Free and Open source Russia Buriat analyser giella-bxr

Divvun and Giellatekno teams, community members
Software version
Documentation license
SVN Revision
$Revision:68217 $
SVN Date
$Date:2013-01-16 11:31:33 +0200 (Wed, 16 Jan 2013) $


This is free and open source Russia Buriat morphology.

Buryaad morphological analyser !


Definitions for Multichar_Symbols

  • +N Noun
  • +V Verb
  • +A Adjective
  • +Adv Adverb
  • +Pcle Particles (Probably adverbs, look into this)
  • +CC Conjunction
  • +CS Subjunction
  • +Interj Interjection
  • +Pron Pronoun
  • +Prop Propernoun
  • +Num Numaral
  • +Det Determiner (Demonstrative?)
  • +Po Postposition
  • +Symbol = independent symbols in the text stream, like £, €, ©
  • +Prs Present
  • +Fut Future
  • +Prt Preterite
  • +Prf Perfect
  • +Ind Indicative
  • +Imp Imperative
  • +Cond Conditional
  • +Opt Optative
  • +Vol Voluntative
  • +Dur Durative
  • +Term Terminative
  • +Conf Conf
  • +Sg1 first person singular
  • +Sg2 second person singular
  • +Sg3 third person singular
  • +Pl1 first person plural
  • +Pl2 second person plural
  • +Pl3 third person plural
  • +Inf Infinitive
  • +Pos Positive
  • +Neg Negative
  • +TV Transitive
  • +IV Intransitive
  • +Sg Singular
  • +Pl Plural
  • +Nom Nominative
  • +Acc Accusative
  • +Gen Genitive
  • +Abl Ablative
  • +Dat Dative
  • +Ins Instrumental
  • +Com Comitative
  • +Ord Ordinal
  • +Presc Prescriptive mood
  • +AgPrc
  • +AgConstPrc
  • +DualPrc
  • +FutPrc
  • +HabPrc
  • +ImpfPrc
  • +PassPrc
  • +PrfPrc
  • +PotPrc
  • +PrsPrc
  • +ResPrc
  • +ConMod
  • +ConImpf
  • +ConPrf
  • +ConCond
  • +ConConc
  • +ConTerm
  • +ConCntmp
  • +ConAbtmp
  • +ConFin
  • +ConIntnt
  • +ConSucc
  • +ConCmp
  • +PxSg1 first person singular possessive
  • +PxSg2 second person singular possessive
  • +PxSg3 third person singular possessive
  • +PxPl1 first person plural possessive
  • +PxPl2 second person plural possessive
  • +PxPl3 third person plural possessive
  • +Px3 third person plural possessive
  • %{A%} letter class
  • %{D%} letter class
  • %{G%} letter class
  • %{I%} letter class
  • %{J%} letter class
  • %{U%} letter class
  • %{V%} letter class
  • %{Ө%} letter class
  • %{Y%} kept after Cns, deleted after Vow
  • а2 я2 м2 these are а and я in Russian loanwords that do not weaken to ых
  • %^END we do the mhr trick to harmonise twolc and lexc

Usage tags

  • +Use/NG Do not generate

Symbols that need to be escaped on the lower side (towards twolc):

Literal »
Literal «
  %[%>%]  - Literal >
  %[%<%]  - Literal <

Flag diacritics

We have manually optimised the structure of our lexicon using following flag diacritics to restrict morhpological combinatorics - only allow compounds with verbs if the verb is further derived into a noun again:

@P.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@D.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@C.NeedNoun@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised

For languages that allow compounding, the following flag diacritics are needed to control position-based compounding restrictions for nominals. Their use is handled automatically if combined with +CmpN/xxx tags. If not used, they will do no harm.

@P.CmpFrst.FALSE@ Require that words tagged as such only appear first
@D.CmpPref.TRUE@ Block such words from entering ENDLEX
@P.CmpPref.FALSE@ Block these words from making further compounds
@D.CmpLast.TRUE@ Block such words from entering R
@D.CmpNone.TRUE@ Combines with the next tag to prohibit compounding
@U.CmpNone.FALSE@ Combines with the prev tag to prohibit compounding
@P.CmpOnly.TRUE@ Sets a flag to indicate that the word has passed R
@D.CmpOnly.FALSE@ Disallow words coming directly from root.

Use the following flag diacritics to control downcasing of derived proper nouns (e.g. Finnish Pariisi -> pariisilainen). See e.g. North Sámi for how to use these flags. There exists a ready-made regex that will do the actual down-casing given the proper use of these flags.

@U.Cap.Obl@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.
@U.Cap.Opt@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.

Key lexicon

LEXICON Root is where it all starts, with these lexica:

  • Noun ;
  • urj-Cyrl-ProperNouns ;
  • bxr-Propernouns ;
  • Verb ;
  • Adjective ;
  • Adverb ;
  • Subjunction ;
  • Interjection ;
  • Pronoun ;
  • Propernoun ;
  • Postposition ;
  • Particles ; , these should rather be adverbs
  • Punctuation ;
  • Symbols ;
  • Conjunction ;
  • Numeral ;
  • Abbreviation ;

Buryaad morphophonology

This file expresses Buryaad morphophonological alternation, from abstract underlying forms.


This is a list of all symbols in use.

  • А Б В Г Д Е Ё Ж З И Й К Л М Н О Ө П Р С Т У Ү Ф Х Һ Ц Ч Ш Щ Ь Ы Ъ Э Ю Я = Capital letters
  • а б в г д е ё ж з и й к л м н о ө п р с т у ү ф х һ ц ч ш щ ь ы ъ э ю я = Small letters
  • %{A%}:а %{A%}:о %{A%}:э = archivowel A
  • %{A%}:я %{A%}:ё %{A%}:е = archivowel A
  • %{U%}:у %{U%}:ү = archivowel U
  • %{Ө%}:а %{Ө%}:о %{Ө%}:э %{Ө%}:ө = archivowel Ө
  • %{I%}:и %{I%}:ы %{I%}:0 = archivowel I
  • %{Y%}:и %{Y%}:0 = archivowel Y, kept after Cns, deleted after Vow
  • %{D%}:т %{D%}:д = arciconsonant D
  • %> = suffix border
  • а2: а я2: я = invariant а/я in loanwords
  • м2: м = м to be deleted for PxSg1
  • %^END: 0 = auxiliary end symbol to fix xerox bug


Some of the symbols are bundled together in sets

  • RealVow = А Е Ё И О Ө У Ү Ы Э Ю Я а е ё и о ө у ү ы э ю я ;
  • ArchiVow = а2 %{A%} %{U%} %{Ө%} %{I%} %{Y%} ;
  • RealCns = Б В Г Д Ж З Й К Л М Н П Р С Т Ф Х Һ Ц Ч Ш Щ Ь Ъ б в г д ж з й к л м н п р с т ф х һ ц ч ш щ ь ъ ;
  • ArchiCns = %{D%} ;
  • Vow = RealVow ArchiVow ;
  • Cns = RealCns ArchiCns ;
  • Sgm = Vow Cns ;


Here come all the rules (marked with RULE: ), and test cases.

Vowel harmony

Vowel harmony for short vowels

  • RULE: Vowel harmony A:а gives a after stems with a or juu
  • басаган>г{A}й
  • басаган>0ай
  • бари>х{A}л{A}{A}р
  • бари>халаар
  • RULE: Vowel harmony A:я gives я after stems with a or juu
  • хара>х{A}й{A}{A}
  • хара>ха0яа
  • бари>х{A}й{A}{A}
  • бари>ха0яа
  • RULE: Vowel harmony A:o gives o after stems with o or jo
  • самолёт>{D}{A}^END
  • самолёд>то0
  • RULE: Vowel harmony A:э gives e after e etc
  • басаган>г{A}й
  • басаган>0ай
  • бэелэ>х{A}^END
  • бэел0>хэ0
  • автоматизировалэ>х{A}
  • автоматизировал0>хэ
  • RULE: Vowel harmony A:ё gives ё after stems with o or jo
  • самолёт>{D}{A}^END
  • самолёд>то0
  • RULE: Vowel harmony A:е gives е after e etc and preceeding
  • RULE: Vowel harmony й:0 deletes й in front of A
  • RULE: Vowel harmony U:у gives a after stems with a or juu
  • RULE: Vowel harmony U:ү gives e after e etc

Vowel harmony for long vowels

  • RULE: Vowel harmony ӨӨ:аa gives aa after a
  • анг>һ{Ө}{Ө}^END
  • анг>һаа0
  • аха>һ{Ө}{Ө}^END
  • аха>һаа0
  • RULE: Vowel harmony ӨӨ:оо gives oo after o
  • RULE: Vowel harmony ӨӨ:ээ gives ee after e
  • RULE: Vowel harmony ӨӨ:өө gives ø after ø

Realisation of I as ы and и

  • RULE: {I}{I} to ы in Gen/Acc and Poss 1gives y for the first I
  • RULE: {I}{I} to ы in Gen/Acc and Poss 2deletes the second I
  • Байгал>{I}{I}нь^END
  • Байгал>ы0нь0
  • аба>{I}{I}нь^END
  • аба>00нь0
  • аба>{I}{I}е^END
  • аб0>ы0е0
  • RULE: {I}{I} to ии in Gen/Acc and Posschanges both I to i
  • морин>{I}{I}нь^END
  • морин>иинь0

Other vowel rules

Vowel deletion rules

  • RULE: Final stem vowel deletion before ые and ын
  • аха>{A}{A}р^END
  • ах0>аар0
  • RULE: Deletion of и in word-final иие and Deletion SHV and Vowel harmony и:0
  • бари>{A}{A}
  • бар0>яа
  • һургуули>{I}{I}н^END
  • һургуул0>иин0
  • RULE: Deletion of ы in -ые for aj and VV stems
  • RULE: Deletion of Y in predicative particle -b for vowel stem
  • би>б{Y}^END
  • би>б00

Vowel change rules

  • RULE: Y to i in predicative particle -bi for consonant stem
  • тэдэнэр>б{Y}^END
  • тэдэнэр>би0

Consonant rules

Consonant change rules

  • RULE: D to t suffix initially for VC stems
  • сэсэг>{D}{A}^END
  • сэсэг>тэ0
  • RULE: D to d after n i l
  • RULE: Final consonant ptd voicing to bdg in loanwords
  • самолёт>{A}й^END
  • самолёд>ой0

Consonant deletion rules

  • RULE: Deletion of possessive м2 for consonant stems
  • RULE: Deletion of n before m in possessive and before gAAr
  • һанаан>{I}{I}е^END
  • һанаа0>ы0е0
  • RULE: Deletion of g in word-final ng and before gaj and haa
  • анг>{D}{A}^END
  • ан0>да0
  • анг>һ{Ө}{Ө}^END
  • анг>һаа0
  • ури>н{A}>б
  • ури>на>б
  • амила>х{A}^END
  • амил0>ха0
  • боли>х{A}^END
  • боли>хо0
  • дохи>х{A}^END
  • дохи>хо0
  • зори>х{A}^END
  • зори>хо0
  • орхи>х{A}^END
  • орхи>хо0
  • долгил>х{A}^END
  • долгил>хо0
  • хушажархи>х{A}^END
  • хушажархи>ха0
  • орило>х{A}^END
  • орил0>хо0
  • доһоло>х{A}^END
  • доһол0>хо0
  • гэршэлэ>х{A}^END
  • гэршэл0>хэ0
  • һуу>х{A}й{A}{A}
  • һуу>ха0яа
  • т е (Eng. с т р а б о т а е т)
  • в т (Eng. е с т е о ш и б к а)

Buryaad clitics

This file contains the clitic lexicon K, pointing (via clitics) to ENDLEX

  • LEXICON K , in principle containing clitics, but no one so far, and pointing to ENDLEX
  • LEXICON ENDLEX is the lexicon adding ^END, for technical reasons.

Buryaad noun stems

  • LEXICON Noun the lexicon itself

There are some names here, they should eventually be moved to bxr-propernouns.lexc

Buryaad noun affixes

We have two lexica, n1 and n2, n1 with -нар plural and V-initial Gen, Ins, and n2 with -ууд plural and г-initial Gen, Ins

The noun classes

  • LEXICON nx unclassified nouns, to n2 for now
  • LEXICON n1 with Gen -IIN, and -нар- suffix for oblique cases
  • LEXICON n2 with Gen -GAj and -ууд suffič for oblique cases

The class-specific case morphology (Gen, Ins)

  • LEXICON case1 Gen, Ins for n1 nouns, and pointing to common cases
  • LEXICON case2 Gen, Ins for n2 nouns, and pointing to common cases
  • LEXICON case3 case3 are numerals, for now pointing to case2

The morphology common to the different stem classes

  • LEXICON commoncase common treatment of Nom, Dat, Acc, Abl, Com for all nouns
  • LEXICON Poss for Px, common for all nouns

Buryaad adjectives

here there are some 500 adjectives from the Apertium source files.

Buryaad postpositions

This file contains 40 postpositions

LEXICON pp = These are the indeclieable ones , tag +Po

LEXICON Postposition = The lexicon

  • болон pp "until" ;
  • болотор pp "until" ;
  • гадна pp "besides" ; ...

Buryaad adverbs

Here follows a lost of some 20 adverbs.

Buryaad conjunctions

This file is still empty.

Buryaad interjections

This file is still empty.

Buryaad pronouns

This file contains pronouns.

So far, the following pronouns are covered:

LEXICON Pronoun * @CODE*

Personal ; ** @CODE*

Buryaad proper nouns

This file is still empty.

It will eventually contain Buryaad-specific names. General Russian and international names will be taken from the urj-Cyrl file.

Punctuation for Buryaad

Clause boundary symbols

  • %,+CLB: %, # ;
  • %.+CLB: %. # ;
  • %.%.+CLB: %.%. # ;

Single punctuation marks

  • •+PUNCT: • # ;
  • ●+PUNCT: ● # ;
  • ·+PUNCT: · # ;

Paired punctuation marks

  • «+PUNCT+LEFT: « # ;
  • »+PUNCT+RIGHT: » # ;

Buryaad subjunctions

This file is still empty.

Buryaad verbs

This file is almost empty, it contains ca 40 verbs of 3 types, v1, v2, v3:

  • LEXICON Verb

Verbs marked aux may perhaps be changed to v1, ...

It is unclear whether the distinction is morphologically relevant.

Also, some of the aux-es may have wrong baseform.

    Here come the new verbs

    Buryaad proper noun morphology

    This file add +N+Prop and points to the noun case morphology

    Buryaad verb affixes

    This is the file for Buryaad verb morphology. The documentation shortly explains the rationale behind each continuation lexicon.

    The verb classes

    Auxiliary verbs

    No auxiliary verbs for now.

    Ordinary verbs

    v1 the default verb category, v2 stem in long vowel or ditphtong, v3 stem in и The difference comes for the non-indicative forms, thus all verb types point to the same finite_indicative.

    • LEXICON v1t the transitive v1 verbs (add +TV and go on)
    • LEXICON v1i the intransitive v1 verbs (add +IV and go on)
    • LEXICON v1 the v1 verbs not yet classified for transitivity
    • LEXICON v2t the transitive v2 verbs (add +TV and go on)
    • LEXICON v2i the intransitive v2 verbs (add +IV and go on)
    • LEXICON v2 stem in long vowel or diphthong
    • LEXICON v3t the transitive v3 verbs (add +TV and go on)
    • LEXICON v3i the intransitive v3 verbs (add +IV and go on)
    • LEXICON v3 stem in и

    Verb morphology

    We see the contlexes as two layers: The first layer to divide the different stem types into different suffix lexica, and the one for these suffixes.

    Layer one:Dividing v1, v2, v3 into suffix lexica

    • LEXICON v1lex the common v1 morphology
    • LEXICON v2lex the common v2 morphology

    Layer two:The suffix lexica themselves.

    • LEXICON persprd for suffixes: б, ш, ...
    • LEXICON persprd2 for suffixes: би, ши, ...
    • LEXICON imperative for imperative suffixes (Sg2, Pl2)
    • LEXICON voluntative for suffixes: яа, 0, ...
    • LEXICON optative for suffixes: -һууб, ...
    • LEXICON presc for suffixes: -арайгтыт, ...
    • LEXICON participles giving 11 different participle tags: +FutPrc, +ImpPrc, ...
    • LEXICON ptc either stop or go to persprd suff
    • LEXICON ptc2 either stop or go to persprd2 suff
    • LEXICON converbs listing 12 converb suffixes: -н, -жа, ...