crk

Free and Open source Plains Cree analyser giella-crk

Authors
Divvun and Giellatekno teams, community members
Software version
2012
Documentation license
GNU GFDL
SVN Revision
$Revision:68217 $
SVN Date
$Date:2013-01-16 11:31:33 +0200 (Wed, 16 Jan 2013) $

giella-crk

This is free and open source Plains Cree morphology.

Plains Cree morphological analyser

INTRODUCTION TO MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSER OF Plains Cree LANGUAGE.

Definitions for Multichar_Symbols

Analysis symbols

The morphological analyses of wordforms of Plains Cree are presented in this system in terms of the following symbols. (It is highly suggested to follow existing standards when adding new tags).

POS

  • +N = Noun
  • +V = Verb
  • +Ipc = Indeclinable Particle
  • +Prop
  • +Adv
  • +CC
  • +CS
  • +Interj
  • +Pron
  • +Num
  • +Arab
  • +Rom
  • +PUNCT = punctuation symbols
  • +LEFT = the left part of a paired punctuation symbol
  • +RIGHT = the right part of a paired punctuation symbol
  • +CLB = clause boundary symbols
  • +Symbol = independent symbols in the text stream, like £, €, ©

Nominal morphology

  • +Loc Locative
  • +Obv Obviative
  • +Dim Diminutive

Particles

  • +Def This is the intransitive demonstrative, i.e. the definite.
  • +Indef Indefinite
  • +Dem Demonstrative
  • +Prox Demonstrative Proximate
  • +Med Demonstrative Medial
  • +Dist Demonstrative Distal TODO: Is this ever used? What for?
  • +Interr Interrogative (who/whose/what/what kind)
  • +Foc Focus particle

Verbal MSP

  • +Prs
  • +Fut
  • +Prt
  • +Prf
  • +Cnj
  • +Int Future Intentional
  • +Def Future Definite (TODO: okay to overlap with particle tag of the same name?)
  • +Ind Indicative, aka Independent
  • +Imp Imperative, consider deleting +Imp tag
  • +Del Delayed imperative
  • +Imm Immediate imperative, consider deleting +Imp tag
  • +Sbj Subjunctive, aka Conjunct mode, ê-
  • +Cond TODO: Should Future Conditional be tagget Fut only? Conor: we will split the Future tags
  • +1Sg first singular
  • +2Sg etc
  • +2Sg/Pl Used in the syncretic 2sg/pl -> 1pl in the VTA paradigms
  • +3Sg
  • +1Pl 1Pl is exclusive plural (I, them, not you)
  • +2Pl
  • +3Pl
  • +12Pl 12Pl is inclusive plural (I, you, ...)
  • +4Sg Fourth Person inanimate singlar (used only in the VII paradigms)
  • +4Pl Fourth Person inanimate plural (used only in the VII paradigms)
  • +4Sg/Pl
  • +5Sg/Pl
  • +1SgO objective conjugation
  • +2SgO
  • +2Sg/PlO Used in the syncretic 2sg/pl -> 1pl in the VTA paradigms
  • +3SgO
  • +SgO
  • +1PlO
  • +2PlO
  • +12PlO
  • +3PlO
  • +PlO
  • +4Sg/PlO ambiguous 4th person (both Singular and Plural)
  • +5Sg/PlO ambiguous 5th person (both Singular and Plural)
  • +X Unspecified actor forms Okimāsis p. 118

Nominal MSP

  • +Sg singular
  • +Pl plural
  • +Px1Sg person prefixes for nouns
  • +Px2Sg
  • +Px3Sg
  • +Px4Sg
  • +Px1Pl obviative
  • +Px12Pl inclusive
  • +Px2Pl
  • +Px3Pl
  • +Px4Pl
  • +Der/Dim diminutive derivation
  • RdplW+ Reduplication Type 1 (Weak)
  • RdplS+ Reduplication Type 2 (Strong)
  • +Der/Com Comitative circumfix (wîci-...-m)
  • +Der/X VTI x-actor to VII-1

Verb conjugation (transitivity + animacy classes)

  • +AI intransitive with animate subject,
  • +II intransitive with inanimate subject,
  • +TA transitive with animate object, and
  • +TI transitive with inanimate object.

Noun animacy and dependency classes

  • +A animate noun
  • +I inanimate noun
  • +D dependent noun
  • +Incl me too, etc.
  • +Qst yes-no question particle; cî
  • +Neg negation; na môy a.

Preverbs

Auxiliary symbols

These symbols either shape or govern the morphophonological structure

  • %> suffix border
  • %< prefix border
  • +WAK tag to keep track of -wak plurals ! REMOVE

Symbols that need to be escaped on the lower side (towards twolc):

»7
Literal »
«7
Literal «
  %[%>%]  - Literal >
  %[%<%]  - Literal <
  • %^LOC Locative ! REMOVE
  • w2 mowêw: mow2
  • t2 Epenthetic -t- between person prefixes and vowel-initial stems
  • t3 t to s in VTA-4
  • t4 t: c in VTI-1 with unspecified actor
  • y2 epenthetic joiner in reduplication of vowel-initial stems
  • y3 epenthetic joiner in reduplication of vowel-initial stems
  • i2 vta-5i epenthesis.
  • h2 Prefix in possessives

Triggers for various morphophonological phenomena Mostly, these are not realized themselves as any grapheme/phoneme

  • %^EGLOT glottal stop after e, for eh- in conjunctive order
  • %^EA ê to â in 1, 2 person of ê-stems ! REMOVE
  • %^TS t3 to s in VTA-4 verbs before some i-init suf ! REMOVE
  • %^NII n to h or 0 in VII verbs when before k-init suf ! REMOVE
  • %^WI w to 0 in vta-2 verbs when before i-init suf ! REMOVE
  • %^IO VTACw w + i becom o ! REMOVE
  • %^MI Wici epenthesis ! REMOVE

Usage tags

These tags distinguish different special-purpose analysers and generators from each other. Thus, for examples, we have normative and descriptive analysers, and generators for different purposes.

  • +Err/Orth tag for substandard forms
  • +Use/NG not-generate, for ped generation isme-ped.fst

Flagdiacritics

These are documented in Chapter 8 of Beesley/Karttunen, p. 456 zB.

For indicative, there are prefixes, so here we need one flag for each person-number combination. Note that for the inverse objective conjugation, the flag refers to the prefix, not to the subject. So indsg1 refers to either subject = 1Sg or object = 1Sg. The 3-3 forms are prefixless.

The conjunct form always has the ê- prefix, and future conditional never has a prefix.

  • @U.verb.FutCon@ Future Conditional
  • @U.order.cnj@ Conjunct
  • @U.verb.fut@ Future Conditional

Prefixes with a certain phonological content:

  • @U.perspref.NULL@ ! REMOVE
  • @U.perspref.NI@ ! REMOVE
  • @U.perspref.KI@ ! REMOVE
  • @U.person.NULL@
  • @U.person.NI@
  • @U.person.KI@
  • @U.verb.1sgindep@ ! REMOVE
  • @U.verb.2sgindep@ ! REMOVE
  • @U.verb.3osgindep@ ! REMOVE
  • @U.verb.1plindep@ ! REMOVE
  • @U.verb.12plindep@ ! REMOVE
  • @U.verb.2plindep@ ! REMOVE
  • @U.verb.3plindep@ ! REMOVE
  • @U.noun.1sg@ ! REMOVE
  • @U.noun.2sg@ ! REMOVE
  • @U.noun.3sg@ ! REMOVE
  • @U.noun.4sg@ ! REMOVE
  • @U.noun.1pl@ ! REMOVE
  • @U.noun.12pl@ ! REMOVE
  • @U.noun.2pl@ ! REMOVE
  • @U.noun.3pl@ ! REMOVE
  • @U.noun.4pl@ ! REMOVE
  • @U.noun.abs@ ! REMOVE
  • @U.noun.dep@ ! REMOVE

New multichar symbols for nouns

End of new and all Multichar_Symbols

LEXICON Root is where it all starts

  • NOUN_PREFIXES ;
  • NOUN_IRREGULARS ;
  • VerbPrefixes ;
  • Pronoun ;
  • Propernouns ;
  • Particles ;
  • Numerals ;
  • Abbreviation ;
  • Punctuation ;
  • Symbols ;
  • y2: 0 epenthetic joiner in reduplication of vowel-initial stems
  • y3: 0 epenthetic joiner in reduplication of vowel-initial stems
  • d1: 0 Reduplication consonant place holder
  • d2: 0 Reduplication consonant place holder
  • %^EGLOT: 0 Epenthetic -h- place holder
  • w3: w 3rd person possessor for NDA and NDI (non-kinship)
  • y4: y immutable -y in single-syllable nouns
  • i4: i possessive prefix -i that deletes before Vowel in Dep nouns
  • mêskanaw>i2s
  • mêskanâ000s
  • mêskanaw>i2hk
  • mêskanâ000hk
  • sôniyâw>i2s^DIM
  • sôniyâ000s0
  • miskotâkay>i2s^DIM
  • miskocâkâ000s0
  • nâpêw>i2^DIMsis
  • nâpê0000sis
  • iskwêw>i2^DIMsis
  • iskwê0000sis
  • maskosiy>i2^DIMs
  • maskosî0000s
  • pikiw>i2^DIMs
  • pikî0000s
  • maskosiy>i2hk
  • maskosî000hk
  • sîwâpoy>i2^DIMs
  • sîwâpô0000s
  • tohtôsâpoy>i2hk
  • tohtôsâpô000hk
  • wâwi>i2^DIMs
  • wâwi000s
  • ôsi>i2hk
  • ôsi00hk
  • atimw>i2^DIMs
  • acimo000s
  • mistikw>i2hk
  • mistiko00hk
  • sâkahikan>i2^DIMs
  • sâkahikan0i0s
  • maskisin>i2hk
  • maskisin0ihk
  • atimw
  • atim0
  • askihkw
  • askihk0
  • atimw
  • atim0
  • nit2<nînihikw
  • ni00nînihik
  • a>tân
  • ê0tân
  • nit2<astotin>i2^DIMs
  • nic0ascocin0i0s
  • ê^EGLOT<acimo>t
  • êh0acimo0t
  • ê^EGLOT<d1ay2<acimo>t
  • êh00ay0acimo0t
  • ê^EGLOT<d2ay3d1âh<acimo>t
  • êh00ay0âh0acimo0t
  • nit2<nêhiyawê>n2
  • ni00nêhiyawâ0n
  • kit2<kâsîhkwê>n2
  • ki00kâsîhkwâ0n
  • nit2<tipiska>n2
  • ni00tipiskê0n
  • kit2<kiskêyihta>n2
  • ki00kiskêyihtê0n
  • ê-<nîpin3>k
  • ê-0nîpih0k
  • ê-<mispon>k
  • ê-0mispo00k
  • wapâht4>ikâtê>w
  • wapâhc0ikâtê0w
  • ê-<mow2>i2ht
  • ê-0mow0iht
  • ê-<ayaw2>i2koyâhk
  • ê-0ayaw0ikoyâhk
  • kit2<kîskisw>in
  • ki00kîskiso00n
  • nit2<kîskisw>i2mâwa
  • ni00kîskiso00mâwa
  • ê-<kîskisw>i2tân
  • ê-0kîskiso00tân
  • ê-<kîskisw>it
  • ê-0kîskiso00t
  • ê-<kîskisw>i2sk
  • ê-0kîskiso00sk
  • ê-<kîskisw>i2koyâhk
  • ê-0kîskiso00koyâhk
  • nit2<kîskisw>i2kawin
  • ni00kîskiso00kawin
  • kîskisw>in
  • kîskiso00n
  • kîskisw>ii2hkan
  • kîskisô00hkan
  • kit2<nitonaw>in
  • ki00nitonaw0in
  • nit2<nitonaw>i2mâwa
  • ni00nitonâ000mâwa
  • ê-<nitonaw>i2tân
  • ê-0nitonâ000tân
  • ê-<nitonaw>it
  • ê-0nitonaw0it
  • ê-<nitonaw>i2sk
  • ê-0nitonâ000sk
  • ê-<nitonaw>i2koyâhk
  • ê-0nitonâ000koyâhk
  • nit2<nitonaw>i2kawin
  • ni00nitonâ000kawin
  • nitonaw>in
  • nitonaw0in
  • nitonaw>îhkan
  • nitonaw0îhkan
  • kit2<nakat3>in
  • ki00nakas0in
  • nit2<nakat3>i2mâwa
  • ni00nakat0imâwa
  • ê-<nakat3>i2tân
  • ê-0nakat0itân
  • ê-<nakat3>it
  • ê-0nakas0it
  • ê-<nakat3>i2sk
  • ê-0nakat0isk
  • ê-<nakat3>i2koyâhk
  • ê-0nakat0ikoyâhk
  • nit2<nakat3>i2kawin
  • ni00nakat0ikawin
  • nakat3>in
  • nakas0in
  • nakat3>ii2hkan
  • nakas0îhkan
  • kit2<kost3>in
  • ki00ko0s0in
  • nit2<kost3>i2mâwa
  • ni00kost0imâwa
  • ê-<kost3>i2tân
  • ê-0kost0itân
  • ê-<kost3>it
  • ê-0ko0s0it
  • ê-<kost3>i2sk
  • ê-0kost0isk
  • ê-<kost3>i2koyâhk
  • ê-0kost0ikoyâhk
  • nit2<kost3>i2kawin
  • ni00kost0ikawin
  • kost3>in
  • ko0s0in
  • kost3>ii2hkan
  • ko0s0îhkan
  • mi4<îwat3>i2^DIMs
  • m00îwac0i0s

ReduplCRule1

ReduplCRule2

ReduplY2Rule

ReduplY3Rule

  • d1ay2-<nipâw
  • na0-0nipâw
  • d1âh-<nipâw
  • nâh-0nipâw
  • d2ay3-d1âh-<nipâw
  • na0-nâh-0nipâw
  • d2ay3-d1âh-<ayâw
  • 0ay-0âh-0ayâw
  • d1âh-<ayâw
  • 0âh-0ayâw
  • d1ay2-<ayâw
  • 0ay-0ayâw

INITIAL CHANGE

  • nipât^IC
  • nêpât0
  • miyo-nipât^IC
  • mêyo-nipât0
  • itwêt^IC
  • êtwêt0
  • apit^IC
  • êpit0
  • wayawit^IC
  • wêyawit0
  • îkatêhtêt^IC
  • âkatêhtêt0
  • nîmit^IC
  • nâmit0
  • 0ohcît^IC
  • wêhcît0
  • m0ostohtêt^IC
  • mwêstohtêt0
  • 0oyôyot^IC
  • wêyôyot0
  • k0ocît^IC
  • kwêcît0
  • îkatêhât^IC
  • âkatêhât0
  • 00îkatêhât^IC
  • iyîkatêhât0
  • 00êskêt^IC
  • iyêskêt0
  • 00âcimot^IC
  • iyâcimot0
  • 00ôhkomit^IC
  • iyôhkomit0
  • w3<spiton
  • o0spiton
  • ni<spiton
  • ni0spiton
  • ki<spiton
  • ki0spiton
  • w3<îpit
  • w0îpit
  • w3<ahkwan
  • w0ahkwan
  • ni4<ohkom
  • n00ôhkom
  • ni4<ohkom>i2nân>ak
  • n00ôhkom0inân0ak
  • ki4<ohkom
  • k00ôhkom
  • w3<ohkom>a
  • 00ohkom0a
  • nit2<ospwâkan
  • nit0ôspwâkan
  • kit2<ospwâkan
  • kit0ôspwâkan
  • ot2<ospwâkan
  • ot0ôspwâkan

Plains Cree noun stems

Wolvengrey types:

  • NI1 C-Initial Regular NI Stem : cîmân “canoe, boat”
  • NI1 V-Initial Regular NI Stem : astotin “hat, cap”
  • NI2 C-Initial VW NI Stem : mîkisasâkay “beaded coat, beaded dress”
  • NI2 V-Initial VW NI Stem : oskasâkay “new coat, new dress”
  • NI3 C-Initial Cw NI Stem : pahkêkinw: pahkêkinw “leather, rawhide”
  • NI3 V-Initial Cw NI Stem : askêkin: askêkinw “fresh rawhide”
  • NI4 C-Initial Single-Syllable NI Stem : wâw– “egg”
  • NI4 V-Initial Single-Syllable NI Stem : osk-ây– “new item, new thing”
  • NI4 V-Initial Single-Syllable irregular NI Stem : ôs– “canoe, boat”
  • NI4w C-Initial Single-Syllable-/w/ NI Stem : mihkw– “blood”
  • NA1 C-Initial Regular NA Stem : pahkwêsikan “bannock”
  • NA1 V-Initial Regular NA Stem : asikan “sock”
  • NA2 C-Initial V-Glide NA Stem : kihc-ôkiniy “tomato”
  • NA2 V-Initial V-Glide NA Stem : ayapiy “net”
  • NA3 C-Initial C-/w/ NA Stem : masinahikanâhtik: masinahikanâhtikw– “pencil”
  • NA3 V-Initial C-/w/ NA Stem : askihkw– “kettle, pail”
  • NA4 C-Initial Single-Syllable NA Stem : niska “goose” (and siht– “spruce”)
  • NA4 V-Initial Single-Syllable NA Stem : esa “clam; shell”
  • NA4w C-Initial Single-Syllable-/w/ NA Stem : wâhkwa: wâhkw “roe, fish eggs; lump of roe”
  • NA4w V-Initial Single-Syllable-/w/ NA Stem : ihkwa: ihkw “louse”

The stems

Animate and inanimate Nouns

STEMS adds an affixmark and redirects to STEMLIST

STEMLIST for nouns getting prefixes ni-, ki-, o-

DEP-KINTERMSSTEMS adds an affixmark and redirects to KINTERMLIST

DEP-KINTERMLIST for dependent nouns getting prefixes n-, k-, o-

-tânis: itânis AN_KININFL "daughter" ; !¢nicânis yaml -kosis: ikosis AN_KININFL "son" ; !¢nikosis

IN dependent nouns, which have no m-form(?) in Wolvengrey

DEP-M-INIT-STEMS adds an affixmark and redirects to DEP-M-LIST

DEP-M-LIST for dependent nouns getting prefixes n-, k-, o-, pluss generic form m-
maniway: aniway IN_DEP_INIT_M_SG "cheek" ; !yaml mîpit: îpit IN_DEP_INIT_M "tooth" ; !yaml

Plains Cree verb stems

The verbs are analysed as follows:

  • The verbs get prefixes in this file, marked with flag diacritics (the @ symbols)
  • Then come the stems themselves
  • Finally, and in another file, come the suffixes, including flag diacritics to ensure that the correct prefixes and suffixes are matched together

The Plains Cree verbs are divided in four groups, but all of them are in the same verblexicon:

  1. AI: Animate intransitive
  2. II: Inanimate intransitive
  3. TA: Transitive animate
  4. TI: Transitive inanimate

LEXICON VERBSTEMS here come all the verbstems

Plains Cree noun morphology

Prefixes

NounPrefixes redirects to AN-IN, BODY, INALIENABLE

AN-IN adds the prefixes ni-, ki-, o-. Redirects to STEMS

DEP-M-INIT adds the prefixes n-, k-, o- (which alternate to w- in twolc), and generic form m- . Redirects to DEP-M-INIT.

DEP-KINTERMS adds the prefixes n-, k-, o- (which alternate to w- in twolc) Redirects to DEP-KINTERMSSTEMS

Now, lexc directs us to the ../stems/nouns.lexc file, where we find all the nominal stems. The suffixes are then found at the end of this file.

Suffixes

The declensions for Animates

  • LEXICON AN_DECL_0POSS for the animate declension, Dim: -isis and -is
  • LEXICON AN_DECL_PL for the animate declension, Dim: -isis and -is
  • LEXICON AN_DECLis for the animate declension, Dim: -is diminutives
  • LEXICON AN_DECLisis for the animate declension, Dim: -isis diminutives
  • LEXICON AN_DECL for the animate declension, poss.-im-, Dim: -is
  • LEXICON ANimDECLisis for the animate declension, poss.-im-, Dim: -isis
  • LEXICON ANimDECLis for the animate declension, poss.-im-, Dim: -is
  • LEXICON ANimDECLw for the animate declension, stem -w, poss.-im-, Dim: -is
  • LEXICON AN_DIM both for lexicalised and derivated diminutives
  • LEXICON ANimDECLnaahk for the animate declension, poss.-im-, Dim: -is, , with collectiv loc
  • LEXICON ANABSDECLnaahk for the animate absolute declension, with collectiv loc
  • LEXICON ANimDECLnaahk-NOPOSS for the animate declension, poss.-im-, Dim: -is, , with collectiv loc
  • LEXICON ANABSDECL for the animate absolute declension
  • LEXICON ANABSDECL_PL for the animate absolute declension
  • LEXICON AN_KININFL_MONOG Lexicon with reduces possessive paradigm: only one wife/husband
  • LEXICON AN_DECL-ATIM for atim and mistatim.
  • LEXICON ANPOSS-ATIM is also there to handle the highly irregular atim and mistatim
  • LEXICON ANVOC
  • LEXICON AN_KININFL
  • LEXICON AN_KININFL_PL
  • LEXICON AN_DIMPOSS Possessive suffixes to diminutives
  • LEXICON AN_KINiyINFL Special treatment for kinship nouns ending with -iy - should be done in twolc?
  • LEXICON AN_DEP_INIT_M for the inanimate possessive declension
  • LEXICON ANABLGENERIC generic forms Sg, Pl, Loc and diminutives

The declinations for Inanimates

  • LEXICON INimDECLw_ONESYLL_SG for the inanimate declension, stem -w, poss.-im-, dim. -is, only Sg
  • LEXICON INimDECL for the inanimate declension, poss.-im-, dim. -is
  • LEXICON INimDECLisis for the inanimate declension, poss.-im-, dim. -isis
  • LEXICON IN_DECL for the inanimate declension, Dim: -is- and -isis-
  • LEXICON IN_DECL_PL for the inanimate declension, plural Dim: -is- and -isis-
  • LEXICON IN_DECLis for the inanimate declension, Dim: -is-
  • LEXICON IN_DECLisis for the inanimate declension, Dim: -isis-
  • LEXICON IN_DECL_OSI for the inanimate declension of ôsi, an irregular noun
  • LEXICON IN_DIM for the inanimate diminutives
  • LEXICON INABSDECL for inanimate absolute declension
  • LEXICON INABSDECL_PL for inanimate absolute declension
  • LEXICON INimDIM the diminutives with poss.-im-, Dim: -is
  • LEXICON INimDIMisis the diminutives with poss.-im-, Dim: -isis
  • LEXICON INimDIM-SG the diminutives with poss.-im-, Dim: -is

LEXICON IN_DIMDECL Declensions inanimate diminutives, adding +Dim , not in use

  • LEXICON INDEP-DERIV_M_SG for hardcoded noun: diminutive for inalienables
  • LEXICON IN_DEP_INIT_M_PL for the inanimate possessive declension, plural lemmas
  • LEXICON IN_DEP_INIT_M for the inanimate possessive declension
  • LEXICON INABLGENERIC generic forms Sg, Pl, Loc and diminutives
  • LEXICON IN_DEP_INIT_M_DIM for the inanimate possessive declension
  • LEXICON IN_DEP_INIT_M_SG inanimate possessive declension, only Sg

Animate possessive suffixes

  • LEXICON ANSUFF_SG
  • LEXICON ANSUFF_0POSS
  • LEXICON SG_OBV
  • LEXICON ANSUFF_Pl_0POSS
  • LEXICON ANSUFF_PL
  • LEXICON PL_OBV

Inanimate possessive suffixes

  • LEXICON INSUFF_SG
  • LEXICON INSUFF_PL
  • LEXICON INSUFF_LOC
  • LEXICON ANiySUFF_SG
  • LEXICON ANiySUFF_PL

Singular/plural suffixes

  • LEXICON SG_
  • LEXICON PLa
  • LEXICON PLak

Locative suffixes

  • LEXICON LOC
  • LEXICON LOCahk
  • LEXICON LOCinaahk For collective locative

Obviative suffix

  • LEXICON OBVIATIVE

Special cases

  • LEXICON NOPREFIX gives diacr.flag for no prefix. Used for hardcoded forms in the lexicon

Plains Cree numerals

The file for numerals

  • LEXICON Numerals

Here starts the 999 numbers

  • LEXICON UNDERTHOUSAND
  • LEXICON HUNDREDS
  • LEXICON CUODI
  • LEXICON HUNDRED
  • LEXICON TENS
  • LEXICON TEN
  • LEXICON ONESTONEXT
  • LEXICON TEENS
  • LEXICON ONES
  • LEXICON CARDINAL
  • LEXICON NUM adds +Num+Ipc
  • LEXICON NUM-PREFIXES
  • LEXICON ARABIC arabic numerals
  • LEXICON ARABICLOOPphone +358(0)16671254
  • LEXICON ARABICCASEphone
  • LEXICON ARABICLOOP
  • LEXICON ARABICLOOPORD ordinals
  • LEXICON NUMARABTAG

Plains Cree particles

The file

  • LEXICON pcle adds +Ipc
  • LEXICON fpcle this is for focus particles
  • LEXICON pcle/ns +Ipc, but with non-standard orthography
  • LEXICON Particles
  • cî+Ipc+Qst: cî # ;
  • namôya+Ipc+Neg: namôya # ;

Plains Cree pronouns

There are more pronoums to be added here.

LEXICON Pronoun

LEXICON Personal
niya+Pron+Pers+1Sg: niya # ; niya+Pron+Pers+1Sg: nîya # ; kiya+Pron+Pers+2Sg: kiya # ;

LEXICON Interrogative
awîna+Pron+Interr+Sg: awîna # "who,whose" ; awîna+Pron+Interr+Pl: awîniki # "who" ;

LEXICON Indefinite
awiyak+Pron+Indef+A+Sg: awiyak # "someone" ; awiyak+Pron+Indef+A+Pl: awiyakak # "some people" ;

LEXICON Demonstrative
ANIMATE
awa+Pron+Dem+Prox+A+Sg: awa # "this" ; awa+Pron+Dem+Prox+A+Pl: ôki # "these" ;

INANIMATE

ôma+Pron+Dem+Prox+I+Sg: ôma # "this" ; ôma+Pron+Dem+Prox+I+Pl: ôhi # "these" ;

ôma+Pron+Def+Prox+I+Sg: ôma # "this one" ; ôma+Pron+Def+Prox+I+Pl: ôhi # "these one" ;

Punctuation marks

Punctuation contains period, comma, parentheses, etc.

%,+CLB: %, # ; %.+CLB: %. # ; %.%.+CLB: %.%. # ; ^excl+CLB: %! # ; !^C^

Plains Cree verb morphology

The Plains Cree verbs are divided in four groups:

  1. AI: Animate intransitive
  2. II: Inanimate intransitive
  3. TA: Transitive animate
  4. TI: Transitive inanimate

Prefixes

LEXICON VerbPrefixes divides the lexicon into four modes: independent, conjunctive, imperative and future conditional

  • @U.order.indep@ INDEPENDENT ;
  • @U.order.cnj@ CONJUNCT ;
  • IMPERATIVE ;
  • FUTURE_CONDITIONAL ;

LEXICON INDEPENDENT gives flags and prefixes for personprefix

LEXICON IND_TENSE gives flags and prefixes for tense

LEXICON FUTURE_CONDITIONAL gives flags for future conditional (no prefix)

LEXICON CONJUNCT gives flag for conjunctive and prefix ê-, kâ-, kâki-

LEXICON CNJ_TENSE gives prefixes and flags for tense in conjunctive

LEXICON IMPERATIVE gives flag for imperative (no prefixes)

Words marked GG are from Plains Cree Grammar guide and glossary

Preverbs

LEXICON PREVERBS just adds the prefix boundary

Now, lexc directs us to the ../stems/verbs.lexc file, where we find all the verbal stems. The suffixes are then found in the section "Suffixes" right underneath.

Suffixes

fst: AICONJ: stem AICONJw: stem (excl w) Wolv: AICONJ_n AICONJ_w

LEXICON TACONJ_3 TACONJ_2 ;

LEXICON TACONJ_4 TACONJ_2 ;

Intransitive inanimate (II)

LEXICON VIIw

LEXICON VIIw_SG

LEXICON VIIw_PL

LEXICON VIIn

LEXICON VIIn_SG

LEXICON VIIn_PL

LEXICON VIIw_ORDER

LEXICON VIIw_SG_ORDER singular only

LEXICON VIIw_PL_ORDER plural only

LEXICON VIIn_ORDER

LEXICON VIIn_SG_ORDER singular only

LEXICON VIIn_PL_ORDER plural only

LEXICON VIIw_SG_IND_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VIIw_SG_CNJ_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VIIw_PL_IND_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VIIw_PL_CNJ_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VIIn_SG_IND_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VIIn_SG_CNJ_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VIIn_PL_IND_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VIIn_PL_CNJ_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VIIw_IND_PERSON

LEXICON VIIw_CNJ_PERSON

LEXICON VIIw_FUT_CON_PERSON

LEXICON VIIw_SG_IND_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VIIw_SG_CNJ_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VIIw_SG_FUT_CON_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VIIw_PL_IND_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VIIw_PL_CNJ_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VIIw_PL_FUT_CON_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VIIn_IND_PERSON

LEXICON VIIn_CNJ_PERSON

LEXICON VIIn_FUT_CON_PERSON

LEXICON VIIn_SG_IND_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VIIn_SG_CNJ_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VIIn_SG_FUT_CON_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VIIn_PL_IND_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VIIn_PL_CNJ_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VIIn_PL_FUT_CON_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VIIw_IND_NULL

LEXICON VIIw_IND_SG_SUFFIX singular

LEXICON VIIw_IND_PL_SUFFIX plural

LEXICON VIIn_IND_NULL

LEXICON VIIn_IND_SG_SUFFIX w final singular

LEXICON VIIn_IND_PL_SUFFIX w final plural

LEXICON VIIw_CNJ_NULL

LEXICON VIIw_CNJ_SG_SUFFIX singular

LEXICON VIIw_CNJ_PL_SUFFIX plural

LEXICON VIIn_CNJ_NULL

LEXICON VIIn_CNJ_SG_SUFFIX w final singular

LEXICON VIIn_CNJ_PL_SUFFIX w final plural

LEXICON VIIw_FUT_CON_NULL

LEXICON VIIw_FUT_CON_SG_SUFFIX singular

LEXICON VIIw_FUT_CON_PL_SUFFIX plural

LEXICON VIIn_FUT_CON_NULL

LEXICON VIIn_FUT_CON_SG_SUFFIX w final singular

LEXICON VIIn_FUT_CON_PL_SUFFIX w final plural

Intransitive animate (AI)

LEXICON VAIw

LEXICON VAIw_PL

LEXICON VAIn

LEXICON VAIn_PL

LEXICON VAIw_ORDER

LEXICON VAIw_PL_ORDER plural only

LEXICON VAIn_ORDER

LEXICON VAIn_PL_ORDER plural only

LEXICON VAIw_PL_IND_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VAIw_PL_CNJ_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VAIn_PL_IND_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VAIn_PL_CNJ_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VAIw_IND_PERSON

LEXICON VAIw_CNJ_PERSON

LEXICON VAIw_FUT_CON_PERSON

LEXICON VAIw_IMP_PERSON

LEXICON VAIw_PL_IND_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VAIw_PL_CNJ_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VAIw_PL_FUT_CON_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VAIw_PL_IMP_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VAIn_IND_PERSON

LEXICON VAIn_CNJ_PERSON

LEXICON VAIn_FUT_CON_PERSON

LEXICON VAIn_IMP_PERSON

LEXICON VAIn_PL_IND_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VAIn_PL_CNJ_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VAIn_PL_FUT_CON_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VAIn_PL_IMP_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VAIw_IND_NI

LEXICON VAIw_IND_NI_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VAIw_IND_NI_PL_SUFFIX

LEXICON VAIw_IND_KI

LEXICON VAIw_IND_KI_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VAIw_IND_KI_PL_SUFFIX

LEXICON VAIw_IND_NULL

LEXICON VAIw_IND_NULL_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VAIw_IND_NULL_PL_SUFFIX

LEXICON VAIn_IND_NI

LEXICON VAIn_IND_NI_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VAIn_IND_NI_PL_SUFFIX

LEXICON VAIn_IND_KI

LEXICON VAIn_IND_KI_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VAIn_IND_KI_PL_SUFFIX

LEXICON VAIn_IND_NULL

LEXICON VAIn_IND_NULL_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VAIn_IND_NULL_PL_SUFFIX

LEXICON VAIw_CNJ_NULL

LEXICON VAIw_CNJ_NULL_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VAIw_CNJ_NULL_PL_SUFFIX

LEXICON VAIn_CNJ_NULL

LEXICON VAIn_CNJ_NULL_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VAIn_CNJ_NULL_PL_SUFFIX

LEXICON VAIw_FUT_CON_NULL

LEXICON VAIw_FUT_CON_NULL_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VAIw_FUT_CON_NULL_PL_SUFFIX

LEXICON VAIn_FUT_CON_NULL

LEXICON VAIn_FUT_CON_NULL_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VAIn_FUT_CON_NULL_PL_SUFFIX

Transitive inanimate (TI)

  • LEXICON VTI
  • LEXICON VTI_PL Plural
  • LEXICON VTIw NOTE: These inflect just as VAI -w final stems, so they are redirected to those paradigms

LEXICON VTIt_ORDER .

LEXICON VTIt_PL_ORDER plural only NOTE: imperative and fut con go straight to person lexica

LEXICON VTIt_PL_IND_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VTIt_PL_CNJ_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VTIt_IND_PERSON

LEXICON VTIt_CNJ_PERSON

LEXICON VTIt_FUT_CON_PERSON

LEXICON VTIt_IMP_PERSON

LEXICON VTIt_PL_IND_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VTIt_PL_CNJ_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VTIt_PL_FUT_CON_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VTIt_PL_IMP_PERSON plural only

LEXICON VTIt_IND_NI

LEXICON VTIt_IND_NI_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTIt_IND_NI_PL_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTIt_IND_KI

LEXICON VTIt_IND_KI_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTIt_IND_KI_PL_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTIt_IND_NULL

LEXICON VTIt_IND_NULL_SG_SUFFIX NOTE: X actor will eventually derive to VII, so it is not yet included as per Arok's paradigm

LEXICON VTIt_IND_NULL_PL_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTIt_CNJ_NULL

LEXICON VTIt_CNJ_NULL_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTIt_CNJ_NULL_PL_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTIt_FUT_CON_NULL

LEXICON VTIt_FUT_CON_NULL_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTIt_FUT_CON_NULL_PL_SUFFIX

Transitive inanimate (TA)

The VTA verbs split in different orders. There are 5 stem classes in Wolv, 1-5 (VTA-1 through VTA-5)

LEXICON TACONJ_1 Regular verbs

  • LEXICON TACONJ_2 -Vw stem-ending verbs; where + i suf deletes w and i
  • LEXICON TACONJ_2-PL -Vw stem-ending verbs; when deletes w and i plural only forms
  • LEXICON TACONJ_3 -Cw stem-ending verbs; where w and i fuse to o
  • LEXICON TACONJ_4 -t stem-ending verbs; where t becomes s in some cases
  • LEXICON TACONJ_5 verbs that take a -i in 2sg imm. imp. due to moraic constraints
  • LEXICON TACONJ_5-TS verbs that take a -i in 2sg imm. imp. due to moraic constraints, but also have stem final t becoming s in some cases.

LEXICON VTACONJ_WICI Regular verbs

  • LEXICON VTACONJvw_WICI -Vw stem-ending verbs; where + i suf deletes w and i
  • LEXICON VTACONJvw_PL_WICI -Vw stem-ending verbs; when deletes w and i plural only forms
  • LEXICON VTACONJcw_WICI -Cw stem-ending verbs; where w and i fuse to o
  • LEXICON VTACONJt_WICI -t stem-ending verbs; where t becomes s in some cases
  • LEXICON VTACONJi_WICI verbs that take a -i in 2sg imm. imp. due to moraic constraints
  • LEXICON VTACONJti_WICI verbs that take a -i in 2sg imm. imp. due to moraic constraints, but also have stem final t becoming s in some cases

LEXICON VTA_ORDER Note: Imp and Fut Con don't take tense

LEXICON VTAvw_ORDER Note: Imp and Fut Con don't take tense

LEXICON VTAvw_PL_ORDER Note: Imp and Fut Con don't take tense

LEXICON VTAcw_ORDER Note: Imp and Fut Con don't take tense

LEXICON VTAcw_PL_ORDER Note: Imp and Fut Con don't take tense

LEXICON VTAt_ORDER Note: Imp and Fut Con don't take tense ; Independent is same as TA regular

LEXICON VTAi_ORDER Note: Imp and Fut Con don't take tense ; Conjugates as TA regular except in 2sg IMM IMP

LEXICON VTAti_ORDER Note: Imp and Fut Con don't take tense ; Independent is as TA regular, Imp as TAi, all else is as TAt

LEXICON VTAvw_IND_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VTAvw_CNJ_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VTAvw_PL_IND_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VTAvw_PL_CNJ_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VTAcw_IND_TENSE

LEXICON VTAcw_CNJ_TENSE

LEXICON VTAcw_PL_IND_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VTAcw_PL_CNJ_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VTAt_IND_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VTAt_CNJ_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VTAi_IND_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VTAi_CNJ_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VTAti_IND_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VTAti_CNJ_TENSE plural only

LEXICON VTA_IND_PERSON

LEXICON VTA_CNJ_PERSON

LEXICON VTA_FUT_CON_PERSON

LEXICON VTA_IMP_PERSON

LEXICON VTAvw_IND_PERSON

LEXICON VTAvw_CNJ_PERSON

LEXICON VTAvw_FUT_CON_PERSON

LEXICON VTAvw_IMP_PERSON Identical to TA IMP

LEXICON VTAvw_PL_IND_PERSON

LEXICON VTAvw_PL_CNJ_PERSON

LEXICON VTAvw_PL_FUT_CON_PERSON

LEXICON VTAvw_PL_IMP_PERSON

LEXICON VTAcw_IND_PERSON

LEXICON VTAcw_CNJ_PERSON

LEXICON VTAcw_FUT_CON_PERSON

LEXICON VTAcw_IMP_PERSON

LEXICON VTAcw_PL_IND_PERSON

LEXICON VTAcw_PL_CNJ_PERSON

LEXICON VTAcw_PL_FUT_CON_PERSON

LEXICON VTAcw_PL_IMP_PERSON

LEXICON VTAt_IND_PERSON

LEXICON VTAt_CNJ_PERSON

LEXICON VTAt_FUT_CON_PERSON

LEXICON VTAt_IMP_PERSON

LEXICON VTAi_IND_PERSON

LEXICON VTAi_CNJ_PERSON

LEXICON VTAi_FUT_CON_PERSON

LEXICON VTAi_IMP_PERSON

LEXICON VTAti_IND_PERSON

LEXICON VTAti_CNJ_PERSON

LEXICON VTAti_FUT_CON_PERSON

LEXICON VTAti_IMP_PERSON

LEXICON VTA_IND_NI NOTE: No local, as local forms are always with ki-

LEXICON VTA_IND_NI_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTA_IND_NI_PL_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTA_IND_KI

LEXICON VTA_IND_KI_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTA_IND_KI_PL_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTA_IND_NULL NOTE: never local

LEXICON VTA_IND_NULL_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTA_IND_NULL_PL_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTAvw_IND_NI NOTE: No local, as local forms are always with ki-

LEXICON VTAvw_IND_NI_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTAvw_IND_NI_PL_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTAvw_IND_KI

LEXICON VTAvw_IND_KI_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTAvw_IND_KI_PL_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTAvw_IND_NULL NOTE: never local

LEXICON VTAvw_IND_NULL_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTAvw_IND_NULL_PL_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTAcw_IND_NI NOTE: No local, as local forms are always with ki-

LEXICON VTAcw_IND_NI_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTAcw_IND_NI_PL_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTAcw_IND_KI

LEXICON VTAcw_IND_KI_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTAcw_IND_KI_PL_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTAcw_IND_NULL NOTE: never local

LEXICON VTAcw_IND_NULL_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTAcw_IND_NULL_PL_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTAt_IND_KI

LEXICON VTAt_IND_KI_SG_SUFFIX

LEXICON VTAt_IND_KI_PL_SUFFIX

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