite
  • +Dep dependent word requiring the presence of another, e.g. мень
  • +Interr interrogative
  • +Pers personal
  • +Recipr reciprocal
  • +Refl reflexive
  • +Rel relative


The Usage extents are marked using following tags:

  • +Err/Orth
  • +Use/Marg marginal (?)
  • +Use/-Spell Excluded in speller
  • +Use/SpellNoSugg recognized but not suggested in speller
  • +Use/Circ circular paths (old ^C^)
  • +Use/CircN circular paths for the numerals (old ^N^)
  • +Use/NG not-generate, for ped generation isme-ped.fst

The nominals are inflected in the following Case and Number

  • +Sg singular
  • +Pl plural
  • +Abe abessive
  • +Abl ablative case
  • +Acc accusative
  • +Ade adessive case
  • +All Allatiivi
  • +Apr Approximative
  • +Com comitative
  • +Ela elative
  • +Ess essive
  • +Gen genitive case
  • +Ill illative
  • +Ine inessive
  • +Ins instrumental
  • +Loc Locative
  • +Nom nominative case
  • +Par partitive
  • +Prl prolative
  • +Ter Terminative
  • +Tra translative
  • +Pros
  • +Adc
  • +Egr
  • +Dat dative case

The possession is marked as such:

  • +PxSg1
  • +PxSg2
  • +PxSg3
  • +PxDu1
  • +PxDu2
  • +PxDu3
  • +PxPl1
  • +PxPl2
  • +PxPl3
  • +PxSP3

The comparative forms are:

  • +Pos
  • +Comp
  • +Superl

Numerals and Quantifiers are classified under:

  • +Iter Iterative form expressing number of times; myv: кавксть, kpv: кыкысь
  • +Attr
  • +Card
  • +Ord

Verb tenses are:

+Prs Present, non-past Tense

Verb moods are:

  • +Prs Indicative
  • +Prs Imperative
  • +Prs Conditional
  • +Prs Potential

Verb personal forms are: Other verb forms are +Inf : Infinitive +Act : active voice +Pss : passive voice +PrfPrc : past participle +PrsPrc : present participle +RcPrfPrc : reflexive past participle +Ger : Gerund

  • +Symbol = independent symbols in the text stream, like £, €, © Special symbols are classified with: The verbs are syntactically split according to transitivity: Special multiword units are analysed with: Non-dictionary words can be recognised with:

Question and Focus particles:

  • +Qst +Foc
  • +Clt/gi
  • +Clt/hAi
  • +Clt/bo
  • +Sem/Act Activity
  • +Sem/Amount Amount
  • +Sem/Ani Animate
  • +Sem/Aniprod Animal Product
  • +Sem/Body Bodypart
  • +Sem/Body-abstr siellu, vuoig?a, jierbmi
  • +Sem/Build Building
  • +Sem/Build-part Part of Bulding, like the closet
  • +Sem/Cat Category
  • +Sem/Clth Clothes
  • +Sem/Clth-jewl Jewelery
  • +Sem/Clth-part part of clothes, boallu, sávdnji...
  • +Sem/Ctain Container
  • +Sem/Ctain-abstr Abstract container like bank account
  • +Sem/Ctain-clth
  • +Sem/Curr Currency like dollár, Not Money
  • +Sem/Dance Dance
  • +Sem/Dir Direction like GPS-kursa
  • +Sem/Domain Domain like politics, reindeerherding (a system of actions)
  • +Sem/Drink Drink
  • +Sem/Dummytag Dummytag
  • +Sem/Edu Educational event
  • +Sem/Event Event
  • +Sem/Feat Feature, like Árvu
  • +Sem/Feat-phys Physiological feature, ivdni, fárda
  • +Sem/Feat-psych Psychological feauture
  • +Sem/Feat-measr Psychological feauture
  • +Sem/Fem Female name
  • +Sem/Food Food
  • +Sem/Food-med Medicine
  • +Sem/Furn Furniture
  • +Sem/Game Game
  • +Sem/Geom Geometrical object
  • +Sem/Group Animal or Human Group
  • +Sem/Hum Human
  • +Sem/Hum-abstr Human abstract
  • +Sem/Ideol Ideology
  • +Sem/Lang Language
  • +Sem/Mal Male name
  • +Sem/Mat Material for producing things
  • +Sem/Measr Measure
  • +Sem/Money Has to do with money, like wages, not Curr(ency)
  • +Sem/Obj Object
  • +Sem/Obj-clo Cloth
  • +Sem/Obj-cogn Cloth
  • +Sem/Obj-el (Electrical) machine or apparatus
  • +Sem/Obj-ling Object with something written on it
  • +Sem/Obj-rope flexible ropelike object
  • +Sem/Obj-surfc Surface object
  • +Sem/Org Organisation
  • +Sem/Part Feature, oassi, bealli
  • +Sem/Perc-cogn Cognative perception
  • +Sem/Perc-emo Emotional perception
  • +Sem/Perc-phys Physical perception
  • +Sem/Perc-psych Physical perception
  • +Sem/Plant Plant
  • +Sem/Plant-part Plant part
  • +Sem/Plc Place
  • +Sem/Plc-abstr Abstract place
  • +Sem/Plc-elevate Place
  • +Sem/Plc-line Place
  • +Sem/Plc-water Place
  • +Sem/Pos Position (as in social position job)
  • +Sem/Process Process
  • +Sem/Prod Product
  • +Sem/Prod-audio Audio product
  • +Sem/Prod-cogn Cognition product
  • +Sem/Prod-ling Linguistic product
  • +Sem/Prod-vis Visual product
  • +Sem/Rel Relation
  • +Sem/Route Name of a Route
  • +Sem/Rule Rule or convention
  • +Sem/Semcon Semantic concept
  • +Sem/Sign Sign (e.g. numbers, punctuation)
  • +Sem/Sport Sport
  • +Sem/State
  • +Sem/State-sick Illness
  • +Sem/Substnc Substance, like Air and Water
  • +Sem/Sur Surname
  • +Sem/Symbol Symbol
  • +Sem/Time Time
  • +Sem/Tool Prototypical tool for repairing things
  • +Sem/Tool-catch Tool used for catching (e.g. fish)
  • +Sem/Tool-clean Tool used for cleaning
  • +Sem/Tool-it Tool used in IT
  • +Sem/Tool-measr Tool used for measuring
  • +Sem/Tool-music Music instrument
  • +Sem/Tool-write Writing tool
  • +Sem/Txt Text (girji, lávlla...)
  • +Sem/Veh Vehicle
  • +Sem/Wpn Weapon
  • +Sem/Wthr The Weather or the state of ground

Semantics are classified with

Derivations are classified under the morphophonetic form of the suffix, the source and target part-of-speech.

  • +V→N
  • +V→V
  • +V→A
  • +Der/xxx
  • +Der/Rc used in verbs for deriving reflexive conjugation
  • +Der/Ta
  • +Der/Te
  • +Der/mA
  • +Der/mine
  • +Der/Tu
  • +Der/IA
  • +Der/mbi comparative
  • +Der/Us A>>N derivation
  • +Der/A Adjective derivation


To represent phonologic variations in word forms we use the following symbols in the lexicon files:

%{aoeInf%} Back vowel infinitive marker %{äöeInf%} Front vowel infinitive marker

  • %{aäPar%} no diphthongs
  • %{aäDiph%} This is for diphthongs such as the infinitive marker after i and u stems
  • %{aäoeöuiy%} with partitive type
  • %{aäoeö%} newer This is for diphthongs such as the infinitive marker after i and u stems
  • %{aäuyiØ%} in participle endings anticipating PÄIVY or KOIRU type
  • %{aä%}
  • %{oö%}
  • %{oöØ%} Used in present participle
  • %{uy%} %{ui%} in imperative before %{aä%}:
  • A2 used with verb types V_AVATA
  • %{ijPRC%} participle
  • %{lnrs%} e.g. in perfect participles
  • %{dtlnr%} e.g. infinitive and Ind+Prs+Pl3

And following triggers to control variation

  • %{front%}
  • %{back%}
  • %>
  • %^VOICE pestä: pezen %^Pen pagisou paistah in with WGStem to trigger pen coda
  • %^WGStem weak grade
  • %^E1 causes a: e in kandua : kannettu
  • %^SyllBound syllable boundary
  • %^D2Z Triggers ti=>zi
  • %^A2O before plural "i"
  • %^A2U +Nom+Sg
  • %^A2UÄ2Y with single vowels %^E2O the e => o, e => ö +Ind+Prs+ScSg3 %^Ä2I ä => i %^A2UÄ2I a => u, ä => i in consecutive vowels %^V2U v => y kävvä käydy
  • %^NONE no regular change
  • %^KS2S "aluksen" is "alus" in the nominative singular
  • %^ILoss the i => 0 reboi reboloi _ %^RmVow _ vowel removal, e.g. with superlative
  • QAQ1
  • QAO1
  • EH1
  • QEQ1
  • INE1
  • ZD1
  • ZS1
  • V1
  • AO1
  • EI1
  • ZS1
  • ZD1

These are for developing underlying morphology rules

  • D1
  • E1
  • N1

Flag diacritics

We have manually optimised the structure of our lexicon using following flag diacritics to restrict morhpological combinatorics - only allow compounds with verbs if the verb is further derived into a noun again:

@P.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@D.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@C.NeedNoun@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised

For languages that allow compounding, the following flag diacritics are needed to control position-based compounding restrictions for nominals. Their use is handled automatically if combined with +CmpN/xxx tags. If not used, they will do no harm.

@P.CmpFrst.FALSE@ Require that words tagged as such only appear first
@D.CmpPref.TRUE@ Block such words from entering ENDLEX
@P.CmpPref.FALSE@ Block these words from making further compounds
@D.CmpLast.TRUE@ Block such words from entering R
@D.CmpNone.TRUE@ Combines with the next tag to prohibit compounding
@U.CmpNone.FALSE@ Combines with the prev tag to prohibit compounding
@P.CmpOnly.TRUE@ Sets a flag to indicate that the word has passed R
@D.CmpOnly.FALSE@ Disallow words coming directly from root.

Use the following flag diacritics to control downcasing of derived proper nouns (e.g. Finnish Pariisi -> pariisilainen). See e.g. North Sámi for how to use these flags. There exists a ready-made regex that will do the actual down-casing given the proper use of these flags.

@U.Cap.Obl@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.
@U.Cap.Opt@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.

Flags used to identify parts of speech


cardinal vs ordinal



  • @U.DECL-NX.SG@
  • @U.DECL-NX.SP@
  • @U.DECL-NX.PL@
  • @R.DECL-NX.SG@
  • @R.DECL-NX.SP@
  • @R.DECL-NX.PL@



  • @C.DECL-NX@
  • @C.DECL-CX@
  • @C.NUM-TYPE@

Lexicon Root

  • adjectives ;
  • adpositions ;
  • adverbs ;
  • conjunctors ;
  • determiners ;
  • interjections ;
  • nouns ;
  • pronouns ;
  • propernouns ;
  • propernouns-toponyms ;
  • quantifiers ;
  • verbs ;
  • rus-Cyrl-2-Lat-ProperNouns ; Derived from urj-Cyrl
  • Exceptions ;

NEWWORDS FILES A_NEWWORDS ; adjectives ADV_NEWWORDS ; adverbs N_NEWWORDS ; nouns PROP_NEWWORDS ; proper nouns V_NEWWORDS ; verbs