Free and Open source Finnish analyser giella-fin

Tommi A Pirinen
Software version
Documentation license
SVN Revision
$Revision:121234 $
SVN Date
$Date:2015-09-18 17:40:24 +0200 (fre, 18 sep 2015) $


This is free and open source Finnish morphology. It is a stable version of omorfi and so on.


The morphological division of Finnish words has three classes: verbal, nominal and others. The verbs are identified by personal, temporal, modal and infinite inflection. The nominals are identified by numeral and case inflection. The others are, apart from being the rest, identified by defective or missing inflection.

Symbols used for analysis {{Multichar_Symbols}}

The Finnish morphological implementation uses analysis symbols mainly to encode morphological analyses, the rest are implemented else where. Some non-morphological analyses or classifications are retained for interoperability and historical reasons. There are further details and examples of this classification in other parts of this documents; this page merely summarises the codes used in this version of the system.


The main morphological division of words is merely: Verbs, Nominals, Rest. The syntactic and semantic subdivision is realised in POS tags. The nominals consist of nouns (substantiivi), adjectives, pro words and numerals. Verbs are non-divisible, but include infinitive and particple forms. The others are subdivided into adpositions, adverbs and particles. Further reading: VISK s.v. sanaluokka, VISK § 438.

Temporary list of added tags

These tags were added as part of a tag unification, and should be put where they belong.

Are there tags not declared in root.lexc or misspelled? Have a look at these:

  • +Dash : XXX check this tag!
  • +Dial/Finland : XXX check this tag!
  • +Dial/standard : XXX check this tag!
  • +Gyr : XXX check this tag!
  • +Pref- : XXX check this tag!
  • +Pro : XXX check this tag!
  • +TruncPrefix : XXX check this tag!
  • +Use/N : XXX check this tag!
  • +Use/sub : XXX check this tag!
  • +s : XXX check this tag!
  • +CLBfinal Sentence final abbreviated expression ending in full stop, so that the full stop is ambiguous

Parts of speech

  • +V : Verb
  • +N : Noun
  • +A : Adjective
  • +ACR : Acronym
  • +ABBR : Abbreviation
  • +Symbol = independent symbols in the text stream, like £, €, ©
  • +Acr : Acronym
  • +Num : Numerals
  • +Adv : Adverb
  • +Pron : Pronoun
  • +Pcle : Particle, except:
  • +Interj : Interjection

The part-of-speech analyses are typically the first:

Analysis examples examples:

  • kutoo: kutoa+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg3 (Eng. # knits)
  • talo: talo+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # house)
  • nopea: nopea+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # fast)
  • yksi: yksi+Num+Card+Sg+Nom (Eng. # one)
  • nopeasti: nopeasti+Adv (Eng. # fast)
  • hän: hän+Pron+Pers+Sg+Nom (Eng. # he)
  • ahaa: ahaa+Pcle (Eng. # ah)
  • äh: äh+Interj (Eng. # uh)


In nominal analyses, the proper nouns have additional subanalysis. Proper nouns are usually written with initial capitals–or more recently, totally arbitrary capitalisations, such as in brand names nVidia and ATi. Proper nouns do have full inflectional morphology exactly as other nouns, but work slightly differently in derivation and compounding. Some capitalised nouns may also lose capitalisation in derivation. VISK § 98

The code for proper nouns:

  • +Prop : Proper noun

Proper noun tag follows noun analysis:

  • Pekka: Pekka+N+Prop+Sg+Nom (Eng. # Pekka)


Pronominal analyses have some semantic classes. VISK § 101 –104. Codes for various semantic classes:

  • +Pers : Personal
  • +Dem : Demonstrative
  • +Interr : Interrogative
  • +Rel : Relative
  • +Qu : Quantor
  • +Qnt : Quantor?????
  • +Refl : Reflexive
  • +Recipr : Reciprocal
  • +Indef : Indefinite

Semantic tags follow pronoun analyses:

  • minä: minä+Pron+Pers+Sg+Nom (Eng. # I)
  • tämä: tämä+Pron+Dem+Sg+Nom (Eng. # this)
  • kuka: kuka+Pron+Interr+Sg+Nom (Eng. # who)
  • joka: joka+Pron+Rel+Sg+Nom (Eng. # which)
  • kaikki: kaikki+Pron+Qu+Sg+Nom (Eng. # every)
  • itse: itse+Pron+Refl+Sg+Nom (Eng. # self)
  • toistaan: toinen+Pron+Recipr+Sg+Par+PxSg3 (Eng. # each other)
  • joku: joku+Pron+Qu+Indef+Sg+Nom (Eng. # someone)
  • +Sem/Human : Semantic class: Human
  • +Sem/Geo : Semantic class: Geographic
  • +Sem/Org : Semantic class: Organisation
  • +Sem/Build :
  • +Sem/Build-room :
  • +Sem/Cat :
  • +Sem/Date :
  • +Sem/Domain :
  • +Sem/Dummytag :
  • +Sem/Event :
  • +Sem/Fem :
  • +Sem/Group_Hum :
  • +Sem/Hum :
  • +Sem/ID :
  • +Sem/Mal :
  • +Sem/Mat :
  • +Sem/Measr :
  • +Sem/Money :
  • +Sem/Obj :
  • +Sem/Obj-el :
  • +Sem/Obj-ling :
  • +Sem/Org_Prod-audio :
  • +Sem/Org_Prod-vis :
  • +Sem/Plc :
  • +Sem/Prod-vis :
  • +Sem/Route :
  • +Sem/Rule :
  • +Sem/State-sick :
  • +Sem/Substnc :
  • +Sem/Time-clock :
  • +Sem/Tool-it :
  • +Sem/Txt :
  • +Sem/Veh :
  • +Sem/Year :


In numeral analyses, there are multiple analyses. The numerals have semantic subcategories ( VISK § 770). The classical ordinal numbers have been adjectivised in current descriptions (VISK § 771), the ordinal interpretation is still spelled out in subcategories. The numbers are often written with digits or other specific notations. Numeral class tags:

  • +Card : Cardinal
  • +Ord : Ordinals
  • kolme: kolme+Num+Card+Sg+Nom (Eng. # three)
  • kolmas: kolmas+Num+Ord+Sg+Nom (Eng. # third)


The particles are subcategorised syntax-wise into conjunctions for all words, that govern subclauses ( VISK § 812). The conjunctions are further divided, whether the subclause is coordinant or subordinant to the governing clause and few other syntactic types ( VISK § 816). _N.B._ that the division to subordinating and coordinating conjucntions is motivated by other systems, including legacy systems, whereas the grammar presents also different categorisations for conjunctions (including naming subordination adverbials). Conjunction syntax tags:

  • +CC : Coordinating
  • +CS : Adverbial

The conjunction tags take place of part-of-speech tags for legacy reasons:

  • ja: ja+CC
  • vaikka: vaikka+CS


In adposition anlayses, the syntactic tendencies are shown in sub-analyses; whether they appear typically before or after their heads VISK § 687.

Adposition syntax tags:

  • +Adp : Adposition
  • +Po : Postposition
  • +Pr : Preposition

Adpositions are tagged in POS position:

  • läpi: läpi+Po

Tags for sub-POS

  • +Arab :
  • +Attr :
  • +Coll :
  • +Rom :

Bound root morphs

The lexical items that appear as bound morphemes before head word are classified as prefixes (VISK § 172). Prefixes are rare and mostly of foreign origin. The singular forms of plurale tantums are also potential prefixes.

  • +Pref : Prefixes

Suffixes are typically word forms or derivations that only appear as bound morphs. Other than that Finnish does not really have proper suffixes. This means that suffixed words are in effect compounds of where the last word just doesn't appear as free morph.

  • +Suff : Suffixes


Symbols are not part of linguistic data per se so we classify them according to the needs of end user applications

  • +Punct : any punctuation
  • +Quote : quote marks

The analyses for symbols are like POSes:

  • .: .+Punct (Eng. # .)

Nominal analyses

The analyses of nominals show the inflection in number. Nominals inflect in number, to mark plurality of the word. The number for nouns is either singular or plural. Further reading: VISK § 79 Number tags:

  • +Sg : Singular
  • +Pl : Plural

Number tags are next to POSes in nominal analyses, and in order of morphs:

  • padassa: pata+N+Sg+Ine (Eng. # pot)
  • padoissa: pata+N+Pl+Ine

The analyses of nominals have case inflection marked. The nominals have case inflection ( VISK § 81) to mark syntactic roles (nominative, partitive, accusative-genitive) and semantics (others, partially even syntactic cases).

  • +Nom : (Mostly) Syntactic cases: Nominative
  • +Par : Partitive
  • +Gen : Genitive
  • +Ine : Inner Locative cases: Inessive
  • +Ela : Elative
  • +Ill : Illative
  • +Ade : Outer locative cases: Adessive
  • +Abl : Ablative
  • +All : Allative
  • +Ess : Others, semantic, marginal: Essive
  • +Ins : Instructive
  • +Abe : Abessive
  • +Tra : Translative
  • +Com : Comitative

The case is next to number and last obligatory analysis in nominals:

  • taloa: talo+N+Sg+Par
  • talon: talo+N+Sg+Gen
  • talossa: talo+N+Sg+Ine
  • talosta: talo+N+Sg+Ela
  • taloon: talo+N+Sg+Ill
  • talolla: talo+N+Sg+Ade
  • talolta: talo+N+Sg+Abl
  • talolle: talo+N+Sg+All
  • talona: talo+N+Sg+Ess
  • taloin: talo+N+Pl+Ins
  • talotta: talo+N+Sg+Abe
  • taloksi: talo+N+Sg+Tra
  • taloine: talo+N+Com

The analyses of a infinitive short form have lative ending; this is largely historical (VISK § 120). Some adpositions might have same analysis in diachronic analyses.

  • +Lat : Lative case

The analyses of certain nominals give explicit analysis for accusative case. The accusative case has distinctive marker in few pronouns and these are only cases that are analysed as accusatives. ( VISK § 81). Other accusatives have the same case marking as genitive form, and only use that analysis in synchronic analyses.

  • +Acc : Explicit accusative analysis
  • hänet: hän+Pron+Pers+Sg+Acc

Adverbs and adpositions may have some special analyses in diachronic analyses. Further reading: VISK § 371 – 385

  • +Prl : Adverbial cases: Prolative
  • +Distr : Distributive
  • +Tempr : Temporal


The analyses of nominals include possessive if present. Posessive ending indicates ownership. The possessive can take six possible values from singular and plural, first, second and third person references, where third person form is always ambiguous over plurality. Further reading: VISK § 95

  • +PxSg1 : Possessives: First singular (mine)
  • +PxSg2 : Second singular (yours)
  • +PxSg3 : Third singular (his)
  • +PxPl1 : First plural (ours)
  • +PxPl2 : Second plural (yours)
  • +PxPl3 : Third plural (theirs)
  • +Px3 : Third ambiguous (his/theirs)
  • +Sg1 : Verbs: First singular (I)
  • +Sg2 : Second singular (your
  • +Sg3 : Third singular (he)
  • +Pl1 : First plural (we)
  • +Pl2 : Second plural (you)
  • +Pl3 : Third plural (thy)
  • taloni: talo+N+Sg+Nom+PxSg1
  • talosi: talo+N+Sg+Nom+PxSg2
  • talonsa: talo+N+Sg+Nom+PxSg3
  • talomme: talo+N+Sg+Nom+PxPl1
  • talonne: talo+N+Sg+Nom+PxPl2

Compound forms

In compound analyses, the derived compound form that is not a free morph is marked with special analysis. Some words have forms only appearing in compounds. Further reading: VISK § 406 +Der/s Compound form

  • naisien: nainen+N+Der/s#ien+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # female gum)

Finite verbs

All verb analyses contain voice marking. For finite verb forms active voice is tied to personal forms and passive voice to non-personal verb endings. The voice is also marked in the infinite verb forms. Further reading: VISK § 110

  • +Act : Active voice
  • +Pss : Passive voice

It is the first analysis of verb strings:

  • kudot: kutoa+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg2

Finite verb form analyses have a reading for tense. The tense has two values. For moods other than indicative the tense is not distinctive in surface form, and therefore not marked in the analyses. The morphologically distinct forms in Finnish are only past and non-past tenses, while other are created syntactically and not marked in morphological analyses. Further reading: VISK § 111 – 112

  • +Prs : Non-past (present)
  • +Prt : Past (preterite)

The tense is marked in indicative forms after mood:

  • kudon: kutoa+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg1
  • kudoin: kutoa+V+Act+Ind+Prt+Sg1

Finite verb form analyses have a reading for mood. Mood has four central readings and few archaic and marginal. The mood is marked in analyses for all finite forms, even the unmarked indicative. Further reading: VISK § 115 – 118

  • +Ind : Common moods: Indicative
  • +Cond : Conditional
  • +Pot : Potential
  • +Imprt : Imperative
  • +Opt : Archaic moods: Optative
  • +Eventv : Eventive

The mood is after voice in the analysis string and in morph order:

  • kutonen: kutoa+V+Act+Pot+Sg1

Finite verb form analyses have a reading for person. Personal ending of verb defines the actors. The person analysis has seven possible values, six for the singular and plural groups of first, second and third person forms, and one specifically for passive. The passive personal form is encoded as fourth person passive, which had been the common practice in past systems. Further reading: VISK § 106 – 107

  • +Sg1 : First singular
  • +Sg2 : Second singular
  • +Sg3 : Third singular
  • +Pl1 : First plural
  • +Pl2 : Second plural
  • +Pl3 : Third plural

The person is the last required analysis for verbs, after the mood:

  • kudon: kutoa+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg1
  • kudot: kutoa+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg2
  • kutoo: kutoa+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg3
  • kudomme: kutoa+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Pl1
  • kudotte: kutoa+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Pl2
  • kutovat: kutoa+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Pl3

Negation and verbs

The analyses of verb for the forms that require negation verb have a special analysis for it.

  • +ConNeg : Connegative form
  • kudo: kutoa+V+Ind+Prs+ConNeg

The suitable negation verbs have sub-analysis that can be matched to negated forms on syntactic level.

  • +Neg : Negation verb
  • ei: ei+V+Neg+Act+Sg3

Infinite verb forms

Infinitive verb forms have infinitive or nominal derivation analyses. In traditional grammars the infinitive forms were called I, II, III, IV and V infinitive, the modern grammar replaces the first three with A, E and MA respectively. The IV infinitive, which has *minen* suffix marker, has been re-analysed as derivational and this is reflected in |omorfi|. The V infinitive is also assumed to be mainly derivational, but included here for reference. Further reading: VISK § 120 – 121 The infinitives have limited nominal inflection.

  • +InfA : A infinitive (first)
  • +InfE : E infinitive (second)
  • +InfMa : MA infinitive (third)
  • +Der/minen : minen derivation (fourth)
  • +Der/maisilla : maisilla derivation (fifth)

Infinitive analysis comes after voice, followed by nominal analyses:

  • kutoa: kutoa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat
  • kutoessa: kutoa+V+Act+InfE+Sg+Ine
  • kutomatta: kutoa+V+Act+InfMa+Sg+Abe
  • kutominen: kutoa+V+Der/minen+Sg+Nom
  • kutomaisillani: kutoa+V+Act+Der/maisilla+PxSg1


Participial verb forms have participle readings. There are 4 participle forms. Like infinitives, participles in traditional grammars were named I and II where NUT and VA are used in modern grammars. The agent and negation participle have sometimes been considered outside regular inflection, but in modern Finnish grammars are alongside other participles and so they are included in inflection in omorfi as well. In some grammars the NUT and VA participles have been called past and present participles respectively, drawing parallels from other languages. The modern grammar avoids them as misleading but this description uses them Further reading: VISK § 122

  • +PrfPrc : NUT participle (first, perfect)
  • +PrsPrc : VA participle (second, present)
  • +NegPrc : Negation participle
  • +AgPrc : Agent partiicple

Participle analyses are right after voice, followed by adjectival analyses:

  • kutonut: kutoa+V+Act+PrfPrc+Sg+Nom
  • kutova: kutoa+V+Act+PrsPrc+Sg+Nom
  • kutomaton: kutoa+V+NegPrc+Sg+Nom
  • kutomani: kutoa+V+AgPrc+Sg+Nom+PxSg1

There are number of implementations that mix up MA infinitives and Agent participles, and they share part of the same forms but no semantics and very little of syntax.


Adjective and some adverbial analyses are marked for comparation. The non-marked forms are comparative and superlative. For adjectives, comparative suffixes precede the nominal inflection. c.f. VISK § 300

  • +Comp : Comparative
  • +Superl : Superlative (was +Sup, now standardised)

The comparison analysis occupies derivation spot, after POS:

  • nopeampi: nopea+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • nopein: nopea+A+Sup+Sg+Nom

Enclitic focus particles

All word forms can have clitics which are analysed by their orthography. Clitics are suffixes which can attach almost anywhere in the ends of words, both verb forms and nominals. They also attach on end of other clitics, theoretically infinite chains. In practice it is usual to see at most three in one word form. Two clitics have limited use: -s only appears in few verb forms and combined to other clitics and -kA only appears with few adverbs and negation verb. VISK § 126 – 131

  • +Foc/han : -hAn; affirmative etc.
  • +Foc/kaan : -kAAn; "neither"
  • +Foc/kin : -kin; "also"
  • +Foc/pa : -pA; "indeed"
  • +Foc/s : -s; polite?
  • +Foc/ka : -kA; "nor"
  • +Qst : -kO: Question focus


The derivation is not a central feature of this morphology, it is mainly used to collect new roots for dictionaries. This is roughly in order of perceived productivity already:

  • +Der/sti : Common derivations: A→Adv (in A manner)
  • +Der/ja : V→N (doer of V)
  • +Der/inen : N→A (containing N)
  • +Der/lainen : N→A (style of N)
  • +Der/tar : N→N (feminine N)
  • +Der/llinen : N→N (consisting of N)
  • +Der/ton : N→A (without N)
  • +Der/tse : N→Adp (via N)
  • +Der/vs : A→N (quality of A)
  • +Der/u : V→N (act of V)
  • +Der/ttain : N→Adv (by amounts of N)
  • +Der/ttaa : V→V (make someone do V)
  • +Der/tattaa : V→V (make someone do V; "first indirection")
  • +Der/tatuttaa : V→V (make someone do V; "second indirection")
  • +Der/uus : A→N (A-ness)
  • +Der/nti : V→N (regular derivation from all but 2 -da/-dä V)


The analyses of some words and word-forms indicate limitedness of usage. This includes common mispellings, archaic words and forms and otherwise rare words and forms. Especially, the forms that are in parentheses in lexical sources and word-forms that had the usage annotation in there have been carried over.

  • +Err/Orth : Sub-standard usage
  • +Err/Hyph :
  • +Err/Lex :
  • +Err/SpaceCmp :
  • +Use/Marg : Marginal
  • +Use/Rare : Rare
  • +Use/NG : Do not generate
  • +Use/Hyphen : With hyphens
  • +Use/NoHyphens : With hyphens
  • +Use/PMatch means that the following is only used in the analyser feeding the disambiguator. This is missing.
  • +Use/-PMatch :
  • +Use/-Spell :
  • +Use/Arch :
  • +Use/SpellNoSugg :

Usage tags are pushed wherever appropriate:

  • nallein: nalle+N+Pl+Gen+Use/Rare

Homonym tags

  • +v1 :
  • +v2 :


The informal language use contains different Finnish than the literary standard, this is marked as standard dialect (yleispuhekieli): common features include dropping final vowels, dropping final i components of unstressed diphtongs, few other shortenings. Other dialects are also sometimes analysed; the geographical division has three levels: East versus West, East containing Savo and South-East (North?) West containing North, perä, keski and eteläpohjalaiset, southwest and Häme The third level dialect division is traditionally by "town" borders, be cautious when adding these though; it's not the main target of this mrophology.

  • +Dial : any unclassified dialect
  • +Dial/Standard : standard spoken Finnish
  • +Dial/East : Eastern dialects
  • +Dial/West : Western dialects
  • +Dial/Southwest : South-western dialects
  • +Dial/Häme : Tavastian dialects
  • +Dial/Eteläpohjalaiset : South Osthrobotnian dialects
  • +Dial/Keskipohjalaiset : Middle Osthrobotnian dialects
  • +Dial/Peräpohjalaiset : North Osthrobotnian dialects
  • +Dial/North : North Finnish dialects
  • +Dial/Savo : Savonian dialects
  • +Dial/Southeast : South-eastern dialects

Tags for language of unassimilated name

  • +OLang/ENG :
  • +OLang/eng : is a typo, FIX
  • +OLang/FIN :
  • +OLang/NNO :
  • +OLang/NOB :
  • +OLang/RUS :
  • +OLang/SMA :
  • +OLang/SME :
  • +OLang/SWE :
  • +OLang/UND :


The boundaries of compounds that are not lexicalised in the dictionary will have compound analyses, the compounds may also have usage tags. The compounding analyses concern also syntagmatic melting mishmash. +Use/Circ Compound boundary

  • +Cmp - Dynamic compound. This tag should always be part   of a dynamic compound. It is important for   Apertium, and useful in other cases as well.
  • +Cmp/Hyph :
  • +CmpNP/None :

The word and morpheme boundaries are used to limit the effective range of far-reaching rules, such as vowel harmony. The boundaries are marked by curly bracketed hashes or underscores. The word boundaries are marked by #, The lexical item boundaries by ##, the inflectional morpheme boundaries by >, the derivational morpheme boundaries by », and some etymological and soft boundaries by _.

  • ##: Lexical boundary
  • # word boundary
  • > inflectional morph boundary
  • » derivational morph boundary
  • _ weak boundary

Flag diacritics

We have manually optimised the structure of our lexicon using following flag diacritics to restrict morhpological combinatorics - only allow compounds with verbs if the verb is further derived into a noun again:

@P.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@D.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@C.NeedNoun@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised

For languages that allow compounding, the following flag diacritics are needed to control position-based compounding restrictions for nominals. Their use is handled automatically if combined with +CmpN/xxx tags. If not used, they will do no harm.

@P.CmpFrst.FALSE@ Require that words tagged as such only appear first
@D.CmpPref.TRUE@ Block such words from entering ENDLEX
@P.CmpPref.FALSE@ Block these words from making further compounds
@D.CmpLast.TRUE@ Block such words from entering R
@D.CmpNone.TRUE@ Combines with the next tag to prohibit compounding
@U.CmpNone.FALSE@ Combines with the prev tag to prohibit compounding
@P.CmpOnly.TRUE@ Sets a flag to indicate that the word has passed R
@D.CmpOnly.FALSE@ Disallow words coming directly from root.

Use the following flag diacritics to control downcasing of derived proper nouns (e.g. Finnish Pariisi -> pariisilainen). See e.g. North Sámi for how to use these flags. There exists a ready-made regex that will do the actual down-casing given the proper use of these flags.

@U.Cap.Obl@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.
@U.Cap.Opt@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.

The start of the dictionary Root The Finnish morphological description starts from any of the parts of speech dictionaries, prefix or hyphenated suffix

Parts-of-speech examples:

  • talo: talo+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # house)
  • nopea: nopea+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # fast)
  • kutoa: kutoa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # to knit)


Finnish don’t traditionally have determiners. Some claim that few pronouns are used like determiners, and can be analysed as such.


Abbreviations are shortened forms that do not inflect. They have whatever classification they would have if they were read out, mostly that of nouns. Lot of abbreviations end in a full stop, which may complicate analysis and tokenisation in real-world applications

Abbreviations examples:

  • eaa.: eaa.+N
  • esim.: esim.+N
  • *esim: esim+N (is not standard language) Some ar less classified
  • ab: ab+ABBR
  • alv.+N:alv. # ; : arvonlisävero (VAT)
  • n%:ro+N:n%:ro # ; :
  • nro+N:nro # ; : numero (#
  • A%0+N:A%0 # ; : Paper size
  • A1+N:A1 # ; : Paper size
  • A2+N:A2 # ; : Paper size
  • A3+N:A3 # ; : Paper size
  • A4+N:A4 # ; : Paper size
  • A5+N:A5 # ; : Paper size
  • ab+N:ab # ; : swed. aktiebolag (LLC)
  • aik.+Adp:aik. # ; : aikana (during)
  • akk.+N:akk. # ; : akkusatiivi (accusative)
  • alk.+Adp:alk. # ; : alkaen (temporal from)
  • ao.+A:ao. # ; : alla/aiheena oleva (mentioned)
  • ark.+N:ark. # ; : arkinen (from dict. term, pedestr)
  • as.+N:as. # ; :
  • ay.+N:ay. # ; :
  • dat.+N:dat. # ; : datiivi (dative)
  • dem.pron.+N:dem.pron. # ; : demonstratiivipronomini
  • eaa.+N:eaa. # ; : ennen ajanlaskun alkua (BCE)
  • eKr.+N:eKr. # ; : ennen Kristuksen syntymää (BC)
  • ekr.+N+Err/Orth:ekr. # ; : ennen kristuksen syntymää
  • em.+A:em. # ; : edellä mainittu (abovementioned)
  • em.+N:em. # ; :
  • ent.+A:ent. # ; : entinen (former)
  • esim.+N:esim. # ; : esimerkiksi (e.g.)
  • evo+N:evo # ; : et vaan osaa (ydkj)
  • evp.+N:evp. # ; : erossa vakinaisesta palveluksesta
  • gen.+N:gen. # ; : genetiivi (genitive)
  • GTi+N:GTi # ; :
  • hlö+N:hlö # ; : henkilö (person)
  • hra+N:hra # ; : herra (mr.)
  • huom.+N:huom. # ; : huomaa (N.B.)
  • hv+N:hv # ; : hyvä veli (greetz)
  • ib.+N:ib. # ; : ibidem
  • id.+N:id. # ; : id
  • imperf.+N:imperf. # ; : imperfect
  • inc+N:inc # ; : inc
  • inf.+N:inf. # ; : infinitive
  • it.+N:it. # ; :
  • jKr.+N:jKr. # ; : jälkeen Kristuksen syntymän (AD)
  • jllek+N:jllek # ; : jollekin (for smth)
  • jllk+N:jllk # ; : jollakin (for smth)
  • jltk+N:jltk # ; : joltakin (from smth)
  • jne.+N:jne. # ; : ja niin edelleen (etc.)
  • jnk+N:jnk # ; : jonkin (of smth)
  • joss+N:joss # ; : jossa (somewhere)
  • jssk+N:jssk # ; : jossakin (somewhere)
  • jstk+N:jstk # ; : jostakin (from)
  • jtak+N:jtak # ; : jotakin (to)
  • JyP+N:JyP # ; : Jyväskylän pallo
  • KalPa+N:KalPa # ; : Kalmiston pallo
  • kand.+N:kand. # ; : kandidaatti (bachelor)
  • ka.+N:ka. # ; : keskiarvo (avg)
  • kapt.+N:kapt. # ; : kapteeni (captain)
  • kenr.+N:kenr. # ; : kenraali (general)
  • kers.+N:kers. # ; : kersantti (sergeant)
  • kesk.+N:kesk. # ; : keskusta (center party)
  • khra+N:khra # ; : kirkkoherra (parson)
  • kk+N:kk # ; : kuukausi (month)
  • kko+N:kko # ; : kirkko (church)
  • k%:lo+N:k%:lo # ; : kello
  • klo+N:klo # ; : kello (time)
  • k.+N:k. # ; :
  • kok.+N:kok. # ; : kokoomus (coalition party)
  • kompp.+N:kompp. # ; : komppania ()
  • ko.+N:ko. # ; : kyseessä oleva (mentioned)
  • kpl+N:kpl # ; : kappale (pcs)
  • krs+N:krs # ; : kerros (floor)
  • ks.+N:ks. # ; : katso (c.f.)
  • kts.+N:kts. # ; : katso (c.f.)
  • KuPS+N:KuPS # ; : Kuopion palloseura
  • kv.+N:kv. # ; :
  • l.+CC:l. # ; : eli (i.e.)
  • lis.+N:lis. # ; : lisensiaatti (lic.)
  • lkm.+N:lkm. # ; : lukumäärä (amount)
  • lk.+N:lk. # ; : luokka (grade)
  • ltn.+N:ltn. # ; : luutnantti (lieutenant)
  • lyh.+N:lyh. # ; : lyhennettynä (abbr.)
  • läh.+N:läh. # ; : lähes
  • ma.+N:ma. # ; :
  • mlk.+N:mlk. # ; : maalaiskunta (town)
  • ml.+N:ml. # ; : mukaan lukien (incl.)
  • mm.+N:mm. # ; : muun muassa (among others)
  • mom.+N:mom. # ; : momentti (
  • mon.+N:mon. # ; : monikko (pl.)
  • mpy.+N:mpy. # ; :
  • mt.+N:mt. # ; :
  • mts.+N:mts. # ; : mainitun tekstin sivulla (ibid)
  • mv.+N:mv. # ; :
  • MyPa+N:MyPa # ; : Myllykosken Pallo
  • n.+N:n. # ; : noin (approx.)
  • N.N.+N:N.N. # ; : John Doe
  • nom.+N:nom. # ; : nominatiivi (nominative)
  • ns.+N:ns. # ; : niin sanottu (so-called)
  • nti+N:nti # ; : neiti (ms)
  • nyk.+N:nyk. # ; : nykyinen (currently)
  • oik.+N:oik. # ; : oikeammin?
  • om.+N:om. # ; :
  • o.s.+N:o.s. # ; :
  • os.+N:os. # ; : omaa sukuaan (née)
  • par.+N:par. # ; : paremmin (in dict., better)
  • part.+N:part. # ; : partitiivi (partitive)
  • perf.+N:perf. # ; : perfekti (perfect)
  • pj.+N:pj. # ; : puheenjohtaja (chair)
  • pkt+N:pkt # ; : paketti (pcs)
  • pl.+N:pl. # ; : plural
  • pluskv.+N:pluskv. # ; : pluskvamperfekti
  • p.+N:p. # ; :
  • po.+N:po. # ; : pitää olla (in dict., should be)
  • prees.+N:prees. # ; : preesens
  • prof.+N:prof. # ; : professori
  • pron.+N:pron. # ; : pronomini
  • psta+N:psta # ; : puolesta (on behalf of)
  • pvm.+N:pvm. # ; : päivämäärä (date)
  • pv+N:pv # ; :
  • rek.+N:rek. # ; : rekisteröity, ®
  • rkl+N:rkl # ; : ruokalusikka (tbsp)
  • RoPS+N:RoPS # ; : Rovaniemen palloseura
  • rp.+N:rp. # ; :
  • rva+N:rva # ; : rouva (Mrs)
  • ry+N:ry # ; : rekisteröity yhdistys (inc.)
  • sit.+N:sit. # ; : sitoutumaton (not in party)
  • s.+N:s. # ; : syntynyt (birth)
  • so.+N:so. # ; : se on (i.e.)
  • sov.+N:sov. # ; : sovittanut (composer)
  • sp.+N:sp. # ; :
  • srk.+N:srk. # ; : seurakunta (church)
  • suom.+N:suom. # ; : suomentanut (fi. translator)
  • synt.+N:synt. # ; : syntynyt (brith)
  • sähköp.+N:sähköp. # ; : sähkoposti (email)
  • säv.+N:säv. # ; : säveltänyt (composer)
  • tark.+N:tark. # ; : tarkistanut (editor)
  • tav.+N:tav. # ; : tavallisemmin (in dict, usually)
  • tekn.+N:tekn. # ; : tekninen (in dict., tech)
  • tmi+N:tmi # ; : toiminimi (
  • tms.+N:tms. # ; : tai muuta sellaiste (etc.)
  • t.+N:t. # ; : tai (or)
  • toim.% huom.+N:toim.% huom. # ; : toimituksen huomautus (editors nt)
  • toim.+N:toim. # ; : toimitus (editor)
  • tri+N:tri # ; : tohtori (Dr.)
  • ts.+N:ts. # ; : toisinsanoen (iow)
  • tsto+N:tsto # ; : toimisto (office)
  • us.+N:us. # ; :
  • vak.+N:vak. # ; :
  • vanh.+N:vanh. # ; : vanhastaan (in dict., earlier)
  • vas.+N:vas. # ; : vasemmisto (left party)
  • vast.+N:vast. # ; : vastaava (corresponding)
  • vkl+N:vkl # ; : viikonloppu (weekend)
  • vklp+N:vklp # ; :
  • vko+N:vko # ; : viikko (week)
  • v.+N:v. # ; : vuotta (year(s))
  • vpj.+N:vpj. # ; : varapuheenjohtaja (vice chair)
  • vrk+N:vrk # ; : vuorokausi (calendar day)
  • vrt.+N:vrt. # ; : vertaa (c.f.)
  • vs.+N:vs. # ; :
  • vt.+N:vt. # ; :
  • vv.+N:vv. # ; : vuosina
  • vänr.+N:vänr. # ; : vänrikki (some military stuff)
  • vääp.+N:vääp. # ; : vääpeli ( more)
  • yks.+N:yks. # ; : yksikkö (singular)
  • yl.+N:yl. # ; : yleensä (in dict., usually)
  • ym.+N:ym. # ; : ynnä muuta (etc.)
  • yms.+N:yms. # ; : ynnä muuta sellaista (etc.)
  • yo.+N:yo. # ; : yllä oleva (aforementioned)
  • yv.+N:yv. # ; :

Continuation lexicons for Finnish abbreviations

Lexica for adding tags and periods

The sublexica

Continuation lexicons for abbrs both with and witout final period

  • LEXICON ab-noun
  • LEXICON ab-adj
  • LEXICON ab-adv
  • LEXICON ab-num

Lexicons without final period

  • LEXICON ab-nodot-noun The bulk
  • LEXICON ab-nodot-adj
  • LEXICON ab-nodot-adv
  • LEXICON ab-nodot-num

Lexicons with final period

  • LEXICON ab-dot-noun This is the lexicon for abbrs that must have a period.
  • LEXICON ab-dot-adj This is the lexicon for abbrs that must have a period.
  • LEXICON ab-dot-adv This is the lexicon for abbrs that must have a period.
  • LEXICON ab-dot-num This is the lexicon for abbrs that must have a period.
  • LEXICON ab-dot-cc
  • LEXICON ab-dot-verb
  • LEXICON ab-nodot-verb
  • LEXICON ab-dot-IVprfprc
  • LEXICON nodot-attrnomaccgen-infl
  • LEXICON nodot-attr-infl
  • LEXICON nodot-nomaccgen-infl
  • LEXICON dot-attrnomaccgen-infl
  • LEXICON dot-attr
  • LEXICON dot-nomaccgen-infl
  • LEXICON DOT - Adds the dot to dotted abbreviations.

Acronym classification

Acronyms are shortenings that inflect. They all have two inflection patterns, one read letter by letter, and one word-by-word. They are separate entries in this dictionary. For example OY will have singular illatives _OY: hyn_ and _OY: öön_ for _yyhyn_ and _yhtiöön_ resp., although latter is much rarer. A big majority of popular acronyms in everyday use comes from English, and the word-based inflection is virtually non-existent and would be very confusing so there's no high priority for adding that.

The first classification for acronyms should be along the final letter, then if the final word inflection is used, the class of that word.

Acronyms examples:

  • OY:hyn: OY+N+Sg+Ill
  • OY:öön OY+N+Sg+Ill
  • ADSL+N:ADSL ACRO_ÄKS ; Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
  • API+N:API ACRO_II ; Application Programming Interface
  • atk+N:atk ACRO_OO ; automaattinen tekstinkäsittely
  • BBC+N:BBC ACRO_EE ; British Broadcasting Company
  • BKT+N:BKT ACRO_EE ; Brutto-Kansan-Tuote
  • BMW+N:BMW ACRO_EE ; Bayerische Motor W
  • cd+N:cd ACRO_EE ; compact disc
  • CD+N:CD ACRO_ÄKS ; Compact Disc
  • CD-R+N:CD-R ACRO_ÄKS ; Compact Disc Read-Only
  • CD-RW+N:CD-RW ACRO_EE ; Compact Disc Read-Write
  • CIA+N:CIA ACRO_AA ; Central Intelligence Agency
  • DDR+N:DDR ACRO_ÄKS ; Deutsches Democratische Republic
  • DJ+N:DJ ACRO_II ; Disc Jockey
  • dna+N:dna ACRO_AA ; deoxyribonucleic acid
  • DNA+N:DNA ACRO_AA ; Deoxyribo-Nucleic Acid
  • DPI+N:DPI ACRO_II ; Dots Per Inch
  • DVD+N:DVD ACRO_ÄKS ; Digital Versatile Disc
  • EEC+N:EEC ACRO_EE ; European Economy Council
  • EKP+N:EKP ACRO_EE ; Euroopan Keskus-Pankki
  • EMU+N:EMU ACRO_UU ; European Monetary Union
  • ETY+N:ETY ACRO_YY ; Euroopan Turvallisuus-Yhteisö
  • EU+N:EU ACRO_UU ; Euroopan Unioni
  • EY+N:EY ACRO_YY ; Euroopan Yhteisö
  • FBI+N:FBI ACRO_II ; Federal Bureau of Investigation
  • FIFA+N:FIFA ACRO_AA ; Football
  • FTP+N:FTP ACRO_EE ; File Transfer Protocol
  • GM+N:GM ACRO_ÄKS ; General Motors
  • HIFK+N:HIFK ACRO_OO ; Helsingfors
  • HIV+N:HIV ACRO_EE ; ... Immunodeficiency Virus
  • HJK+N:HJK ACRO_OO ; Helsingin Jalkapallo-Klubi
  • HKL+N:HKL ACRO_ÄKS ; Helsingin Kaupungin Liikenne
  • HS+N:HS ACRO_ÄKS ; Helsingin Sanomat
  • HTML+N:HTML ACRO_ÄKS ; Hyper-Text Markup Language
  • HTTP+N:HTTP ACRO_EE ; Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol
  • IBM+N:IBM ACRO_ÄKS ; International Business Machines
  • internet-tv+N:internet-tv ACRO_EE ; Tele-Visio
  • IP+N:IP ACRO_EE ; Internet Protocol
  • IRC+N:IRC ACRO_EE ; Internet Relay Chat
  • ISBN+N:ISBN ACRO_ÄKS ; International Serial Book Number
  • IT+N:IT ACRO_EE ; Informaatio-Teknologia
  • KHO+N:KHO ACRO_OO ; Korkein Hovi-Oikeus
  • KOP+N:KOP ACRO_EE ; Kansallis-Osake-Pankki
  • lehtiö-pc+N:lehtiö-pc ACRO_EE ; Personal Computer
  • media-pc+N:media-pc ACRO_EE ; Personal Computer
  • MTV3+N:MTV3 ACRO_KOLME ; Mainos-Tele-Visio
  • MTV+N:MTV ACRO_EE ; Music TeleVision
  • NASA+N:NASA ACRO_AA ; National Air and Space A
  • NATO+N:NATO ACRO_OO ; North-Atlantic T Organisation
  • NBA+N:NBA ACRO_AA ; National Basketball Association
  • netti-tv+N:netti-tv ACRO_EE ; Tele-visio
  • NHL+N:NHL ACRO_ÄKS ; National Hockey League
  • NL+N:NL ACRO_ÄKS ; Neuvosto-Liitto
  • NPC+N:NPC ACRO_EE ; Non-Player Character
  • OK+N:OK ACRO_OO ; not pronounced in words
  • oyj+N:oyj ACRO_II ; Julkinen Osake-Yhtiö (!)
  • oy+N:oy ACRO_YY ; Osake-Yhtiö
  • OY+N:OY ACRO_YY ; Osake-Yhtiö
  • paneeli-pc+N:paneeli-pc ACRO_EE ; Personal Computer
  • PDF+N:PDF ACRO_ÄKS ; Portable Document Format
  • pH+N:pH ACRO_OO ; per Hydrogen
  • pien-pc+N:pien-pc ACRO_EE ; Personal Computer
  • pinta-WWW+N:pinta-WWW ACRO_EE ; World Wide Web
  • PPI+N:PPI ACRO_II ; Points Per Inch
  • PR+N:PR ACRO_ÄKS ; Public Relations
  • RNA+N:RNA ACRO_AA ; Ribonucleic Acid
  • SAK+N:SAK ACRO_OO ; Suomen Ammattiliittojen Keskusjärjestö
  • SDP+N:SDP ACRO_EE ; Sosiali-Demokraattinen Puolue
  • SGML+N:SGML ACRO_ÄKS ; Standardised General Markup Language
  • SKDL+N:SKDL ACRO_ÄKS ; Suomen Kristillis-Demokraattien Liitto
  • Skp+N:Skp ACRO_EE ; Suomen keskuspankki
  • SOK+N:SOK ACRO_OO ; Suomen Osuus-Kauppa
  • SPR+N:SPR ACRO_ÄKS ; Suomen Punainen Risti
  • SQL+N:SQL ACRO_ÄKS ; Structured Query Language
  • STT+N:STT ACRO_EE ; Suomen Tieto-Toimisto
  • SUL+N:SUL ACRO_ÄKS ; Suomen Urheilu-Liitto
  • TCP/IP+N:TCP/IP ACRO_EE ; Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
  • TCP+N:TCP ACRO_EE ; Transmission Control Protocol
  • TI+N:TI ACRO_II ; Texas Instruments
  • TM+N:TM ACRO_ÄKS ; Tekniikan Maailma
  • TPS+N:TPS ACRO_ÄKS ; Turun Pallo-Seura
  • TS+N:TS ACRO_ÄKS ; Turun Sanomat
  • tv+N:tv ACRO_EE ; tele-visio
  • URL+N:URL ACRO_ÄKS ; Uniform Resource Locator
  • USA+N:USA ACRO_AA ; United States of America
  • VIP+N:VIP ACRO_EE ; Very Important Person
  • VR+N:VR ACRO_ÄKS ; Valtion Rautatiet
  • VW+N:VW ACRO_EE ; Volks Wagen
  • WAP+N:WAP ACRO_EE ; Wireless Application Protocol
  • WC+N:WC ACRO_EE ; Water Closet
  • WHO+N:WHO ACRO_OO ; World Health Organisation
  • WSOY+N:WSOY ACRO_YY ; Werner-Söderström Osake-Yhtiö
  • WTO+N:WTO ACRO_OO ; World Trade Organisation
  • WWF+N:WWF ACRO_ÄKS ; World Wildlife Foundation
  • www+N:www ACRO_EE ; world wide web
  • WWW+N:WWW ACRO_EE ; World Wide Web
  • XML+N:XML ACRO_ÄKS ; Extensible Markup Language
  • Y2K+N:Y2K ACRO_OO ; not spelled out
  • YK+N:YK ACRO_OO ; Yhdistyneet Kansakunnat
  • YT+N:YT ACRO_EE ; Yhteistyö?
  • ÄO+N:ÄO ACRO_OO ; Älykkyysosamäärä

Acronym inflection

Acronyms are inflected using a colon, followed by the inflectional endings, which depend on either last letter of the word or inflection class of the last word of the abbreviation. The exception to the inflection scheme is the singular nominative, which appears without colon. Pronouncable abbreviations such as aids, hiv, kela, alko etc. are actually counted as regular words with regular inflection patterns. c.f. VISK § 169

Acronyms ending in numbers inflect like the numbers are pronounced.

Adjective classification

Adjectives are words that are inflected like nouns, with few additions. For adjectives, the comparative derivations are usually allowed and the possessive suffixes are unlikely. The syntactic adjectives that do not have comparative derivations are nouns, if they have nominal inflection, or particles, if they do not inflect. The examples you need to find the correct classification are same as for nouns, with addition of comparative and superlative.

The classification of adjectives combines the stem changes, the final allomorph selection and the harmony. See the list from:

Adjective examples examples:

  • aakkostettu: aakkostettu+A+Sg+Nom
  • aakkostettuja: aakkostettu+A+Pl+Par
  • aakkostetut: aakkostettu+A+Pl+Nom
  • aakkostetumpi: aakkostettu+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • aakkostetumpina: aakkostettu+A+Comp+Pl+Ess
  • aakkostetuin: aakkostettu+A+Superl+Sg+Nom
  • aakkostetuimmat: aakkostettu+A+Superl+Pl+Nom

Adjective inflection

The adjectives are inflected like regular nouns. The only morphological difference in adjectives compared to other nouns is higher likelihood of comparative derivations–they are fully productive. For adjectives that do not compare, use qualifiers classification instead. VISK § 300

Adjective stem variation and allomorph selection

Adjective stems are formed like noun stems, with similar patterns. Adjectives have additionally the productive comparative derivations, which may have their own stems, particularly an e-stem for a-stem words. The examples in this chapter are the same set of cases as with nouns: singular nominative, singular essive, singular inessive, plural essive, plural elative, singular partitives, singular illatives, plural partitives plural genitives, plural illatives and the compound forms. And also the comparative derivations: comparative singular nominative and superlative singular nominative. Majority of adjeciteves are equivalent to corresponding noun classes, so some examples have been omitted.

Bisyllabic / derivational adjective stems without stem variation

The most basic adjective stems do not have any stem internal variation. They end in o, u, y or ö, and with some limited set of new words, e. This class has the fewest allomorphs. There are a number of productive adjective classes in this section, including all lexicalised nut participle’s passives (-tu, -ty), moderative derivations (-hko, -hkö) and ... Examples follow in specific sub-classes.

The words in this class ending in o belong to ADJ_TUMMAHKO, the old dictionaries use class ¹. The stems should be entered in dictionary like:

tummahko+A:tummahko A_TUMMAHKO  ;

This class includes back vowel moderative derivations. N.B. the comparative derivation of moderatives is semantically awkward, but morphologically plausible.

Adjectives 1 o examples:

  • tummahko: tummahko+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # darkish)
  • tummahkona: tummahko+A+Sg+Ess
  • tummahkossa: tummahko+A+Sg+Ine
  • tummahkoina: tummahko+A+Pl+Ess
  • tummahkoissa: tummahko+A+Pl+Ine
  • tummahkoa: tummahko+A+Sg+Par
  • *tummahkota: tummahko+A+Sg+Par (is not standard language)
  • tummahkoon: tummahko+A+Sg+Ill
  • *tummahkohon: tummahko+A+Sg+Ill (is not standard language)
  • *tummahkoseen: tummahko+A+Sg+Ill (is not standard language)
  • tummahkoja: tummahko+A+Pl+Par
  • *tummahkoita: tummahko+A+Pl+Par (is not standard language)
  • tummahkojen: tummahko+A+Pl+Gen
  • *tummahkoiden: tummahko+A+Pl+Gen (is not standard language)
  • *tummahkoitten: tummahko+A+Pl+Gen (is not standard language)
  • tummahkoihin: tummahko+A+Pl+Ill
  • *tummahkoisiin: tummahko+A+Pl+Ill (is not standard language)
  • tummahkompi: tummahko+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • tummahkoin: tummahko+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The stems ending in u are in class ADJ_VALKAISTU, and in old dictionaries the class is ¹. These stems should be entered in dictionary like:

valkaistu+A:valkaistu A_VALKAISTU  ;

Common part of this class is formed by nut participle passive’s _back_ vowel versions after s stem verbs:

Adjectives 1 u examples:

  • valkaistu: valkaistu+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # bleached)
  • valkaistua: valkaistu+A+Sg+Par
  • valkaistuun: valkaistu+A+Sg+Ill
  • valkaistuna: valkaistu+A+Sg+Ess
  • valkaistussa: valkaistu+A+Sg+Ine
  • valkaistuja: valkaistu+A+Pl+Par
  • valkaistujen: valkaistu+A+Pl+Gen
  • valkaistuihin: valkaistu+A+Pl+Ill
  • valkaistuina: valkaistu+A+Pl+Ess
  • valkaistuissa: valkaistu+A+Pl+Ine
  • valkaistumpi: valkaistu+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • valkaistuin: valkaistu+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The stems ending in y are in class ADJ_HÄPÄISTY, and in old dictionaries the class is ¹. Common part of this class is formed by nut participle passive’s _front_ vowel versions after s stem verbs:

Adjectives 1 y examples:

  • häpäisty: häpäisty+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # defiled)
  • häpäistyä: häpäisty+A+Sg+Par
  • häpäistyyn: häpäisty+A+Sg+Ill
  • häpäistynä: häpäisty+A+Sg+Ess
  • häpäistyssä: häpäisty+A+Sg+Ine
  • häpäistyjä: häpäisty+A+Pl+Par
  • häpäistyjen: häpäisty+A+Pl+Gen
  • häpäistyihin: häpäisty+A+Pl+Ill
  • häpäistyinä: häpäisty+A+Pl+Ess
  • häpäistyissä: häpäisty+A+Pl+Ine
  • häpäistympi: häpäisty+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • häpäistyin: häpäisty+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The words in this class ending in ö belong to ADJ_HÖLÖ, the old dictionaries use class ¹. This class includes front vowel moderative derivations.

Adjectives 1 ö examples:

  • hölö: hölö+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # blabbermouth)
  • hölöä: hölö+A+Sg+Par
  • hölöön: hölö+A+Sg+Ill
  • hölönä: hölö+A+Sg+Ess
  • hölössä: hölö+A+Sg+Ine
  • hölöjä: hölö+A+Pl+Par
  • hölöjen: hölö+A+Pl+Gen
  • hölöihin: hölö+A+Pl+Ill
  • hölöinä: hölö+A+Pl+Ess
  • hölöissä: hölö+A+Pl+Ine
  • hölömpi: hölö+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • hölöin: hölö+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The new words with e stem have same allomorph selection as old short unchanging bisyllabic u, y, o and ö stems, and no stem-internal variation. The classification for the back vowel variant of this class is ADJ_TOOPE, and old dictionaries used the class ⁸.

Adjectives 8 back examples:

  • toope: toope+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # doofus)
  • toopea: toope+A+Sg+Par
  • toopeen: toope+A+Sg+Ill
  • toopeja: toope+A+Pl+Par
  • toopejen: toope+A+Pl+Gen
  • toopeihin: toope+A+Pl+Ill
  • toopempi: toope+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • toopein: toope+A+Superl+Sg+Nom They also have slightly greater probability for archaic form of plural genitive:
  • toopein: toope+A+Pl+Gen+Use/Rare

The front variation of unchanging e stems is class @LEXNAME, and in old dictionaries ⁸.

Adjectives 8 front examples:

  • beige: beige+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # beige)
  • beigeä: beige+A+Sg+Par
  • beigeen: beige+A+Sg+Ill
  • beigejä: beige+A+Pl+Par
  • beigejen: beige+A+Pl+Gen
  • beigeihin: beige+A+Pl+Ill
  • beigempi: beige+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • beigein: beige+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

Trisyllabic and longer non-derived adjectuve stems

The trisyllabic and longer words with stem vowels o, u, y and ö also have no stem variation either, but selection of suffix allomorphs for plural genitives and partitives is wider than for bisyllabic and derived ones.

The o final trisyllabic stems are in class ADJ_KOHELO, and the old dictionaries used ².

Adjectives 2 o examples:

  • tohelo: tohelo+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # clumsy)
  • toheloita: tohelo+A+Pl+Par
  • toheloja: tohelo+A+Pl+Par
  • tohelojen: tohelo+A+Pl+Gen
  • toheloiden: tohelo+A+Pl+Gen
  • toheloitten: tohelo+A+Pl+Gen
  • tohelompi: tohelo+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • toheloin: tohelo+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

And the trisyllabic ö stem is classified ADJ_LÖPERÖ.

Adjectives 2 ö examples:

  • löperö: löperö+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # sloppy)
  • löperöjen: löperö+A+Pl+Gen
  • löperöiden: löperö+A+Pl+Gen
  • löperöitten: löperö+A+Pl+Gen
  • löperömpi: löperö+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • löperöin: löperö+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

Unchanging long vowel stems

The words with stem vowels o, u, y and ö preceded by vowels still have no stem variation, but use yet another pattern of allomorphs for singular and plural partitives and plural genitive

The class for o final long vowel stems is ADJ_AUTIO, and old old dictionaries used ³.

Adjectives 3 o examples:

  • autio: autio+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # deserted)
  • autiota: autio+A+Sg+Par
  • *autioa: autio+A+Sg+Par (is not standard language)
  • autioita: autio+A+Pl+Par
  • autioiden: autio+A+Pl+Gen
  • autioitten: autio+A+Pl+Gen
  • autiompi: autio+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • autioin: autio+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The front voweled stems with ö after vowels go to class ADJ_RIIVIÖ, and used the old dictionary class ³.

Adjectives 3 ö examples:

  • riiviö: riiviö+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # nasty)
  • riiviötä: riiviö+A+Sg+Par
  • riiviöiden: riiviö+A+Pl+Gen
  • riiviöitten: riiviö+A+Pl+Gen
  • riiviömpi: riiviö+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • riiviöin: riiviö+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

There are no examples of new loan word adjectives ending in long vowel Furthermore there are no examples of adjectives in other classes without stem variation yet. There are some examples of these in nouns if you need new classes at some point.

The abovementioned o, u, y and ö stems as well as new e stems can all form combinations with gradation feature as well. Not all combinations are yet found for adjectives, for full reference, read the noun classes.

The quantitative k gradations with o bisyllabic o stem use class ADJ_KOLKKO, and old dictionaries use classes ¹⁻A and ¹⁻D.

Adjective gradations 1 k~0 o examples:

  • kolkko: kolkko+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # gloomy)
  • kolkossa: kolkko+A+Sg+Ine
  • kolkoista: kolkko+A+Pl+Ela
  • kolkkoihin: kolkko+A+Pl+Ill
  • kolkompi: kolkko+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • kolkoin: kolkko+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The quantitative k gradations with u bisyllabic o stem use class ADJ_VIRKKU, and old dictionaries use classes ¹⁻A and ¹⁻D.

Adjective gradations 1 k~0 u examples:

  • virkku: virkku+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # ???)
  • virkussa: virkku+A+Sg+Ine
  • virkuista: virkku+A+Pl+Ela
  • virkkuihin: virkku+A+Pl+Ill
  • virkumpi: virkku+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • virkuin: virkku+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The quantitative k gradations with y bisyllabic o stem use class ADJ_SÄIKKY, and old dictionaries use classes ¹⁻A and ¹⁻D.

Adjective gradations 1 k~0 y examples:

  • säikky: säikky+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # ???)
  • säikyssä: säikky+A+Sg+Ine
  • säikyistä: säikky+A+Pl+Ela
  • säikkyihin: säikky+A+Pl+Ill
  • säikympi: säikky+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • säikyin: säikky+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The quantitative k gradations with o bisyllabic ö stem use class ADJ_KÖKKÖ, and old dictionaries use classes ¹⁻A and ¹⁻D.

Adjective gradations 1 k~0 ö examples:

  • kökkö: kökkö+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # ???)
  • kökössä: kökkö+A+Sg+Ine
  • kököistä: kökkö+A+Pl+Ela
  • kökköihin: kökkö+A+Pl+Ill
  • kökömpi: kökkö+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • kököin: kökkö+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

there is no unvarying e final adjective with _k ~ 0_ gradation.

The quantitative gradation of p before o is in class ADJ_SUIPPO and old dictionaries would use ¹⁻B.

Adjective gradations 1 p~0 o examples:

  • suippo: suippo+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # ?)
  • suipossa: suippo+A+Sg+Ine
  • suipoista: suippo+A+Pl+Ela
  • suippoihin: suippo+A+Pl+Ill
  • suipompi: suippo+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • suipoin: suippo+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The quantitative gradation of p before u is in class ADJ_IKÄLOPPU and old dictionaries would use ¹⁻B. It is only a nominal compound based adjective that ends in u and has p ~ 0 gradation here:

Adjective gradations 1 p~0 u examples:

  • ikäloppu: ikäloppu+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # age-old)
  • ikälopussa: ikäloppu+A+Sg+Ine
  • ikälopuista: ikäloppu+A+Pl+Ela
  • ikäloppuihin: ikäloppu+A+Pl+Ill
  • ikälopumpi: ikäloppu+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • ikälopuin: ikäloppu+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

and none of the adjectives end in y and quantitative p gradation.

The quantitative gradation of p before ö is in class ADJ_LÖRPPÖ and old dictionaries would use ¹⁻B.

Adjective gradations 1 p~0 ö examples:

  • lörppö: lörppö+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # blabbermouth)
  • lörpössä: lörppö+A+Sg+Ine
  • lörpöistä: lörppö+A+Pl+Ela
  • lörppöihin: lörppö+A+Pl+Ill
  • lörpömpi: lörppö+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • lörpöin: lörppö+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The quantitative gradation of t before o is in class ADJ_VELTTO, which was ¹⁻C in the dictionary.

Adjective gradations 1 t~0 o examples:

  • veltto: veltto+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # lazy)
  • veltossa: veltto+A+Sg+Ine
  • veltoista: veltto+A+Pl+Ela
  • velttoihin: veltto+A+Pl+Ill
  • veltompi: veltto+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • veltoin: veltto+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The quantitative gradation of t before u is in class ADJ_VIMMATTU, which was ¹⁻C in the dictionary. The u stems with quantitative t gradation are commonest with nut participle passive derivation’s back form (-ttu).

Adjective gradations 1 t~0 u examples:

  • vimmattu: vimmattu+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # wicked)
  • vimmatussa: vimmattu+A+Sg+Ine
  • vimmatuista: vimmattu+A+Pl+Ela
  • vimmattuihin: vimmattu+A+Pl+Ill
  • vimmatumpi: vimmattu+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • vimmatuin: vimmattu+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The quantitative gradation of t before y is in class ADJ_YLENNETTY, which was ¹⁻C in the dictionary. The u stems with quantitative t gradation are commonest with nut participle passive derivation’s front (-tty).

Adjective gradations 1 t~0 y examples:

  • ylennetty: ylennetty+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # promoted)
  • ylennetyssä: ylennetty+A+Sg+Ine
  • ylennetyistä: ylennetty+A+Pl+Ela
  • ylennettyihin: ylennetty+A+Pl+Ill
  • ylennetympi: ylennetty+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • ylennetyin: ylennetty+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The quantitative gradation of t before y is in class ADJ_KYYTTÖ, which was ¹⁻C in the dictionary.

Adjective gradations 1 t~0 ö examples:

  • kyyttö: kyyttö+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # ?????)
  • kyytössä: kyyttö+A+Sg+Ine
  • kyytöistä: kyyttö+A+Pl+Ela
  • kyyttöihin: kyyttö+A+Pl+Ill
  • kyytömpi: kyyttö+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • kyytöin: kyyttö+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The quantitave k gradation has a variant that allows use of apostrophe instead of nothing in the weak grade.

The class for o final bisyllabic stems with optional ’ is ADJ_LAKO, this is a subset of dictionary class ¹⁻D.

Adjective gradations 1 k~’~0 o examples:

  • lako: lako+A+Sg+Nom
  • laossa: lako+A+Sg+Ine
  • la’ossa: lako+A+Sg+Ine
  • laompi: lako+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • laoin: lako+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

There's no k to optional apostrophe with u. nor with y and k: nor ö with k: There's none with k gradating to always apostrophe either. For examples of these, see noun classes

The qualitative gradation of p between vowels in o stems goes to v, the class for this is ADJ_KELPO, the dictionary class for this is ¹⁻E.

Adjective gradations 1 p~v o examples:

  • kelpo: kelpo+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # proper)
  • kelvossa: kelpo+A+Sg+Ine
  • kelpoina: kelpo+A+Pl+Ess
  • kelvoista: kelpo+A+Pl+Ela
  • kelvompi: kelpo+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • kelvoin: kelpo+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

There are none ending in vowel + pu nor with y and p nor ö with p.

The gradation of t ~ d after o is in class ADJ_MIETO, the dictionary class for this is ¹⁻F.

Adjective gradations 1 t~d o examples:

  • mieto: mieto+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # mild)
  • miedossa: mieto+A+Sg+Ine
  • mietoihin: mieto+A+Pl+Ill
  • miedoista: mieto+A+Pl+Ela
  • miedompi: mieto+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • miedoin: mieto+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The gradation of t ~ d after u is in class ADJ_VIIPALOITU, the dictionary class for this is ¹⁻F. The commonest t ~ d variation in u stems comes from nut participle’s passive’s back form (-tu).

Adjective gradations 1 t~d u examples:

  • viipaloitu: viipaloitu+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # sliced)
  • viipaloidussa: viipaloitu+A+Sg+Ine
  • viipaloituihin: viipaloitu+A+Pl+Ill
  • viipaloiduista: viipaloitu+A+Pl+Ela
  • viipaloidumpi: viipaloitu+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • viipaloiduin: viipaloitu+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The gradation of t ~ d after u is in class ADJ_YKSILÖITY, the dictionary class for this is ¹⁻F. The commonest t ~ d variation in u stems comes from nut participle’s passive’s front form (-ty).

Adjective gradations 1 t~d y examples:

  • yksilöity: yksilöity+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # singled)
  • yksilöidyssä: yksilöity+A+Sg+Ine
  • yksilöityihin: yksilöity+A+Pl+Ill
  • yksilöidyistä: yksilöity+A+Pl+Ela
  • yksilöidympi: yksilöity+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • yksilöidyin: yksilöity+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

And there's none with t and ö

The adjectives with -nko stem belong to class ADJ_LENKO, and the dictionary class was ¹⁻G.

Adjective gradations 1 k~g o examples:

  • lenko: lenko+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # crooked)
  • lengossa: lenko+A+Sg+Ine
  • lengoista: lenko+A+Pl+Ela
  • lenkoihin: lenko+A+Pl+Ill
  • lengompi: lenko+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • lengoin: lenko+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

There's no adjectives ending in nku nor with y and nk And ö with nk There are no gradating p's after m's in unchanging stems For all these, check the noun patterns. The quantitative gradation of t after l in o stems is in class ADJ_MELTO, which corresponds to dictionary class ¹⁻I.

Adjective gradations 1 t~l o examples:

  • melto: melto+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # ?????)
  • mellossa: melto+A+Sg+Ine
  • meltoihin: melto+A+Pl+Ill
  • melloista: melto+A+Pl+Ela
  • mellompi: melto+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • melloin: melto+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The quantitative gradation of t after l in o stems is in class ADJ_PARANNELTU, which corresponds to dictionary class ¹⁻I. The common u stem after l is in nut participles passive (-tu):

Adjective gradations 1 t~l u examples:

  • paranneltu: paranneltu+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # embettered)
  • parannellussa: paranneltu+A+Sg+Ine
  • paranneltuihin: paranneltu+A+Pl+Ill
  • parannelluista: paranneltu+A+Pl+Ela
  • parannellumpi: paranneltu+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • parannelluin: paranneltu+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The quantitative gradation of t after l in o stems is in class ADJ_VÄHÄTELTY, which corresponds to dictionary class ¹⁻I. As with y and t:

Adjective gradations 1 t~l y examples:

  • vähätelty: vähätelty+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # belittled)
  • vähätellyssä: vähätelty+A+Sg+Ine
  • vähäteltyihin: vähätelty+A+Pl+Ill
  • vähätellyistä: vähätelty+A+Pl+Ela
  • vähätellympi: vähätelty+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • vähätellyin: vähätelty+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

There's no adjective ending -ltö in our lexical database.

The quantitative gradation of t after n in o stems is in class ADJ_VENTO, which corresponds to dictionary class ¹⁻J.

Adjective gradations 1 t~n o examples:

  • vento: vento+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # ?)
  • vennossa: vento+A+Sg+Ine
  • ventoihin: vento+A+Pl+Ill
  • vennoista: vento+A+Pl+Ela
  • vennompi: vento+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • vennoin: vento+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The quantitative gradation of t after n in u stems is in class ADJ_PANTU, which corresponds to dictionary class ¹⁻I. The common u stem after n is in nut participle’s passive’s back form (-tu):

Adjective gradations 1 t~n u examples:

  • pantu: pantu+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # brewed)
  • pannussa: pantu+A+Sg+Ine
  • pantuihin: pantu+A+Pl+Ill
  • pannuista: pantu+A+Pl+Ela
  • pannumpi: pantu+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • pannuin: pantu+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The quantitative gradation of t after n in y stems is in class ADJ_MENTY, which corresponds to dictionary class ¹⁻I. The common u stem after n is in nut participle’s passive’s front form (-ty):

Adjective gradations 1 t~n y examples:

  • menty: menty+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # belittled)
  • mennyssä: menty+A+Sg+Ine
  • mentyihin: menty+A+Pl+Ill
  • mennyistä: menty+A+Pl+Ela
  • mennympi: menty+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • mennyin: menty+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

There are no adjectives ending in -ntö

The quantitative gradation of t after r in o stems is in class ADJ_MARTO, which corresponds to dictionary class ¹⁻J.

Adjective gradations 1 t~r o examples:

  • marto: marto+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # ???)
  • marrossa: marto+A+Sg+Ine
  • martoihin: marto+A+Pl+Ill
  • marroista: marto+A+Pl+Ela
  • marrompi: marto+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • marroin: marto+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The quantitative gradation of t after r in u stems is in class ADJ_PURTU, which corresponds to dictionary class ¹⁻J. The common u stem after r is in nut participle’s passive’s back form (-tu):

Adjective gradations 1 t~r u examples:

  • purtu: purtu+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # bitten)
  • purrussa: purtu+A+Sg+Ine
  • purtuihin: purtu+A+Pl+Ill
  • purruista: purtu+A+Pl+Ela
  • purrumpi: purtu+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • purruin: purtu+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The quantitative gradation of t after r in y stems is in class ADJ_PIERTY, which corresponds to dictionary class ¹⁻J. The common u stem after r is in nut participle’s passive’s front fomr (-ty):

Adjective gradations 1 t~r y examples:

  • pierty: pierty+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # befarted)
  • pierryssä: pierty+A+Sg+Ine
  • piertyihin: pierty+A+Pl+Ill
  • pierryistä: pierty+A+Pl+Ela
  • pierrympi: pierty+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • pierryin: pierty+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

There are no adjectives ending in -rtö. Just as well, the class for UkU : UvU- is limited to few nouns we know.

The special illative alternation with k gradation, unaltering stems

The trisyllabic words ending with gradating long k have plural illative in both strong and weak forms.

The class for trisyllabic -kko stems is ADJ_HUPAKKO, the corresponding dictionary class is ⁴⁻D.

Adjectives 4 o examples:

  • hupakko: hupakko+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # silly girl)
  • hupakoihin: hupakko+A+Pl+Ill
  • hupakkoihin: hupakko+A+Pl+Ill
  • hupakompi: hupakko+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • hupakoin: hupakko+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

Adjective stems with i:e variations

The i stems of new i final words have i : e : 0 variation. These classes include new loans ending in consonant, which use -i to form inflectional stems. The i stems combined with gradation of will form five separate stem variants:

The i finals with back vowel harmony go to class ADJ_ABNORMI, where old dictionary classification was ⁵.

Adjectives 5 back examples:

  • abnormi: abnormi+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # abnorm)
  • abnormeina: abnormi+A+Pl+Ess
  • abnormien: abnormi+A+Pl+Gen
  • abnormimpi: abnormi+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • abnormein: abnormi+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The i finals with front vowel harmony go to class ADJ_STYDI, where old dictionary classification was ⁵.

Adjectives 5 front examples:

  • stydi: stydi+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # stiff)
  • stydeinä: stydi+A+Pl+Ess
  • stydien: stydi+A+Pl+Gen
  • stydimpi: stydi+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • stydein: stydi+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

Stems with quantitative k gradation, i final and back harmony are in class ADJ_OPAAKKI and dictionary class ⁵⁻A or ⁵⁻D.

Adjectives 5 k~0 back examples:

  • opaakki: opaakki+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # opaque)
  • opaakissa: opaakki+A+Sg+Ine
  • opaakkeina: opaakki+A+Pl+Ess
  • opaakeista: opaakki+A+Pl+Ela
  • opaakkien: opaakki+A+Pl+Gen
  • opaakimpi: opaakki+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • opaakein: opaakki+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

Stems with quantitative k gradation, i final and front harmony are in class ADJ_PINKKI and dictionary class ⁵⁻A or ⁵⁻D.

Adjectives 5 k~0 front examples:

  • pinkki: pinkki+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # pink)
  • pinkissä: pinkki+A+Sg+Ine
  • pinkkeinä: pinkki+A+Pl+Ess
  • pinkeistä: pinkki+A+Pl+Ela
  • pinkkien: pinkki+A+Pl+Gen
  • pinkimpi: pinkki+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • pinkein: pinkki+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

There's no back vowel version of the bisyllabic gradating -ppi form.

Stems with quantitative p gradation, i final and front harmony are in class ADJ_SIPPI and dictionary class ⁵⁻B.

Adjectives 5 p~0 front examples:

  • sippi: sippi+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # bust)
  • sipissä: sippi+A+Sg+Ine
  • sippeinä: sippi+A+Pl+Ess
  • sipeistä: sippi+A+Pl+Ela
  • sippien: sippi+A+Pl+Gen
  • sipimpi: sippi+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • sipein: sippi+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

Stems with quantitative t gradation, i final and back harmony are in class ADJ_HURTTI and dictionary class ⁵⁻C.

Adjectives 5 t~0 back examples:

  • hurtti: hurtti+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # grunchy)
  • hurtissa: hurtti+A+Sg+Ine
  • hurtteina: hurtti+A+Pl+Ess
  • hurteista: hurtti+A+Pl+Ela
  • hurttien: hurtti+A+Pl+Gen
  • hurtimpi: hurtti+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • hurtein: hurtti+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

Stems with quantitative t gradation, i final and front harmony are in class ADJ_VÄÄRTTI and dictionary class ⁵⁻C.

Adjectives 5 t~0 front examples:

  • väärtti: väärtti+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # worthy)
  • väärtissä: väärtti+A+Sg+Ine
  • väärtteinä: väärtti+A+Pl+Ess
  • väärteistä: väärtti+A+Pl+Ela
  • väärttien: väärtti+A+Pl+Gen
  • väärtimpi: väärtti+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • väärtein: väärtti+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

There are no bisyllabic adjectives ending in vowel and gradating -pi.

Stems with t ~ d gradation, i final and back harmony are in class ADJ_TUHTI and dictionary class ⁵⁻F.

Adjectives 5 t~d back examples:

  • tuhti: tuhti+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # stocky)
  • tuhdissa: tuhti+A+Sg+Ine
  • tuhteina: tuhti+A+Pl+Ess
  • tuhdeista: tuhti+A+Pl+Ela
  • tuhtien: tuhti+A+Pl+Gen
  • tuhdimpi: tuhti+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • tuhdein: tuhti+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

Stems with t ~ d gradation, i final and front harmony are in class ADJ_REHTI and dictionary class ⁵⁻F.

Adjectives 5 t~d front examples:

  • rehti: rehti+A+Sg+Nom
  • rehdissä: rehti+A+Sg+Ine
  • rehteinä: rehti+A+Pl+Ess
  • rehdeistä: rehti+A+Pl+Ela
  • rehtien: rehti+A+Pl+Gen
  • rehdimpi: rehti+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • rehdein: rehti+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

There are no adjectives with i stems with other gradations.

Trisyllabic and longer i stems

The i stems with trisyllabic allomorph sets have class ADJ_ABNORMAALI, and dictionary class of ⁶.

Adjectives 6 back examples:

  • abnormaali: abnormaali+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # abnormal)
  • abnormaaleja: abnormaali+A+Pl+Par
  • abnormaaleiden: abnormaali+A+Pl+Gen
  • abnormaalimpi: abnormaali+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • abnormaalein: abnormaali+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The i stems with trisyllabic allomorph sets have class ADJ_ÖYKKÄRI, and dictionary class of ⁶.

Adjectives 6 front examples:

  • öykkäri: öykkäri+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # chav)
  • öykkärejä: öykkäri+A+Pl+Par
  • öykkäreiden: öykkäri+A+Pl+Gen
  • öykkärimpi: öykkäri+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • öykkärein: öykkkäri+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

There are no adjectives acting like nouns where i-final nominatives have singular e stems.

Bisyllabic A-stem adjectives

The a stems differ from regular nouns in one more feature: some of them, but not all, have a: e variation before the comparative stem. The selection of this feature may be phonological, but it is complex, and often there is variation between speakers. The plural partitives and genitives are a good indicator of classificaion of a, ä final stems, as are the vowels of comparative and plural stems.

Bisyllabic a stems with e comparative and j plurals are in class ADJ_AAVA, and dictionary class ⁹.

Adjectives 9 examples:

  • aava: aava+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # open (of fields, plains))
  • aavaa: aava+A+Sg+Par
  • aavana: aava+A+Sg+Ess
  • aavassa: aava+A+Sg+Ine
  • aavoina: aava+A+Pl+Ess
  • aavojen: aava+A+Pl+Gen
  • aavoihin: aava+A+Pl+Ill
  • aavempi: aava+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • aavoin: aava+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The ka stem with e comparative and j plurals is ADJ_TARKKA, and the dictionary class is ⁹-A or ⁹⁻D.

Adjectives 9 k~0 examples:

  • tarkka: tarkka+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # pedantic)
  • tarkkaa: tarkka+A+Sg+Par
  • tarkkana: tarkka+A+Sg+Ess
  • tarkassa: tarkka+A+Sg+Ine
  • tarkkoina: tarkka+A+Pl+Ess
  • tarkkojen: tarkka+A+Pl+Gen
  • tarkkoihin: tarkka+A+Pl+Ill
  • tarkempi: tarkka+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • tarkoin: tarkka+Superl+Sg+Nom

No a final adjectives with quantitative p gradation.

The ta stem with j plurals is ADJ_MATTA, and the dictionary class is ⁹-C.

Adjectives 9 t~0 examples:

  • matta: matta+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # matta)
  • mattaa: matta+A+Sg+Par
  • mattana: matta+A+Sg+Ess
  • matassa: matta+A+Sg+Ine
  • mattoina: matta+A+Pl+Ess
  • mattojen: matta+A+Pl+Gen
  • mattoihin: matta+A+Pl+Ill
  • matempi: matta+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • matoin: matta+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The pa : va stem with e comparative and j plurals is ADJ_HALPA, and the dictionary class is ⁹⁻E.

Adjectives 9 p~v examples:

  • halpa: halpa+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # cheap)
  • halpaa: halpa+A+Sg+Par
  • halpana: halpa+A+Sg+Ess
  • halvassa: halpa+A+Sg+Ine
  • halpoina: halpa+A+Pl+Ess
  • halpojen: halpa+A+Pl+Gen
  • halpoihin: halpa+A+Pl+Ill
  • halvempi: halpa+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • halvoin: halpa+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The ta : da stem with a comparative and j plurals is ADJ_EHTA, and the dictionary class is ⁹⁻F.

Adjectives 9 t~d examples:

  • ehta: ehta+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # legit)
  • ehtaa: ehta+A+Sg+Par
  • ehtana: ehta+A+Sg+Ess
  • ehdassa: ehta+A+Sg+Ine
  • ehtoina: ehta+A+Pl+Ess
  • ehtojen: ehta+A+Pl+Gen
  • ehtoihin: ehta+A+Pl+Ill
  • ehdampi: ehta+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • ehdoin: ehta+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

None with k: g gradation.

The pa : ma stem with e comparative and j plurals is ADJ_RAMPA, and the dictionary class is ⁹⁻H.

Adjectives 9 p~m examples:

  • rampa: rampa+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # crippled)
  • rampaa: rampa+A+Sg+Par
  • rampana: rampa+A+Sg+Ess
  • rammassa: rampa+A+Sg+Ine
  • rampoina: rampa+A+Pl+Ess
  • rampojen: rampa+A+Pl+Gen
  • rampoihin: rampa+A+Pl+Ill
  • rammempi: rampa+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • rammoin: rampa+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

No a stems with t: l gradations

The ta : na stem with a comparative and j plurals is ADJ_VIHANTA, and the dictionary class is ⁹⁻J.

Adjectives 9 p~n examples:

  • vihanta: vihanta+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # blooming)
  • vihantaa: vihanta+A+Sg+Par
  • vihantana: vihanta+A+Sg+Ess
  • vihannassa: vihanta+A+Sg+Ine
  • vihantoina: vihanta+A+Pl+Ess
  • vihantojen: vihanta+A+Pl+Gen
  • vihantoihin: vihanta+A+Pl+Ill
  • vihannampi: vihanta+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • vihannoin: vihanta+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

And finally, no a stems with t: r or t: l gradations.

Some other trisyllabic a finals with a :0 plurals

Mostly regular a comparatives, no a : o variation and more syllables. Common for va participles, and other derivations

The a : 0 stem is in class ADJ_AALTOILEVA and the old dictionary used ¹⁰ as the paradigm class.

Adjectives 10 back examples:

  • aaltoileva: aaltoileva+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # wavy)
  • aaltoilevaa: aaltoileva+A+Sg+Par
  • aaltoilevana: aaltoileva+A+Sg+Ess
  • aaltoilevassa: aaltoileva+A+Sg+Ine
  • aaltoilevina: aaltoileva+A+Pl+Ess
  • aaltoilevien: aaltoileva+A+Pl+Gen
  • aaltoileviin: aaltoileva+A+Pl+Ill
  • aaltoilevampi: aaltoileva+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • aaltoilevin: aaltoileva+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

The ä : 0 stem is in class ADJ_TYÖLLISTETTÄVÄ and the old dictionary used ¹⁰ as the paradigm class.

Adjectives 10 front examples:

  • työllistettävä: työllistettävä+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # employable)
  • työllistettävää: työllistettävä+A+Sg+Par
  • työllistettävänä: työllistettävä+A+Sg+Ess
  • työllistettävässä: työllistettävä+A+Sg+Ine
  • työllistettävinä: työllistettävä+A+Pl+Ess
  • työllistettävien: työllistettävä+A+Pl+Gen
  • työllistettäviin: työllistettävä+A+Pl+Ill
  • työllistettävämpi: työllistettävä+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • työllistettävin: työllistettävä+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

For a: e comparatives in a: 0 class use ADJ_RUMA. No dictionary classification or ~¹⁰,

Adjectives 10 a:e comparative examples:

  • ruma: ruma+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # ugly)
  • rumaa: ruma+A+Sg+Par
  • rumana: ruma+A+Sg+Ess
  • rumassa: ruma+A+Sg+Ine
  • rumina: ruma+A+Pl+Ess
  • rumien: ruma+A+Pl+Gen
  • rumiin: ruma+A+Pl+Ill
  • rumempi: ruma+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • rumin: ruma+A+Superl+Sg+Nom

For ä: e comparatives in a: 0 class use ADJ_TYHMÄ. No dictionary classification or ~¹⁰,

Adjectives 10 ä:e comparative examples:

  • tyhmä: tyhmä+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # stupid)
  • tyhmää: tyhmä+A+Sg+Par
  • tyhmänä: tyhmä+A+Sg+Ess
  • tyhmässä: tyhmä+A+Sg+Ine
  • tyhminä: tyhmä+A+Pl+Ess
  • tyhmien: tyhmä+A+Pl+Gen
  • tyhmiin: tyhmä+A+Pl+Ill
  • tyhmempi: tyhmä+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • tyhmin: tyhmä+A+Superl+Sg+Nom



Adjectives 10 k~0 a:e comparative examples:

  • hoikka: hoikka+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # slim)
  • hoikkaa: hoikka+A+Sg+Par
  • hoikkana: hoikka+A+Sg+Ess
  • hoikassa: hoikka+A+Sg+Ine
  • hoikkina: hoikka+A+Pl+Ess
  • hoikissa: hoikka+A+Pl+Ine
  • hoikkien: hoikka+A+Pl+Gen

Adjectives 10 k~0 ä:e comparative examples:

  • mykkä: mykkä+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # mute)
  • mykkää: mykkä+A+Sg+Par
  • mykkänä: mykkä+A+Sg+Ess
  • mykässä: mykkä+A+Sg+Ine
  • mykkinä: mykkä+A+Pl+Ess
  • mykissä: mykkä+A+Pl+Ine
  • mykkien: mykkä+A+Pl+Gen

Adjectives 10 p~0 a:e comparative examples:

  • poppa: poppa+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # hocus-pocus)
  • poppaa: poppa+A+Sg+Par
  • poppana: poppa+A+Sg+Ess
  • popassa: poppa+A+Sg+Ine
  • poppina: poppa+A+Pl+Ess
  • popissa: poppa+A+Pl+Ine
  • poppien: poppa+A+Pl+Gen

Adjectives 10 p~0 ä:e comparative examples:

  • hömppä: hömppä+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # bogus)
  • hömppää: hömppä+A+Sg+Par
  • hömppänä: hömppä+A+Sg+Ess
  • hömpässä: hömppä+A+Sg+Ine
  • hömppinä: hömppä+A+Pl+Ess
  • hömpissä: hömppä+A+Pl+Ine
  • hömppien: hömppä+A+Pl+Gen

The quantitative k and t gradations are not found for adjectives with this a stem.

Adjectives 10 p~v a:e comparative examples:

  • voipa: voipa+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # capable)
  • voipaa: voipa+A+Sg+Par
  • voipana: voipa+A+Sg+Ess
  • voivassa: voipa+A+Sg+Ine
  • voipina: voipa+A+Pl+Ess
  • voivissa: voipa+A+Pl+Ine
  • voipien: voipa+A+Pl+Gen

Adjectives 10 p~v ä:e comparative examples:

  • käypä: käypä+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # "good enough")
  • käypää: käypä+A+Sg+Par
  • käypänä: käypä+A+Sg+Ess
  • käyvässä: käypä+A+Sg+Ine
  • käypinä: käypä+A+Pl+Ess
  • käyvissä: käypä+A+Pl+Ine
  • käypien: käypä+A+Pl+Gen

The t: d is missing from this a stem.

Adjectives 10 t~d ä:e comparative examples:

  • mätä: mätä+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # rotten)
  • mätää: mätä+A+Sg+Par
  • mätänä: mätä+A+Sg+Ess
  • mädässä: mätä+A+Sg+Ine
  • mätinä: mätä+A+Pl+Ess
  • mädissä: mätä+A+Pl+Ine
  • mätien: mätä+A+Pl+Gen

Adjectives 10 k~g a:e comparative examples:

  • sanka: sanka+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # ???)
  • sankaa: sanka+A+Sg+Par
  • sankana: sanka+A+Sg+Ess
  • sangassa: sanka+A+Sg+Ine
  • sankina: sanka+A+Pl+Ess
  • sangissa: sanka+A+Pl+Ine
  • sankien: sanka+A+Pl+Gen

Adjectives 10 k~g ä:e comparative examples:

  • vänkä: vänkä+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # goofy)
  • vänkää: vänkä+A+Sg+Par
  • vänkänä: vänkä+A+Sg+Ess
  • vängässä: vänkä+A+Sg+Ine
  • vängissä: vänkä+A+Pl+Ine
  • vänkiin: vänkä+A+Pl+Ill

p: m is missing from this a, ä stems.

Adjectives 10 t~l a:e comparative examples:

  • kulta: kulta+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # dear)
  • kultaa: kulta+A+Sg+Par
  • kultana: kulta+A+Sg+Ess
  • kullassa: kulta+A+Sg+Ine
  • kultina: kulta+A+Pl+Ess
  • kullissa: kulta+A+Pl+Ine
  • kultien: kulta+A+Pl+Gen

T: l and t: n are missing from this a stem and t: l from ä stem.

Adjectives 10 t~l ä:e comparative examples:

  • lyhyenläntä: lyhyenläntä+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # shorty)
  • lyhyenläntää: lyhyenläntä+A+Sg+Par
  • lyhyenläntänä: lyhyenläntä+A+Sg+Ess
  • lyhyenlännässä: lyhyenläntä+A+Sg+Ine
  • lyhyenläntinä: lyhyenläntä+A+Pl+Ess
  • lyhyenlännissä: lyhyenläntä+A+Pl+Ine
  • lyhyenläntien: lyhyenläntä+A+Pl+Gen

Adjectives 10 t~r a:e comparative examples:

  • turta: turta+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # numb)
  • turtaa: turta+A+Sg+Par
  • turtana: turta+A+Sg+Ess
  • turrassa: turta+A+Sg+Ine
  • turtina: turta+A+Pl+Ess
  • turrissa: turta+A+Pl+Ine
  • turtien: turta+A+Pl+Gen

K: j is missing.

Certain trisyllabic or longer a stems allow a lot of allomorphs and both a : o : 0 variations:

Adjectives 11 back examples:

  • hapera: hapera+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # brittle)
  • haperia: hapera+A+Pl+Par
  • haperoita: hapera+A+Pl+Par
  • haperien: hapera+A+Pl+Gen
  • haperoiden: hapera+A+Pl+Gen
  • haperoitten: hapera+A+Pl+Gen
  • haperiin: hapera+A+Pl+Ill
  • haperoihin: hapera+A+Pl+Ill Also less commonly
  • haperojen: hapera+A+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • haperoja: hapera+A+Use/Rare+Pl+Par
  • haperain: hapera+A+Pl+Gen+Use/Rare

Adjectives 11 front examples:

  • höppänä: höppänä+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # senile)
  • höppänää: höppänä+A+Sg+Par
  • höppänänä: höppänä+A+Sg+Ess
  • höppänässä: höppänä+A+Sg+Ine
  • höppäninä: höppänä+A+Pl+Ess
  • höppänien: höppänä+A+Pl+Gen
  • höppäniin: höppänä+A+Pl+Ill

Adjectives 12 examples:

  • harmaja: harmaja+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # ?)
  • harmajaa: harmaja+A+Sg+Par
  • harmajana: harmaja+A+Sg+Ess
  • harmajoina: harmaja+A+Pl+Ess
  • harmajoita: harmaja+A+Pl+Par

Certain trisyllabic or longer a stems allow a lot of allomorphs and both a : o : 0 variations:

Adjectives 12++ examples:

  • latuska: latuska+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # flat)
  • latuskoita: latuska+A+Pl+Par
  • latuskoja: latuska+A+Pl+Par
  • latuskoiden: latuska+A+Pl+Gen
  • latuskoitten: latuska+A+Pl+Gen
  • latuskojen: latuska+A+Pl+Gen
  • latuskoihin: latuska+A+Pl+Ill

Special illative gradation in a stems

The a : o stem variation combines with trisyllabic class of special illatives

Adjectives 14 back examples:

  • hailakka: hailakka+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # pale)
  • hailakkoina: hailakka+A+Pl+Ess
  • hailakoissa: hailakka+A+Pl+Ine
  • hailakkoihin: hailakka+A+Pl+Ill
  • hailakoihin: hailakka+A+Pl+Ill

Adjectives 14 front examples:

  • räväkkä: räväkkä+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # flamboyant)
  • räväköihin: räväkkä+A+Pl+Ill
  • räväkköihin: räväkkä+A+Pl+Ill

Adjectives 15 t~0 back examples:

  • pohatta: pohatta+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # fat-cat)
  • pohattoina: pohatta+A+Pl+Ess
  • pohatoissa: pohatta+A+Pl+Ine
  • pohattoihin: pohatta+A+Pl+Ill
  • pohatoihin: pohatta+A+Pl+Ill

A-final words with long vowels and syllable boundary

Adjectives 15 oa examples:

  • ainoa: ainoa+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # singleton)
  • ainoana: ainoa+A+Sg+Ess
  • ainoina: ainoa+A+Pl+Ess
  • ainoissa: ainoa+A+Pl+Ine
  • ainoihin: ainoa+A+Pl+Ill
  • ainoisiin: ainoa+A+Pl+Ill

Adjectives 15 ea examples:

  • korkea: korkea+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # high)
  • korkeana: korkea+A+Sg+Ess
  • korkeina: korkea+A+Pl+Ess
  • korkeissa: korkea+A+Pl+Ine
  • korkeihin: korkea+A+Pl+Ill
  • korkeisiin: korkea+A+Pl+Ill

Adjectives 15 eä examples:

  • järeä: järeä+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # rough)
  • järeänä: järeä+A+Sg+Ess
  • järeinä: järeä+A+Pl+Ess
  • järeissä: järeä+A+Pl+Ine
  • järeihin: järeä+A+Pl+Ill
  • järeisiin: järeä+A+Pl+Ill

Lexicalised comparatives

Most of the lexicalised comparatives are adjectives that go to this class. The comparatives that are not lexicalised inflect exactly the same, though some versions of morphology may cut off long comparative chains.

Adjectives 16 back examples:

  • aiempi: aiempi+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # earlier)
  • aiempana: aiempi+A+Sg+Ess
  • aiemmassa: aiempi+A+Sg+Ine
  • aiempina: aiempi+A+Pl+Ess
  • aiemmista: aiempi+A+Pl+Ela

Adjectives 16 front examples:

  • lähempi: lähempi+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # closer)
  • lähempänä: lähempi+A+Sg+Ess
  • lähemmässä: lähempi+A+Sg+Ine
  • lähempinä: lähempi+A+Pl+Ess
  • lähemmistä: lähempi+A+Pl+Ela

Long vowel stems

Adjectives 17 a examples:

  • vapaa: vapaa+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # free)

There are no other bisyllabic long vowel stems in adjectives

Adjectives 18 aa examples:

  • peeaa: peeaa+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # bust)

Adjectives 18 uu examples:

  • muu: muu+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # other)

Adjectives 18 ää examples:

  • syypää: syypää+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # guilty)

There are no other monosyllabic long vowel stems for adjectives. For full listing of possibilities, see nouns.

Some loan words inflect irregularly, either more along the written form or the pronunciation.

Adjectives 21 gay examples:

  • gay: gay+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # gay)

There are not many direct adjective loans in general.

Old e stems with i nominative

Some of the old e stems have i nominative but e as stem vowel for singular forms. Most of these are not adjectives though, see full listing from the noun pages.

Adjectives 24~26 back examples:

  • suuri: suuri+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # big) THE EPSILON-to-ZILCH SEEMS TO INTERFER WITH COMPILATION 2015-08-23, Jaska 0: >> 0: 0 SO TOMMI FINDS THEM

Adjectives 24~26 front examples:

  • pieni: pieni+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # small)

Adjectives 27 back examples:

  • uusi: uusi+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # new)

Adjectives 27 front examples:

  • täysi: täysi+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # full)

There are no adjective examples of other gradation variants or consonant cluster simplifications in this class.

Consonant-final stems

The consonant stems use inverted gradation if applicable, that is, the nominatives have end in consonants and their gradating consonants are in weak form. Most of these are rarer for adjectives than nouns.

Adjectives 32 examples:

  • tyven: tyven+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # calm (of bodies of water))

There are no back vowel variants or gradating words in the basic e conjoining pattern.

Adjectives 33 examples:

  • avoin: avoin+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # open)

There are no other examples of n: m final variation before conjoining e.


The common case of n: m variation with conjoining a before singular stems is from caritive suffix -tOn, that forms adjectives productively.

Adjectives 34 back examples:

  • alaston: alaston+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # naked)

Adjectives 34 0~t back examples:

  • viaton: viaton+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # innocent)

Adjectives 34 0~t front examples:

  • kyvytön: kyvytön+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # unskilled)

This one word, hapan, also takes the same variation as normative variant. The expected e variant is not normative, but used.

Adjectives 34 0~p back examples:

  • hapan: hapan+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # sour)

Adjectives 34 m~p front examples:

  • lämmin: lämmin+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # warm)

Lexicalised superlatives

Adjectives 35 back examples:

  • uloin: uloin+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # outermost)

Adjectives 35 front examples:

  • sisin: sisin+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # innermost)

Vasen inflects almost like superlative

Adjectives 36 examples:

  • vasen: vasen+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # left)

nen suffixes

Adjectives are commonly formed with nen derivatonns.

Adjectives 38 back examples:

  • aakkosellinen: aakkosellinen+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # alphabetic)

Adjectives 38 front examples:

  • kylmäjärkinen: kylmäjärkinen+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # levelminded)

s-final adjectives

Most of the cases here are nouns from noun derivations.

Adjectives 39 examples:

  • symppis: symppis+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # sympathetic)

Adjectives 40 examples:

  • lähteisyys: lähteisyys+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # sourceful)

Adjectives 41 as examples:

  • autuas: autuas+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # ignorant)

Adjectives 41 is examples:

  • valmis: valmis+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # ready)

Adjectives 41 äs examples:

  • työläs: työläs+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # studious)

Adjectives 41 kas examples:

  • voimakas: voimakas+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # powerfui)

Adjectives 41 käs examples:

  • tyylikäs: tyylikäs+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # stylish)

Adjectives 41 pas examples:

  • reipas: reipas+A+Sg+Nom

No adjectives end in -päs

Adjectives 41 tas examples:

  • rietas: rietas+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # lewd)

Adjectives 41 tis examples:

  • raitis: raitis+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # sober)


Adjectives 41 das examples:

  • hidas: hidas+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # slow)


Adjectives 41 ras examples:

  • harras: harras+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # humble)


Adjectives 43 back examples:

  • ohut: ohut+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # thin)

Adjectives 43 front examples:

  • ehyt: ehyt+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # unbroken)

Lexicalised nut-participles

Majority of lexicalised nut participles are adjectives.

Adjectives 47 back examples:

  • kulunut: kulunut+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # used)

Adjectives 47 front examples:

  • ällistynyt: ällistynyt+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # amazed)

Old -e^ final stems

Adjectives 48 back examples:

  • ahne: ahne+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # greedy)

Adjectives 48 front examples:

  • terve: terve+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # healthy)

Adjectives 48 d~t back examples:

  • kade: kade+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # jealous)

Adjectives 48 l~t back examples:

  • helle: helle+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # warm weather)

Gapping almost all variants of gradations with e, as well as all dual nominative stems.

Exceptional adjectives

The ones that do not fit in the official classes shown in dictionaries.

Adjective pitkä examples:

  • pitkä: pitkä+A+Sg+Nom
  • pidempi: pitkä+A+Comp+Sg+Nom
  • pisin: pitkä+A+Superl+Sg+Nom



Plurales tantum?

Adjectives aren't typically plural words, but there are some in the dictionaries.

Adjective plurales examples:

  • leuattomat: leuattomat+A+Pl+Nom (Eng. # ?)

Adjective inflection proper

The superlative derivation is formed by in suffix, which creates a new adjective baseform. This baseform is handled separately to avoid double superlatives.

Adjective superlative front examples:

  • rumin: ruma+A+Superl+Sg+Nom (Eng. # ugliest)

Adjective superlative back examples:

  • tyhmin: tyhmä+A+Superl+Sg+Nom (Eng. # stupidest)

The comparative derivation is formed by mpi suffix, which creates a new adjective baseform. This adjective is handled separately to avoid double comparative forms.

Adjective comparative front examples:

  • rumempi: ruma+A+Comp+Sg+Nom

Adjective comparative back examples:

  • tyhmempi: tyhmä+A+Comp+Sg+Nom

This inflectional part attached to adjective comparative stems to avoid circularity in comparative derivations:

Adjective comparative inflection back examples:

  • nopeampi: nopea+A+Comp+Sg+Nom (Eng. # faster)
  • *nopeammampi: nopea+A+Comp+Comp+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)
  • *nopeammammampi: nopea+A+Comp+Comp+Comp+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Adjective comparative inflection front examples:

  • tyhmempänä: tyhmä+A+Comp+Sg+Ess
  • *tyhmemmämpi: tyhmä+A+Comp+Comp+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

This inflectional part is attached to adjective superlative stems to avoid circularity in superlative derivations:

Adjective superlative inflection back examples:

  • nopein: nopea+A+Superl+Sg+Nom
  • *nopeimmimpia: nopea+A+Superl+Superl+Sg+Par (is not standard language)
  • *nopeimmimmin: nopea+A+Superl+Superl+Superl+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Adjective superlative inflection front examples:

  • tyhmin: tyhmä+A+Superl+Sg+Nom
  • *tyhmimmimpiä: tyhmä+A+Superl+Superl+Sg+Par (is not standard language)

Regular adjective inflection

The adjective inflection apart from the comparative and superlative derivations is same as with nouns. I will only show examples here.

Adjective nominative back examples:

  • rumapa: ruma+A+Sg+Nom+Foc/pa

Adjective nominative front examples:

  • tyhmäpä: tyhmä+A+Sg+Nom+Foc/pa

Adjective pl tant back examples:

  • rumat: ruma+A+Pl+Nom

Adjective pl tant front examples:

  • tyhmät: tyhmä+A+Pl+Nom

Adjective regular singular back examples:

  • ruman: ruma+A+Sg+Gen
  • rumatta: ruma+A+Sg+Abe

Adjective regular singular front examples:

  • tyhmän: tyhmä+A+Sg+Gen
  • tyhmättä: tyhmä+A+Sg+Abe

Adjective regular singular back strongs examples:

  • rumana: ruma+A+Sg+Ess
  • rumani: ruma+A+Sg+Nom+PxSg1

Adjective regular singular front strongs examples:

  • tyhmänä: tyhmä+A+Sg+Ess
  • tyhmäni: tyhmä+A+Sg+Nom+PxSg1

Adjective regular plural back examples:

  • heikoitta: heikko+A+Pl+Abe
  • heikoilta: heikko+A+Pl+Abl

Adjective regular plural front examples:

  • jäykittä: jäykkä+A+Pl+Abe
  • jäykiltä: jäykkä+A+Pl+Abl

Adjective regular plural back strong examples:

  • jäykkinä: jäykkä+A+Pl+Ess
  • jäykkine: jäykkä+A+Cmt

Adjective regular plural front strong examples:

  • heikkoina: heikko+A+Pl+Ess
  • heikkoine: heikko+A+Cmt

Adjective singular partitive a examples:

  • tarkkaa: tarkka+A+Sg+Par
  • tarkkaansa: tarkka+A+Sg+Par+PxSg3

Adjective singular partitive ä examples:

  • tyhmää: tyhmä+A+Sg+Par
  • tyhmäänsä: tyhmä+A+Sg+Par+PxSg3

Adjective singular partitive a poss aan examples:

  • jaloa: jalo+A+Sg+Par
  • jaloaan: jalo+A+Sg+Par+PxSg3

Adjective singular partitive ä poss ään examples:

  • hölöä: hölö+A+Sg+Par
  • hölöään: hölö+A+Sg+Par+PxSg3

Adjective singular partitive ta examples:

  • vapaata: vapaa+A+Sg+Par

Adjective singular partitive tä examples:

  • pientä: pieni+A+Sg+Par

Adjective singular illative han examples:

  • peeaahan: peeaa+A+Sg+Ill

Adjective singular illative hin examples:

  • gayhin: gay+A+Sg+Ill

Adjective singular illative hun examples:

  • muuhun: muu+A+Sg+Ill

Adjective singular illative hyn examples:

  • gayhynpä: gay+A+Sg+Ill+Foc/pa

Adjective singular illative hän examples:

  • syypäähän: syypää+A+Sg+Ill

Adjective singular illative seen back examples:

  • vapaaseen: vapaa+A+Sg+Ill

Adjective singular illative seen front examples:

  • työlääseen: työläs+A+Sg+Ill

Adjective singular illative an examples:

  • rumaan: ruma+A+Sg+Ill

Adjective singular illative en back examples:

  • suureen: suuri+A+Sg+Ill

Adjective singular illative en front examples:

  • pieneen: pieni+A+Sg+Ill

Adjective singular illative in back examples:

  • tuhtiin: tuhti+A+Sg+Ill

Adjective singular illative in front examples:

  • rehtiin: rehti+A+Sg+Ill

Adjective singular illative on examples:

  • huonoon: huono+A+Sg+Ill

Adjective singular illative un examples:

  • fiksuun: fiksu+A+Sg+Ill

Adjective singular illative yn examples:

  • häijyyn: häijy+A+Sg+Ill

Adjective singular illative än examples:

  • tyhmään: tyhmä+A+Sg+Ill

Adjective singular illative ön examples:

  • hölmöön: hölmö+A+Sg+Ill

Adjective plural partitive ia examples:

  • rumia: ruma+A+Pl+Par

Adjective plural partitive iä examples:

  • tyhmiä: tyhmä+A+Pl+Par

Adjective plural partitive ita examples:

  • korkeita: korkea+A+Pl+Par

Adjective plural partitive itä examples:

  • järeitä: järeä+A+Pl+Par

Adjective plural partitive ja examples:

  • vahvoja: vahva+A+Pl+Par

Adjective plural partitive jä examples:

  • hölmöjä: hölmö+A+Pl+Par

Adjective plural genitive iden back examples:

  • tanakoiden: tanakka+A+Pl+Gen

Adjective plural genitive iden front examples:

  • räväköiden: räväkkä+A+Pl+Gen

Adjective plural genitive ien back examples:

  • rumien: ruma+A+Pl+Gen

Adjective plural genitive ien front examples:

  • tyhmien: tyhmä+A+Pl+Gen

Adjective plural genitive itten back examples:

  • nopeitten: nopea+A+Pl+Gen

Adjective plural genitive itten front examples:

  • järeitten: järeä+A+Pl+Gen

Adjective plural genitive jen back examples:

  • vahvojen: vahva+A+Pl+Gen

Adjective plural genitive jen front examples:

  • hölmöjen: hölmö+A+Pl+Gen

Adjective plural genitive ten back examples:

  • suurten: suuri+A+Pl+Gen

Adjective plural genitive ten front examples:

  • pienten: pieni+A+Pl+Gen

Adjective plural genitive in back examples:

  • rumain: ruma+A+Pl+Gen+Use/Rare

Adjective plural genitive in front examples:

  • tyhmäin: tyhmä+A+Pl+Gen+Use/Rare

Adjective plural illative ihin bacl examples:

  • pahoihin: paha+A+Pl+Ill

Adjective plural illative ihin front examples:

  • hölmöihin: hölmö+A+Pl+Ill

Adjective plural illative iin back examples:

  • punaisiin: punainen+A+Pl+Ill

Adjective plural illative iin front examples:

  • sinisiin: sininen+A+Pl+Ill

Adjective plural illative isiin back examples:

  • korkeisiin: korkea+A+Pl+Ill

Adjective plural illative isiin front examples:

  • järeisiin: järeä+A+Pl+Ill

Adjective possessive back examples:

  • tyhmäni: tyhmä+A+Sg+Nom+PxSg1

Adjective possessive front examples:

  • rumani: ruma+A+Sg+Nom+PxSg1

Adjective possessive an examples:

  • kieroaan: kiero+A+Sg+Par+PxSg3

Adjective possessive en back examples:

  • rumalleen: ruma+A+Sg+All+PxSg3

Adjective possessive en front examples:

  • tyhmälleen: tyhmä+A+Sg+All+PxSg3

Adjective possessive än examples:

  • hölmöään: hölmö+A+Sg+Par+PxSg3

Adjective clitic back examples:

  • rumahan: ruma+A+Sg+Nom+Foc/han

Adjective clitic front examples:

  • tyhmähän: tyhmä+A+Sg+Nom+Foc/han

Adjectives can usually be derived into sti adverbs productively

Deadjectival adverb derivations sti examples:

  • nopeasti nopea+A+Der/sti (Eng. # fastly)

Adverb inflection

Most adverbs are morphologically either sti-derivations of adjectives or some specific form of an existing or archaic noun, and they have limited inflection in form of possessives and clitics carried over. According to modern dictionaries different forms of same root are separate adverbs, so they are not inflected here, but listed in roots.

Adverb possessive back examples:

  • takanani: takana+Adv+PxSg1 (Eng. # behind me)

Adverb possessive front examples:

  • edessäni: edessä+Adv+PxSg1 (Eng. # in front of me)

Adverb possessive back an examples:

  • takanaan: takana+Adv+PxSg3

Adverb possessive back en examples:

  • jalkeilleen: jalkeille+Adv+PxSg3 (Eng. # he awakened)

Adverb possessive front en examples:

  • keskelleen: keskelle+Adv+PxPl3 (Eng. # amidst them)

Adverb possessive front än examples:

  • edessään: edessä+Adv+PxSg3

Adverb clitic back examples:

  • nopeastihan: nopeasti+Adv+Foc/han (Eng. # fast)

Adverb clitic front examples:

  • tyhmästihän: tyhmästi+Adv+Foc/han (Eng. # stupidly)

Adverb classification

Adverbs are a heterogenous mass of words with defective inflectional, usually sourced from various forms of nominals. It would be possible to classify adverbs along etymology and semantics, but we do not yet use such classification. Only the morphology is recorded in the continuation classes and analyses.

The classification of the adverbs in morphology goes along the possessives and clitics they take or require:

Adverbs examples:

  • aakkosellisesti: aakkosellisesti+Adv
  • aakkosellisestikin: aakkosellisesti+Adv+Foc/kin
  • mukaani: mukaan+Adv+PxSg1
  • mukaamme: mukaan+Adv+PxPl1
  • ajassa: ajassa+Adv
  • ajassako: ajassa+Adv+Qst

Coordinating conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions combine equal clauses and phrases. As subset of particles, they do not inflect. The classification is solely syntactic and semantic, but it is used in this system for compatibility with other stuff.

The coordinating conjunctions are: eli(kkä), ja, joko – tai, kuin – myös, ‑kä, mutta, niin – kuin ‑kin/ myös, sekä, sekä – että, sun; tai, vaan, vai, ynnä, (saati), (sillä) Further reading: VISK § 816)

Coordinating conjunctions examples:

  • eikä: eikä+CC
  • ja: ja+CC

Adverbial conjunctions

The adverbial conjunctions join two unequal clauses or phrases together. The traditional term for this is sub-ordinating conjunction, it is assumed here for compatibility with other languages. Adverbial conjunctions are a subset of particles, so they do not inflect at all.

The adverbial conjunctions are: ellei, että, jahka, jollei, jos, joskin, jos kohta, jotta, koska, kun, kunhan, mikäli, vaikka, (kunnes). Further reading: VISK § 818

Adverbial conjunctions examples:

  • että: että+CS
  • jotta: jotta+CS
  • koska: koska+CS
  • kun: kun+CS
  • jos: jos+CS
  • vaikka: vaikka+CS

Digit strings inflect with colons, lot like abbreviations.

The digit strings ending in digit 1 pronounced as number


  • 1: 1+Num+Card+Sg+Nom
  • 1:t: 1+Num+Card+Pl+Nom
  • 1:ssä: 1+Num+Card+Sg+Ine

The digit strings ending in digit 2 pronounced as number

  • 2:
  • 2:t:
  • 2:ssa:

The digit strings ending in digit 3 pronounced as number

  • 3:
  • 3:t:
  • 3:ssa:

The digit strings ending in digit 4 pronounced as number

  • 4:
  • 4:t:
  • 4:ssä:

The digit strings ending in digit 5 pronounced as number

  • 5:
  • 5:t:
  • 5:ssä:

The digit strings ending in digit 6 pronounced as number

  • 6:
  • 6:t:
  • 6:ss:

The digit strings ending in digit 7 pronounced as number

  • 7:
  • 7:t:
  • 7:ssä:

The digit strings ending in digit 8 pronounced as number

  • 8:
  • 8:t:
  • 8:ssa:

The digit strings ending in digit 9 pronounced as number

  • 9:
  • 9:t:
  • 9:ssä:

The digit strings ending in digit 0 pronounced as number

  • 0:
  • 0:t:
  • 0:aa:

The digit string ending in 0 pronounced as tens

  • 10:
  • 10:t:
  • 10:tä:

The digit string ending in 00 pronounced as hundreds

  • 100:
  • 100:t:
  • 100:aa:

The digit string ending in 000 pronounced as thousands

  • 1000:
  • 1000:t:
  • 1000:ta:

The digit string ending in 0's pronounced as millions

  • 1000000:
  • 1000000:t:
  • 1000000:aa:

The digit string ending in 0's pronounced as milliards

  • 1000000000:
  • 1000000000:t:
  • 1000000000:a:

The digit string ending in 1. pronounced as first

  • 1.:
  • 1:nen:
  • 1:stä:

The digit string ending in 2. pronounced as second

  • 2.:
  • 2:nen:
  • 2:sta:

The digit string ending in 3, 6, 8, 00 or 2 pronounced as ordinal

  • 3.:
  • 3:s:
  • 3:tta:

The digit string ending in 4, 5, 7, 9, 0, or 1. pronounced as ordinal

  • 4.:
  • 4:s:
  • 4:ttä:

The roman digit string ending in II, III, VI, VIII, C, L or M

  • II:
  • II:ta:

The roman digit string ending in I, IV, V, VII, IX, X or

  • I:
  • I:tä:
  • 1:nsä:
  • 2:nsa:
  • 3:aan:
  • 2:kseen:
  • 1:kseen:
  • 5:ttään:
  • 2:han:
  • 4:hän:

Exceptions are quite strange word-forms. the ones that do not fit anywhere else. This file contains all enumerated word forms that cannot reasonably be created from lexical data by regular inflection. Usually there should be next to none exceptions, it's always better to have a paradigm that covers only one or few words than an exception since these will not work nicely with e.g. compounding scheme or possibly many end applications.

negation verb has partial inflection:


  • en: ei+V+Neg+Act+Sg1
  • älkää: ei+V+Neg+Act+Imprt+Pl2
  • älkööt: ei+V+Neg+Act+Imprt+Pl3

Some verbs only have few word-forms left:

  • kutiaa:
  • taita:
  • paratkoon:
  • eläköön:

The noun ruoka has irregular forms:

  • ruuassa:
  • ruuilla:

The adjective hyvä has heteroclitic comparative derivations too:

  • parempi:
  • paremmissa:
  • paras:
  • parhaat:

Some of the nouns have archaic consonat stem forms left:

  • vuonna:
  • sydännä:
  • jumalten:
  • sankarten:

few verbs have shortened forms in standard spoken Finnish

  • meen:
  • tuut:


Interjections are mainly parts of spoken language that are minimal turns in dialogue, curses, onomatopoeia and such. Interjections are a subset of particles, and do not inflect. They are quite productive kind of, though limited in form ; they stem from arbitrary combinations of characters to

Only add new interjections that are found from corpora.

Interjections examples:

  • aah: aah+Interj
  • äh: äh+Interj

Nouns and their classification

Noun is the part-of-speech for words which require declination in number and case. Additionally nouns may have optional possessive suffixes and clitics combined freely at the end. While some of the nouns may exhibit limited comparative derivations, generally words that can undergo comparation must be classified into adjectives. The proper nouns that are written in initial capital letters except when derived are handled separately under proper nouns, but the classification is the same.

The nominals are classified by combination of the stem variations, suffix allomorphs and the vowel harmony. The nouns have number, case, possessive and clitic suffixes:

Noun examples:

  • talo: talo+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # house)
  • taloa: talo+N+Sg+Par
  • taloissa: talo+N+Pl+Ine
  • talostani: talo+N+Sg+Ela+PxSg1
  • talollako: talo+N+Sg+Ade+Qst
  • taloiltammepa: talo+N+Pl+Abl+PxPl1+Foc/pa The classification is based on suffix allomorphs, harmony, and the stem variation:
  • taloja: talo+N+Pl+Par
  • sälöjä: sälö+N+Pl+Par (Eng. # splinter)
  • valtioita: valtio+N+Pl+Par (Eng. # state)
  • lepakot: lepakko+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # bat)
  • padoissa: pato+N+Pl+Ine (Eng. # dam) The minimal set to determine which paradigm or class noun belongs to is to check how it inflects in singulars of nominative, essive and inessive, plurals of essive, elative, partitive, illative, and GENITIVE. Find out stems and suffixes and match.

Noun inflection and derivation

Noun stem variation and allomorph selection

The nominal stems were classified according to what is the stem variation and what allomorphs they select. This section lists all the possible variations and all their allomorph selections. Each class description gives the key forms that can be used when classifying new words, the examples of inflection and negative examples for the most obvious missed allomorphs and differentiating factors. The example list should be at least: singular nominative, singular essive, singular inessive, plural essive, plural elative, singular partitives, singular illatives, plural partitives plural GENITIVEs, plural illatives and the compound forms.

Noun stems without stem variation

The most basic noun stem does not have any stem internal variation and uses few commonest allomorphs. The words in this class are either bisyllabic or have one of common derivational suffixes: sto, .... The nouns in this class end in o, u, y or ö, which determines their illative suffix and therefore exact classification:

Noun 1o examples:

  • talo: talo+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # house)
  • talona: talo+N+Sg+Ess
  • talossa: talo+N+Sg+Ine
  • taloina: talo+N+Pl+Ess
  • taloista: talo+N+Pl+Ela
  • taloa: talo+N+Sg+Par
  • *talota: talo+N+Sg+Par (is not standard language)
  • taloon: talo+N+Sg+Ill
  • *taloseen: talo+N+Sg+Ill (is not standard language)
  • taloja: talo+N+Pl+Par
  • *taloita: talo+N+Pl+Par (is not standard language)
  • talojen: talo+N+Pl+Gen
  • *taloiden: talo+N+Pl+Gen (is not standard language)
  • *taloitten: talo+N+Pl+Gen (is not standard language)
  • taloihin: talo+N+Pl+Ill
  • talojuttu: talo+N+Sg+Nom#juttu+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # house thing)
  • talonjuttu: talo+N+Sg+Gen#juttu+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # house’s thing)
  • talojenjuttu: talo+N+Pl+Gen#juttu+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # houses’ thing)

Nouns 1o non-standard examples:

  • taloin: talo+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • talohon: talo+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

The stems ending in u are also without variationm and the bisyllabic ones have the same simple allomorph pattern:

Noun 1u examples:

  • asu: asu+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # outfit)
  • asua: asu+N+Sg+Par
  • asuun: asu+N+Sg+Ill
  • asuna: asu+N+Sg+Ess
  • asussa: asu+N+Sg+Ine
  • asuja: asu+N+Pl+Par
  • asujen: asu+N+Pl+Gen
  • asuihin: asu+N+Pl+Ill
  • asuina: asu+N+Pl+Ess
  • asuissa: asu+N+Pl+Ine

Nouns 1u non-standard examples:

  • asuin: asu+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • asuhun: asu+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Noun 1y examples:

  • kärry: kärry+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # cart)
  • kärryä: kärry+N+Sg+Par
  • kärryyn: kärry+N+Sg+Ill
  • kärrynä: kärry+N+Sg+Ess
  • kärryssä: kärry+N+Sg+Ine
  • kärryjä: kärry+N+Pl+Par
  • kärryjen: kärry+N+Pl+Gen
  • kärryihin: kärry+N+Pl+Ill
  • kärryinä: kärry+N+Pl+Ess
  • kärryissä: kärry+N+Pl+Ine

Nouns 1y non-standard examples:

  • kärryin: kärry+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • kärryhyn: kärry+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1ö examples:

  • mömmö: mömmö+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # gunk)
  • mömmöä: mömmö+N+Sg+Par
  • mömmöön: mömmö+N+Sg+Ill
  • mömmönä: mömmö+N+Sg+Ess
  • mömmössä: mömmö+N+Sg+Ine
  • mömmöjä: mömmö+N+Pl+Par
  • mömmöjen: mömmö+N+Pl+Gen
  • mömmöihin: mömmö+N+Pl+Ill
  • mömmöinä: mömmö+N+Pl+Ess
  • mömmöissä: mömmö+N+Pl+Ine

Nouns 1ö non-standard examples:

  • mömmöin: mömmö+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • mömmöhön: mömmö+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Basic gradation cases

The basic stems without variations other than consonant gradation.

Nouns 1ko examples:

  • ukko: ukko+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # geezer)
  • ukossa: ukko+N+Sg+Ine
  • ukoista: ukko+N+Pl+Ela
  • ukkoihin: ukko+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 1ko non-standard examples:

  • ukkoin: ukko+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • ukkohon: ukko+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1ku examples:

  • tikku: tikku+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # stick)
  • tikussa: tikku+N+Sg+Ine
  • tikuista: tikku+N+Pl+Ela
  • tikkuihin: tikku+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 1ku non-standard examples:

  • tikkuin: tikku+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • tikkuhun: tikku+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1ky examples:

  • myrkky: myrkky+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # poison)
  • myrkyssä: myrkky+N+Sg+Ine
  • myrkyistä: myrkky+N+Pl+Ela
  • myrkkyihin: myrkky+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 1ky non-standard examples:

  • myrkkyin: myrkky+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • myrkkyhyn: myrkky+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1kö examples:

  • yökkö: yökkö+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # nightfly)
  • yökössä: yökkö+N+Sg+Ine
  • yököistä: yökkö+N+Pl+Ela
  • yökköihin: yökkö+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 1kö non-standard examples:

  • yökköin: yökkö+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • yökköhön: yökkö+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1po examples:

  • happo: happo+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # acid)
  • hapossa: happo+N+Sg+Ine
  • hapoista: happo+N+Pl+Ela
  • happoihin: happo+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 1po non-standard examples:

  • happoin: happo+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • happohon: happo+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1pu examples:

  • lippu: lippu+N+Sg+Nom
  • lipussa: lippu+N+Sg+Ine
  • lipuista: lippu+N+Pl+Ela
  • lippuihin: lippu+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 1pu non-standard examples:

  • lippuin: lippu+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • lippuhun: lippu+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1py examples:

  • ryyppy: ryyppy+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # swirl)
  • ryypyssä: ryyppy+N+Sg+Ine
  • ryypyistä: ryyppy+N+Pl+Ela
  • ryyppyihin: ryyppy+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 1py non-standard examples:

  • ryyppyin: ryyppy+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • ryyppyhyn: ryyppy+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1pö examples:

  • törppö: törppö+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # bozo)
  • törpössä: törppö+N+Sg+Ine
  • törpöistä: törppö+N+Pl+Ela
  • törppöihin: törppö+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 1pö non-standard examples:

  • törppöin: törppö+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • törppöhön: törppö+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1to examples:

  • hirtto: hirtto+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # hanging)
  • hirtossa: hirtto+N+Sg+Ine
  • hirtoista: hirtto+N+Pl+Ela
  • hirttoihin: hirtto+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 1to non-standard examples:

  • hirttoin: hirtto+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • hirttohon: hirtto+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1tu examples:

  • torttu: torttu+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # tart)
  • tortussa: torttu+N+Sg+Ine
  • tortuista: torttu+N+Pl+Ela
  • torttuihin: torttu+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 1tu non-standard examples:

  • torttuin: torttu+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • torttuhon: torttu+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1ty examples:

  • pytty: pytty+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # cup)
  • pytyssä: pytty+N+Sg+Ine
  • pytyistä: pytty+N+Pl+Ela
  • pyttyihin: pytty+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 1ty non-standard examples:

  • pyttyin: pytty+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • pyttyhyn: pytty+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1tö examples:

  • pönttö: pönttö+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # pot)
  • pöntössä: pönttö+N+Sg+Ine
  • pöntöistä: pönttö+N+Pl+Ela
  • pönttöihin: pönttö+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 1tö non-standard examples:

  • pönttöin: pönttö+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • pönttöhön: pönttö+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Between two vowels, the weak grade of k is optionally an apostrophe instead. For k that is not optionally ’, for example when it is after a consonant other than s, the variation is k ~ 0 instead (e.g. NOUN_UKKO).

Nouns 1ko examples:

  • teko: teko+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # action)
  • teossa: teko+N+Sg+Ine
  • te’ossa: teko+N+Sg+Ine

Nouns 1ko non-standard examples:

  • tekoin: teko+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • tekohon: teko+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1ku examples:

  • maku: maku+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # taste)
  • maussa: maku+N+Sg+Ine
  • ma’ussa: maku+N+Sg+Ine

Nouns 1ku non-standard examples:

  • makuin: maku+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • makuhon: maku+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1ky examples:

  • näky: näky+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # vision)
  • näyssä: näky+N+Sg+Ine
  • nä’yssä: näky+N+Sg+Ine

Nouns 1ky non-standard examples:

  • näkyin: näky+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • näkyhyn: näky+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1kö examples:

  • näkö: näkö+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # eyesight)
  • näössä: näkö+N+Sg+Ine
  • nä’össä: näkö+N+Sg+Ine

Nouns 1kö non-standard examples:

  • näköin: näkö+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • näköhön: näkö+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Between three vowels where k is surrounded by same vowels the k becomes obligatorily ’. When the vowels are different, it becomes optionally ’ (as in NOUN_TEKO), and after consonant other than s it is k ~ 0 (as in NOUN_UKKO).

Nouns 1ko examples:

  • ruoko: ruoko+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # straw)
  • ruo’ossa: ruoko+N+Sg+Ine

Nouns 1ko non-standard examples:

  • ruokoin: ruoko+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • ruokohon: ruoko+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1ko examples:

  • liuku: liuku+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # slide)
  • liu’ussa: liuku+N+Sg+Ine

Nouns 1ku non-standard examples:

  • liukuin: liuku+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • liukuhun: liuku+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

There is a gap in paradigms in y and ö finals of k: ’

Other gradations can be more easily caught from the preceding context.

Nouns 1po examples:

  • hepo: hepo+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # horse)
  • hevossa: hepo+N+Sg+Ine
  • hepoina: hepo+N+Pl+Ess
  • hevoista: hepo+N+Pl+Ela

Nouns 1ku non-standard examples:

  • hepoin: hepo+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • hepohon: hepo+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1pu examples:

  • apu: apu+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # help)
  • avussa: apu+N+Sg+Ine
  • apuihin: apu+N+Pl+Ill
  • avuista: apu+N+Pl+Ela

Nouns 1pu non-standard examples:

  • apuin: apu+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • apuhun: apu+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1py examples:

  • käpy: käpy+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # pinecone)
  • kävyssä: käpy+N+Sg+Ine
  • käpyihin: käpy+N+Pl+Ill
  • kävyistä: käpy+N+Pl+Ela

Nouns 1py non-standard examples:

  • käpyin: käpy+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • käpyhyn: käpy+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1pö examples:

  • löpö: löpö+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # gasoline)
  • lövössä: löpö+N+Sg+Ine
  • löpöihin: löpö+N+Pl+Ill
  • lövöistä: löpö+N+Pl+Ela

Nouns 1pö non-standard examples:

  • löpöin: löpö+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • löpöhyn: löpö+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1to examples:

  • veto: veto+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # draft)
  • vedossa: veto+N+Sg+Ine
  • vetoihin: veto+N+Pl+Ill
  • vedoista: veto+N+Pl+Ela

Nouns 1to non-standard examples:

  • vetoin: veto+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • vetohon: veto+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1to examples:

  • kuitu: kuitu+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # fiber)
  • kuidussa: kuitu+N+Sg+Ine
  • kuituihin: kuitu+N+Pl+Ill
  • kuiduista: kuitu+N+Pl+Ela

Nouns 1tu non-standard examples:

  • kuituin: kuitu+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • kuituhon: kuitu+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1ty examples:

  • vety: vety+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # hydrogen)
  • vedyssä: vety+N+Sg+Ine
  • vetyihin: vety+N+Pl+Ill
  • vedyistä: vety+N+Pl+Ela

Nouns 1ty non-standard examples:

  • vetyin: vety+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • vetyhyn: vety+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1tö examples:

  • häätö: häätö+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # evictment)
  • häädössä: häätö+N+Sg+Ine
  • häädöistä: häätö+N+Pl+Ela
  • häätöihin: häätö+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 1tö non-standard examples:

  • häätöin: häätö+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • häätöhön: häätö+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1nko examples:

  • runko: runko+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # body)
  • rungossa: runko+N+Sg+Ine
  • rungoista: runko+N+Pl+Ela
  • runkoihin: runko+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 1nko non-standard examples:

  • runkoin: runko+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • runkohon: runko+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1nku examples:

  • vinku: vinku+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # squeal)
  • vingussa: vinku+N+Sg+Ine
  • vinguista: vinku+N+Pl+Ela
  • vinkuihin: vinku+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 1nku non-standard examples:

  • vinkuin: vinku+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • vinkuhun: vinku+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1nky examples:

  • sänky: sänky+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # bed)
  • sängyssä: sänky+N+Sg+Ine
  • sängyistä: sänky+N+Pl+Ela
  • sänkyihin: sänky+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 1nky non-standard examples:

  • sänkyin: sänky+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • sänkyhyn: sänky+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1nkö examples:

  • ylänkö: ylänkö+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # highlands)
  • ylängössä: ylänkö+N+Sg+Ine
  • ylängöistä: ylänkö+N+Pl+Ela
  • ylänköihin: ylänkö+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 1nkö non-standard examples:

  • ylänköin: ylänkö+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • ylänköhön: ylänkö+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1mpo examples:

  • sampo: sampo+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # sampo)
  • sammossa: sampo+N+Sg+Ine
  • sampoina: sampo+N+Pl+Ess
  • sammoista: sampo+N+Pl+Ela

Nouns 1mpo non-standard examples:

  • sampoin: sampo+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • sampohon: sampo+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1mpu examples:

  • rumpu: rumpu+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # drum)
  • rummussa: rumpu+N+Sg+Ine
  • rumpuihin: rumpu+N+Pl+Ill
  • rummuista: rumpu+N+Pl+Ela

Nouns 1mpu non-standard examples:

  • rumpuin: rumpu+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • rumpuhun: rumpu+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

There is a gap in paradigms in y finals with p: m variation

Nouns 1mpö examples:

  • lämpö: lämpö+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # warmth)
  • lämmössä: lämpö+N+Sg+Ine
  • lämpöihin: lämpö+N+Pl+Ill
  • lämmöistä: lämpö+N+Pl+Ela

Nouns 1mpö non-standard examples:

  • lämpöin: lämpö+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • lämpöhön: lämpö+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1lto examples:

  • kielto: kielto+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # denial)
  • kiellossa: kielto+N+Sg+Ine
  • kieltoihin: kielto+N+Pl+Ill
  • kielloista: kielto+N+Pl+Ela

Nouns 1lto non-standard examples:

  • kieltoin: kielto+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • kieltohon: kielto+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1ltu examples:

  • huoliteltu: huoliteltu+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # neat)
  • huolitellussa: huoliteltu+N+Sg+Ine
  • huoliteltuihin: huoliteltu+N+Pl+Ill
  • huolitelluista: huoliteltu+N+Pl+Ela

Nouns 1ltu non-standard examples:

  • huoliteltuin: huoliteltu+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • huoliteltuhun: huoliteltu+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1lty examples:

  • epäilty: epäilty+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # suspect)
  • epäillyssä: epäilty+N+Sg+Ine
  • epäiltyihin: epäilty+N+Pl+Ill
  • epäillyistä: epäilty+N+Pl+Ela

Nouns 1lty non-standard examples:

  • epäiltyin: epäilty+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • epäiltyhyn: epäilty+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1ltö examples:

  • sisältö: sisältö+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # content)
  • sisällössä: sisältö+N+Sg+Ine
  • sisällöistä: sisältö+N+Pl+Ela
  • sisältöihin: sisältö+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 1ltö non-standard examples:

  • sisältöin: sisältö+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • sisältöhön: sisältö+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1nto examples:

  • tunto: tunto+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # sense)
  • tunnossa: tunto+N+Sg+Ine
  • tuntoihin: tunto+N+Pl+Ill
  • tunnoista: tunto+N+Pl+Ela

Nouns 1nto non-standard examples:

  • tuntoin: tunto+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • tuntohon: tunto+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1ntu examples:

  • lintu: lintu+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # bird)
  • linnussa: lintu+N+Sg+Ine
  • lintuihin: lintu+N+Pl+Ill
  • linnuista: lintu+N+Pl+Ela

Nouns 1ntu non-standard examples:

  • lintuin: lintu+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • lintuhon: lintu+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1nty examples:

  • mänty: mänty+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. pine tree)
  • männyssä: mänty+N+Sg+Ine
  • mäntyihin: mänty+N+Pl+Ill
  • männyistä: mänty+N+Pl+Ela

Nouns 1nty non-standard examples:

  • mäntyin: mänty+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • mäntyhyn: mänty+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1ntö examples:

  • kääntö: kääntö+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # turn)
  • käännössä: kääntö+N+Sg+Ine
  • käännöistä: kääntö+N+Pl+Ela
  • kääntöihin: kääntö+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 1ntö non-standard examples:

  • kääntöin: kääntö+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • kääntöhön: kääntö+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1rto examples:

  • siirto: siirto+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # move)
  • siirrossa: siirto+N+Sg+Ine
  • siirtoihin: siirto+N+Pl+Ill
  • siirroista: siirto+N+Pl+Ela

Nouns 1rto non-standard examples:

  • siirtoin: siirto+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • siirtohon: siirto+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

There is a gap that misses all other stem vowels of r: t variation except o

The k: v variation is unique to handful of words of form CUkU, such as

Nouns 1cuku examples:

  • luku: luku+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # figure)
  • luvussa: luku+N+Sg+Ine
  • luvuista: luku+N+Pl+Ela
  • lukuihin: luku+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 1cuku non-standard examples:

  • lukuin: luku+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • lukuhun: luku+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Nouns 1cyky examples:

  • kyky: kyky+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # skill)
  • kyvyssä: kyky+N+Sg+Ine
  • kyvyistä: kyky+N+Pl+Ela
  • kykyihin: kyky+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 1cyky non-standard examples:

  • kykyin: kyky+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • kykyhyn: kyky+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

The trisyllabic and longer words with stem vowels o, u, y, ö have no stem variation either, but selection of suffix allomorphs for plural GENITIVEs and partitives is different:

Noun 2o examples:

  • ruipelo: ruipelo+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # squirt)
  • ruipeloita: ruipelo+N+Pl+Par
  • ruipeloja: ruipelo+N+Pl+Par
  • ruipelojen: ruipelo+N+Pl+Gen
  • ruipeloiden: ruipelo+N+Pl+Gen
  • ruipeloitten: ruipelo+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 2o non-standard examples:

  • ruipeloin: ruipelo+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • ruipelohon: ruipelo+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Noun 2u examples:

  • seikkailu: seikkailu+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # adventure)
  • seikkailuja: seikkailu+N+Pl+Par
  • seikkailuita: seikkailu+N+Pl+Par
  • seikkailujen: seikkailu+N+Pl+Gen
  • seikkailuiden: seikkailu+N+Pl+Gen
  • seikkailuitten: seikkailu+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 2u non-standard examples:

  • seikkailuin: seikkailu+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • seikkailuhun: seikkailu+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Noun 2y examples:

  • vehkeily: vehkeily+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # mutiny)
  • vehkeilyjä: vehkeily+N+Pl+Par
  • vehkeilyitä: vehkeily+N+Pl+Par
  • vehkeilyjen: vehkeily+N+Pl+Gen
  • vehkeilyitten: vehkeily+N+Pl+Gen
  • vehkeilyiden: vehkeily+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 2y non-standard examples:

  • vehkeilyin: vehkeily+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • vehkeilyhyn: vehkeily+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Noun 2ö examples:

  • jäätelö: jäätelö+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. iced cream)
  • jäätelöjen: jäätelö+N+Pl+Gen
  • jäätelöiden: jäätelö+N+Pl+Gen
  • jäätelöitten: jäätelö+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 2ö non-standard examples:

  • jäätelöin: jäätelö+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • jäätelöhön: jäätelö+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

The words with stem vowel o, u, y, ö preceded by vowels still have no more stem variation than other cases, but give yet another pattern of allomorphs for plural partitives and GENITIVEs:

Nouns 3o examples:

  • tuomio: tuomio+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # judgment)
  • tuomiota: tuomio+N+Sg+Par
  • *tuomioa: tuomio+N+Sg+Par (is not standard language)
  • tuomioita: tuomio+N+Pl+Par
  • tuomioiden: tuomio+N+Pl+Gen
  • tuomioitten: tuomio+N+Pl+Gen
  • *tuomiojen: tuomio+N+Pl+Gen (is not standard language) There's plenty of imaginable non-standard allomorph forms after long vowels:

Nouns 3o non-standard examples:

  • tuomioa: tuomio+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Par
  • tuomioin: tuomio+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • tuomiohon: tuomio+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill
  • tuomioja: tuomio+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Par
  • tuomiojen: tuomio+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Gen

Nouns 3ö examples:

  • häiriö: häiriö+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # disruption)
  • häiriötä: häiriö+N+Sg+Par
  • häiriöiden: häiriö+N+Pl+Gen
  • häiriöitten: häiriö+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 3ö non-standard examples:

  • häiriöä: häiriö+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Par
  • häiriöin: häiriö+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • häiriöhön: häiriö+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill
  • häiriöjä: häiriö+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Par
  • häiriöjen: häiriö+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Gen

Similar inflection exists in limited amounts in new loan words that are written as pronounced (thus taking no stem variation but still ending with long vowels with a syllable boundary):

Nouns 3eta examples:

  • zombie: zombie+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # zombie)
  • zombieta: zombie+N+Sg+Par
  • zombieita: zombie+N+Pl+Par
  • zombieiden: zombie+N+Pl+Gen
  • zombieitten: zombie+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 3eta non-standard examples:

  • zombiea: zombie+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Par
  • zombiein: zombie+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • zombiehen: zombie+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill
  • zombieja: zombie+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Par
  • zombiejen: zombie+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Gen

This class includes a set of new proper nouns that get nativised a bit:

Nouns 3etä examples:

  • Bernie: Bernie+N+Prop+Sg+Nom (Eng. # Bernie)
  • Bernietä: Bernie+N+Prop+Sg+Par
  • Bernieitä: Bernie+N+Prop+Pl+Par
  • Bernieiden: Bernie+N+Prop+Pl+Gen
  • Bernieitten: Bernie+N+Prop+Pl+Gen

Nouns 3etä non-standard examples:

  • Berniea: Bernie+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Par
  • Berniein: Bernie+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • Berniehen: Bernie+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill
  • Bernieja: Bernie+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Par
  • Berniejen: Bernie+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Gen

Optional gradation with illatives

In some trisyllabic words ending with quantitative consonant gradation, the illative form can attach to either strong or weak stem, even in standard written Finnish. Otherwise words in this class behave like other trisyllabic stems.

Noun 4 kko examples:

  • lepakko: lepakko+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # bat)
  • lepakoihin: lepakko+N+Pl+Ill
  • lepakkoihin: lepakko+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 4ko non-standard examples:

  • lepakkoin: lepakko+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • lepakkohon: lepakko+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

Noun 4 kkö examples:

  • yksikkö: yksikkö+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # unit)
  • yksiköihin: yksikkö+N+Pl+Ill
  • yksikköihin: yksikkö+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 4ko non-standard examples:

  • yksikköin: yksikkö+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • yksikköhön: yksikkö+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill

I final stems

The basic variation of stem final i in nominative is that it becomes e in plural stems. In plural GENITIVE form, the stem vowel disappears making suffix allomorph -ien, instead of -jen.

Nouns 5 back examples:

  • ruuvi: ruuvi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # screw)
  • ruuveina: ruuvi+N+Pl+Ess
  • ruuvien: ruuvi+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 5F non-standard examples:

  • ruuvein: ruuvi+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • ruuvihin: ruuvi+N+Err/Orth+Sg+Ill
  • ruuvejen: ruuvi+N+Err/Orth+Pl+Gen

Nouns 5 front examples:

  • tyyli: tyyli+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # style)
  • tyyleinä: tyyli+N+Pl+Ess
  • tyylien: tyyli+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 5 back k~0 examples:

  • lokki: lokki+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # seagull)
  • lokissa: lokki+N+Sg+Ine
  • lokkeina: lokki+N+Pl+Ess
  • lokeista: lokki+N+Pl+Ela
  • lokkien: lokki+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 5 front k~0 examples:

  • häkki: häkki+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # cage)
  • häkissä: häkki+N+Sg+Ine
  • häkkeinä: häkki+N+Pl+Ess
  • häkeistä: häkki+N+Pl+Ela
  • häkkien: häkki+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 5 back p~0 examples:

  • kuppi: kuppi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # cup)
  • kupissa: kuppi+N+Sg+Ine
  • kuppeina: kuppi+N+Pl+Ess
  • kupeista: kuppi+N+Pl+Ela
  • kuppien: kuppi+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 5 front p~0 examples:

  • tyyppi: tyyppi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # type)
  • tyypissä: tyyppi+N+Sg+Ine
  • tyyppeinä: tyyppi+N+Pl+Ess
  • tyypeistä: tyyppi+N+Pl+Ela
  • tyyppien: tyyppi+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 5 back t~0 examples:

  • kortti: kortti+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # card)
  • kortissa: kortti+N+Sg+Ine
  • kortteina: kortti+N+Pl+Ess
  • korteista: kortti+N+Pl+Ela
  • korttien: kortti+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 5 front t~0 examples:

  • skeitti: skeitti+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # skate)
  • skeitissä: skeitti+N+Sg+Ine
  • skeitteinä: skeitti+N+Pl+Ess
  • skeiteistä: skeitti+N+Pl+Ela
  • skeittien: skeitti+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 5 back k~’~0 examples:

  • laki: laki+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # law)
  • laissa: laki+N+Sg+Ine
  • la’issa: laki+N+Sg+Ine
  • lakeina: laki+N+Pl+Ess
  • laeista: laki+N+Pl+Ela
  • la’eista: laki+N+Pl+Ela
  • lakien: laki+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 5 back p~v examples:

  • hupi: hupi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # fun)
  • huvissa: hupi+N+Sg+Ine
  • hupeina: hupi+N+Pl+Ess
  • huveista: hupi+N+Pl+Ela
  • hupien: hupi+N+Pl+Gen

There is a gap in i final words for p: v variation and front harmony

Nouns 5 back t~d examples:

  • tauti: tauti+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # disease)
  • taudissa: tauti+N+Sg+Ine
  • tauteina: tauti+N+Pl+Ess
  • taudeista: tauti+N+Pl+Ela
  • tautien: tauti+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 5 front t~d examples:

  • nihti: nihti+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # knight)
  • nihdissä: nihti+N+Sg+Ine
  • nihteinä: nihti+N+Pl+Ess
  • nihdeistä: nihti+N+Pl+Ela
  • nihtien: nihti+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 5 back k~g examples:

  • vanki: vanki+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # prisoner)
  • vangissa: vanki+N+Sg+Ine
  • vankeina: vanki+N+Pl+Ess
  • vangeista: vanki+N+Pl+Ela
  • vankien: vanki+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 5 front k~g examples:

  • väylinki: väylinki+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # ???)
  • väylingissä: väylinki+N+Sg+Ine
  • väylinkeinä: väylinki+N+Pl+Ess
  • väylingeistä: väylinki+N+Pl+Ela
  • väylinkien: väylinki+N+Pl+Gen

There is a gap in i final paradigm with t: l variation and back vowels.

Nouns 5 front t~l examples:

  • pelti: pelti+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. sheet metal)
  • pellissä: pelti+N+Sg+Ine
  • pelteinä: pelti+N+Pl+Ess
  • pelleistä: pelti+N+Pl+Ela
  • peltien: pelti+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 5 back t~n examples:

  • sointi: sointi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # sound)
  • soinnissa: sointi+N+Sg+Ine
  • sointeina: sointi+N+Pl+Ess
  • soinneista: sointi+N+Pl+Ela
  • sointien: sointi+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 5 front t~n examples:

  • vienti: vienti+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # export)
  • viennissä: vienti+N+Sg+Ine
  • vienteinä: vienti+N+Pl+Ess
  • vienneistä: vienti+N+Pl+Ela
  • vientien: vienti+N+Pl+Gen

New loan words ending in consonant may be inflected as i stem words

Nouns 5 back no i examples:

  • punk: punk+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # punk)
  • punkeina: punk+N+Pl+Ess
  • punkien: punk+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 5 front no i examples:

  • zen: zen+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # zen)
  • zeneinä: zen+N+Pl+Ess
  • zenien: zen+N+Pl+Gen

The trisyllabic -i final stems work like their o, u, y. ö counterparts ; they combine the e: i and e: 0 variation to the additional allomorphs for plural partitive and GENITIVE:

Nouns 6 back examples:

  • kanaali: kanaali+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # canal)
  • kanaaleja: kanaali+N+Pl+Par
  • kanaaleita: kanaali+N+Pl+Par
  • kanaalien: kanaali+N+Pl+Gen
  • kanaaleiden: kanaali+N+Pl+Gen
  • kanaaleitten: kanaali+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 6 front examples:

  • kehveli: kehveli+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # hoodlum)
  • kehvelejä: kehveli+N+Pl+Par
  • kehveleitä: kehveli+N+Pl+Par
  • kehvelien: kehveli+N+Pl+Gen
  • kehveleiden: kehveli+N+Pl+Gen
  • kehveleitten: kehveli+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 6 back no i examples:

  • stadion: stadion+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # stadium)
  • stadioneja: stadion+N+Pl+Par
  • stadioneita: stadion+N+Pl+Par
  • stadionien: stadion+N+Pl+Gen
  • stadioneiden: stadion+N+Pl+Gen
  • stadioneitten: stadion+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 6 front no i examples:

  • besserwisser: besserwisser+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # besserwisser)
  • besserwisserejä: besserwisser+N+Pl+Par
  • besserwissereitä: besserwisser+N+Pl+Par
  • besserwisserien: besserwisser+N+Pl+Gen
  • besserwissereiden: besserwisser+N+Pl+Gen
  • besserwissereitten: besserwisser+N+Pl+Gen

I-final nominatives with e stems

Some of the words with i-final nominative forms have i: e variation for singular stem, and i: 0 for whole plural stems:

Noun 7 back examples:

  • onni: onni+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # happiness)
  • onnena: onni+N+Sg+Ess
  • onnessa: onni+N+Sg+Ine
  • onnissa: onni+N+Pl+Ine
  • onnista: onni+N+Pl+Ela

Noun 7 front examples:

  • helmi: helmi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # pearl)
  • helmenä: helmi+N+Sg+Ess
  • helmessä: helmi+N+Sg+Ine
  • helmissä: helmi+N+Pl+Ine
  • helmistä: helmi+N+Pl+Ela

Noun 7 back p~0 examples:

  • happi: happi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # oxygen)
  • hapessa: happi+N+Sg+Ine
  • happina: happi+N+Pl+Ess
  • hapista: happi+N+Pl+Ela
  • happien: happi+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 7 front p~0 examples:

  • typpi: typpi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # nitrogen)
  • typessä: typpi+N+Sg+Ine
  • typpinä: typpi+N+Pl+Ess
  • typistä: typpi+N+Pl+Ela
  • typpien: typpi+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 7 back k~0 examples:

  • noki: noki+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # coal)
  • noessa: noki+N+Sg+Ine
  • nokina: noki+N+Pl+Ess
  • noista: noki+N+Pl+Ela
  • nokien: noki+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 7 front k~0 examples:

  • käki: käki+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # cuccoo)
  • käessä: käki+N+Sg+Ine
  • käkinä: käki+N+Pl+Ess
  • käistä: käki+N+Pl+Ela
  • käkien: käki+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 7 back p~v examples:

  • korpi: korpi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # wilderness)
  • korvessa: korpi+N+Sg+Ine
  • korpina: korpi+N+Pl+Ess
  • korvista: korpi+N+Pl+Ela
  • korpien: korpi+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 7 front p~v examples:

  • kilpi: kilpi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # shield)
  • kilvessä: kilpi+N+Sg+Ine
  • kilpinä: kilpi+N+Pl+Ess
  • kilvistä: kilpi+N+Pl+Ela
  • kilpien: kilpi+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 7 back t~d examples:

  • lahti: lahti+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # peninsula)
  • lahdessa: lahti+N+Sg+Ine
  • lahtina: lahti+N+Pl+Ess
  • lahdista: lahti+N+Pl+Ela
  • lahtien: lahti+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 7 front t~d examples:

  • lehti: lehti+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # leaf)
  • lehdessä: lehti+N+Sg+Ine
  • lehtinä: lehti+N+Pl+Ess
  • lehdistä: lehti+N+Pl+Ela
  • lehtien: lehti+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 7 back k~g examples:

  • onki: onki+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. fishing rod)
  • ongessa: onki+N+Sg+Ine
  • onkina: onki+N+Pl+Ess
  • ongista: onki+N+Pl+Ela
  • onkien: onki+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 7 front k~g examples:

  • henki: henki+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # person)
  • hengessä: henki+N+Sg+Ine
  • henkinä: henki+N+Pl+Ess
  • hengistä: henki+N+Pl+Ela
  • henkien: henki+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 7 back p~m examples:

  • lampi: lampi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # pond)
  • lammessa: lampi+N+Sg+Ine
  • lampina: lampi+N+Pl+Ess
  • lammista: lampi+N+Pl+Ela
  • lampien: lampi+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 7 front p~m examples:

  • rimpi: rimpi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # ???)
  • rimmessä: rimpi+N+Sg+Ine
  • rimpinä: rimpi+N+Pl+Ess
  • rimmistä: rimpi+N+Pl+Ela
  • rimpien: rimpi+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 7 back k~j examples:

  • arki: arki+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # weekday)
  • arjessa: arki+N+Sg+Ine
  • arkina: arki+N+Pl+Ess
  • arjista: arki+N+Pl+Ela
  • arkien: arki+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 7 front k~j examples:

  • järki: järki+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # sanity)
  • järjessä: järki+N+Sg+Ine
  • järkinä: järki+N+Pl+Ess
  • järjistä: järki+N+Pl+Ela
  • järkien: järki+N+Pl+Gen

New e-final stems

The new words with e stem work exactly like the bisyllabic o, u, y, and ö stems ; no stem variation and same allomorph set. This variant can be recognised from singular illative then:

Noun 8 back examples:

  • nalle: nalle+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # teddy)
  • nallea: nalle+N+Sg+Par
  • nalleen: nalle+N+Sg+Ill
  • nalleja: nalle+N+Pl+Par
  • nallejen: nalle+N+Pl+Gen
  • nalleihin: nalle+N+Pl+Ill Dictionary claims they also have slightly greater probability for archaic form of plural:
  • nallein: nalle+N+Pl+Gen+Use/Rare

Noun 8 front examples:

  • nisse: nisse+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # bellhop)
  • nisseä: nisse+N+Sg+Par
  • nisseen: nisse+N+Sg+Ill
  • nissejä: nisse+N+Pl+Par
  • nissejen: nisse+N+Pl+Gen
  • nisseihin: nisse+N+Pl+Ill

Noun 8 k~0 back examples:

  • nukke: nukke+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # doll)
  • nukkea: nukke+N+Sg+Par
  • nukkeen: nukke+N+Sg+Ill
  • nukkeja: nukke+N+Pl+Par
  • nukkejen: nukke+N+Pl+Gen
  • nukkeihin: nukke+N+Pl+Ill

Noun 8 p~0 front examples:

  • jeppe: jeppe+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # chap)
  • jeppeä: jeppe+N+Sg+Par
  • jeppeen: jeppe+N+Sg+Ill
  • jeppejä: jeppe+N+Pl+Par
  • jeppejen: jeppe+N+Pl+Gen
  • jeppeihin: jeppe+N+Pl+Ill

A-final stems

The basic variation of a-final stems is a: o in plural forms:

Noun 9 examples:

  • kirja: kirja+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # book)
  • kirjaa: kirja+N+Sg+Par
  • kirjana: kirja+N+Sg+Ess
  • kirjassa: kirja+N+Sg+Ine
  • kirjoina: kirja+N+Pl+Ess
  • kirjojen: kirja+N+Pl+Gen
  • kirjoihin: kirja+N+Pl+Ill

Notably, the basic a: o paradigm does not support many ä: ö cases.

Noun 9 k~0 examples:

  • politiikka: politiikka+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # politics)
  • politiikkaa: politiikka+N+Sg+Par
  • politiikkana: politiikka+N+Sg+Ess
  • politiikassa: politiikka+N+Sg+Ine
  • politiikkoina: politiikka+N+Pl+Ess
  • politiikkojen: politiikka+N+Pl+Gen
  • politiikkoihin: politiikka+N+Pl+Ill

Noun 9 p~0 examples:

  • tippa: tippa+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # drop)
  • tippaa: tippa+N+Sg+Par
  • tippana: tippa+N+Sg+Ess
  • tipassa: tippa+N+Sg+Ine
  • tippoina: tippa+N+Pl+Ess
  • tippojen: tippa+N+Pl+Gen
  • tippoihin: tippa+N+Pl+Ill

Noun 9 t~0 examples:

  • mitta: mitta+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # measure)
  • mittaa: mitta+N+Sg+Par
  • mittana: mitta+N+Sg+Ess
  • mitassa: mitta+N+Sg+Ine
  • mittoina: mitta+N+Pl+Ess
  • mittojen: mitta+N+Pl+Gen
  • mittoihin: mitta+N+Pl+Ill

Noun 9 k~’~0 examples:

  • vika: vika+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # error)
  • vikana: vika+N+Sg+Ess
  • viassa: vika+N+Sg+Ine
  • vi’assa: vika+N+Sg+Ine
  • vikoina: vika+N+Pl+Ess
  • vikojen: vika+N+Pl+Gen
  • vikoihin: vika+N+Pl+Ill

Noun 9 k~’ examples:

  • vaaka: vaaka+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # scale)
  • vaakana: vaaka+N+Sg+Ess
  • vaa’assa: vaaka+N+Sg+Ine
  • vaaoissa: vaaka+N+Pl+Ine
  • vaa’oissa: vaaka+N+Pl+Ine

Noun 9 p~v examples:

  • salpa: salpa+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # bolt)
  • salpaa: salpa+N+Sg+Par
  • salpana: salpa+N+Sg+Ess
  • salvassa: salpa+N+Sg+Ine
  • salpoina: salpa+N+Pl+Ess
  • salpojen: salpa+N+Pl+Gen
  • salpoihin: salpa+N+Pl+Ill

Noun 9 t~d examples:

  • pata: pata+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # kettle)
  • pataa: pata+N+Sg+Par
  • patana: pata+N+Sg+Ess
  • padassa: pata+N+Sg+Ine
  • patoina: pata+N+Pl+Ess
  • patojen: pata+N+Pl+Gen
  • patoihin: pata+N+Pl+Ill

Noun 9 k~g examples:

  • lanka: lanka+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # yarn)
  • lankaa: lanka+N+Sg+Par
  • lankana: lanka+N+Sg+Ess
  • langassa: lanka+N+Sg+Ine
  • lankoina: lanka+N+Pl+Ess
  • lankojen: lanka+N+Pl+Gen
  • lankoihin: lanka+N+Pl+Ill

Noun 9 p~m examples:

  • rampa: rampa+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # cripple)
  • rampaa: rampa+N+Sg+Par
  • rampana: rampa+N+Sg+Ess
  • rammassa: rampa+N+Sg+Ine
  • rampoina: rampa+N+Pl+Ess
  • rampojen: rampa+N+Pl+Gen
  • rampoihin: rampa+N+Pl+Ill

Noun 9 t~l examples:

  • valta: valta+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # power)
  • valtaa: valta+N+Sg+Par
  • valtana: valta+N+Sg+Ess
  • vallassa: valta+N+Sg+Ine
  • valtoina: valta+N+Pl+Ess
  • valtojen: valta+N+Pl+Gen
  • valtoihin: valta+N+Pl+Ill

Noun 9 t~n examples:

  • kutsunta: kutsunta+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # drafts)
  • kutsuntaa: kutsunta+N+Sg+Par
  • kutsuntana: kutsunta+N+Sg+Ess
  • kutsunnassa: kutsunta+N+Sg+Ine
  • kutsuntoina: kutsunta+N+Pl+Ess
  • kutsuntojen: kutsunta+N+Pl+Gen
  • kutsuntoihin: kutsunta+N+Pl+Ill

Noun 9 t~n front examples:

  • kysyntä: kysyntä+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # demand)
  • kysyntää: kysyntä+N+Sg+Par
  • kysyntänä: kysyntä+N+Sg+Ess
  • kysynnässä: kysyntä+N+Sg+Ine
  • kysyntöinä: kysyntä+N+Pl+Ess
  • kysyntöjen: kysyntä+N+Pl+Gen
  • kysyntöihin: kysyntä+N+Pl+Ill

Noun 9 t~r examples:

  • kerta: kerta+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # pcs)
  • kertaa: kerta+N+Sg+Par
  • kertana: kerta+N+Sg+Ess
  • kerrassa: kerta+N+Sg+Ine
  • kertoina: kerta+N+Pl+Ess
  • kertojen: kerta+N+Pl+Gen
  • kertoihin: kerta+N+Pl+Ill

Some -A stems do not have the a: o variation, exhibiting a: 0 variation for plural stems instead. This class notably contains all the -jA suffixed deverbal nouns.

Noun 10 back examples:

  • soittaja: soittaja+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # player)
  • soittajaa: soittaja+N+Sg+Par
  • soittajana: soittaja+N+Sg+Ess
  • soittajassa: soittaja+N+Sg+Ine
  • soittajina: soittaja+N+Pl+Ess
  • soittajien: soittaja+N+Pl+Gen
  • soittajiin: soittaja+N+Pl+Ill

Noun 10 front examples:

  • hiihtäjä: hiihtäjä+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # skier)
  • hiihtäjää: hiihtäjä+N+Sg+Par
  • hiihtäjänä: hiihtäjä+N+Sg+Ess
  • hiihtäjässä: hiihtäjä+N+Sg+Ine
  • hiihtäjinä: hiihtäjä+N+Pl+Ess
  • hiihtäjien: hiihtäjä+N+Pl+Gen
  • hiihtäjiin: hiihtäjä+N+Pl+Ill

Noun 10 back k̃~0 examples:

  • luokka: luokka+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # class)
  • luokkaa: luokka+N+Sg+Par
  • luokkana: luokka+N+Sg+Ess
  • luokassa: luokka+N+Sg+Ine
  • luokkina: luokka+N+Pl+Ess
  • luokissa: luokka+N+Pl+Ine
  • luokkien: luokka+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 10 front k̃~0 examples:

  • hölkkä: hölkkä+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # jog)
  • hölkkää: hölkkä+N+Sg+Par
  • hölkkänä: hölkkä+N+Sg+Ess
  • hölkässä: hölkkä+N+Sg+Ine
  • hölkkinä: hölkkä+N+Pl+Ess
  • hölkissä: hölkkä+N+Pl+Ine
  • hölkkien: hölkkä+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 10 back p~0 examples:

  • kuoppa: kuoppa+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # pothole)
  • kuoppaa: kuoppa+N+Sg+Par
  • kuoppana: kuoppa+N+Sg+Ess
  • kuopassa: kuoppa+N+Sg+Ine
  • kuoppina: kuoppa+N+Pl+Ess
  • kuopissa: kuoppa+N+Pl+Ine
  • kuoppien: kuoppa+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 10 front p~0 examples:

  • seppä: seppä+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # blacksmith)
  • seppää: seppä+N+Sg+Par
  • seppänä: seppä+N+Sg+Ess
  • sepässä: seppä+N+Sg+Ine
  • seppinä: seppä+N+Pl+Ess
  • sepissä: seppä+N+Pl+Ine
  • seppien: seppä+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 10 back t~0 examples:

  • rotta: rotta+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # rat)
  • rottaa: rotta+N+Sg+Par
  • rottana: rotta+N+Sg+Ess
  • rotassa: rotta+N+Sg+Ine
  • rottina: rotta+N+Pl+Ess
  • rotissa: rotta+N+Pl+Ine
  • rottien: rotta+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 10 front t~0 examples:

  • kenttä: kenttä+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # field)
  • kenttää: kenttä+N+Sg+Par
  • kenttänä: kenttä+N+Sg+Ess
  • kentässä: kenttä+N+Sg+Ine
  • kenttinä: kenttä+N+Pl+Ess
  • kentissä: kenttä+N+Pl+Ine
  • kenttien: kenttä+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 10 back k~’~0 examples:

  • vuoka: vuoka+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. baking tray)
  • vuokaa: vuoka+N+Sg+Par
  • vuokana: vuoka+N+Sg+Ess
  • vuoassa: vuoka+N+Sg+Ine
  • vuo’assa: vuoka+N+Sg+Ine
  • vuokina: vuoka+N+Pl+Ess
  • vuoissa: vuoka+N+Pl+Ine
  • vuo’issa: vuoka+N+Pl+Ine
  • vuokien: vuoka+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 10 front k~’~0 examples:

  • ikä: ikä+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # age)
  • ikää: ikä+N+Sg+Par
  • ikänä: ikä+N+Sg+Ess
  • iässä: ikä+N+Sg+Ine
  • i’issä: ikä+N+Pl+Ine
  • ikiin: ikä+N+Pl+Ill

Noun 10 back k~’~0 examples:

  • reikä: reikä+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # hole)
  • reikää: reikä+N+Sg+Par
  • reikänä: reikä+N+Sg+Ess
  • reiässä: reikä+N+Sg+Ine
  • rei’issä: reikä+N+Pl+Ine
  • reikiin: reikä+N+Pl+Ill

Noun 10 back p~v examples:

  • lupa: lupa+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # permit)
  • lupaa: lupa+N+Sg+Par
  • lupana: lupa+N+Sg+Ess
  • luvassa: lupa+N+Sg+Ine
  • lupina: lupa+N+Pl+Ess
  • luvissa: lupa+N+Pl+Ine
  • lupien: lupa+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 10 front p~v examples:

  • leipä: leipä+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # bread)
  • leipää: leipä+N+Sg+Par
  • leipänä: leipä+N+Sg+Ess
  • leivässä: leipä+N+Sg+Ine
  • leipinä: leipä+N+Pl+Ess
  • leivissä: leipä+N+Pl+Ine
  • leipien: leipä+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 10 back t~d examples:

  • sota: sota+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # war)
  • sotaa: sota+N+Sg+Par
  • sotana: sota+N+Sg+Ess
  • sodassa: sota+N+Sg+Ine
  • sotina: sota+N+Pl+Ess
  • sodissa: sota+N+Pl+Ine
  • sotien: sota+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 10 front t~d examples:

  • pöytä: pöytä+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # table)
  • pöytää: pöytä+N+Sg+Par
  • pöytänä: pöytä+N+Sg+Ess
  • pöydässä: pöytä+N+Sg+Ine
  • pöytinä: pöytä+N+Pl+Ess
  • pöydissä: pöytä+N+Pl+Ine
  • pöytien: pöytä+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 10 back k~g examples:

  • honka: honka+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. kind of a tree)
  • honkaa: honka+N+Sg+Par
  • honkana: honka+N+Sg+Ess
  • hongassa: honka+N+Sg+Ine
  • honkina: honka+N+Pl+Ess
  • hongissa: honka+N+Pl+Ine
  • honkien: honka+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 10 frot k~g examples:

  • kenkä: kenkä+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # shoe)
  • kenkää: kenkä+N+Sg+Par
  • kenkänä: kenkä+N+Sg+Ess
  • kengässä: kenkä+N+Sg+Ine
  • kengissä: kenkä+N+Pl+Ine
  • kenkiin: kenkä+N+Pl+Ill

Noun 10 back p~m examples:

  • kompa: kompa+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. trick question)
  • kompaa: kompa+N+Sg+Par
  • kompana: kompa+N+Sg+Ess
  • kommassa: kompa+N+Sg+Ine
  • kompina: kompa+N+Pl+Ess
  • kommissa: kompa+N+Pl+Ine
  • kompien: kompa+N+Pl+Gen

There is a gap for ä-final word with p: m variation

Noun 10 back t~l examples:

  • multa: multa+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # dirt)
  • multaa: multa+N+Sg+Par
  • multana: multa+N+Sg+Ess
  • mullassa: multa+N+Sg+Ine
  • multina: multa+N+Pl+Ess
  • mullissa: multa+N+Pl+Ine
  • multien: multa+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 10 front t~l examples:

  • syltä: syltä+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # ???)
  • syltää: syltä+N+Sg+Par
  • syltänä: syltä+N+Sg+Ess
  • syllässä: syltä+N+Sg+Ine
  • syltinä: syltä+N+Pl+Ess
  • syllissä: syltä+N+Pl+Ine
  • syltien: syltä+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 10 back t~n examples:

  • kunta: kunta+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # municipality)
  • kuntaa: kunta+N+Sg+Par
  • kuntana: kunta+N+Sg+Ess
  • kunnassa: kunta+N+Sg+Ine
  • kuntina: kunta+N+Pl+Ess
  • kunnissa: kunta+N+Pl+Ine
  • kuntien: kunta+N+Pl+Gen

Noun 10 front t~n examples:

  • emäntä: emäntä+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # hostess)
  • emäntää: emäntä+N+Sg+Par
  • emäntänä: emäntä+N+Sg+Ess
  • emännässä: emäntä+N+Sg+Ine
  • emäntinä: emäntä+N+Pl+Ess
  • emännissä: emäntä+N+Pl+Ine
  • emäntien: emäntä+N+Pl+Gen

There is a gap for k: j gradation in a-final stems.

Noun 10 front k~j examples:

  • selkä: selkä+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # back)
  • selkää: selkä+N+Sg+Par
  • selkänä: selkä+N+Sg+Ess
  • seljässä: selkä+N+Sg+Ine
  • seljissä: selkä+N+Pl+Ine
  • selkiin: selkä+N+Pl+Ill

Certain trisyllabic stems allow both variations of a: o and a: 0 for plural forms.

Noun 11 back examples:

  • probleema: probleema+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # problem)
  • probleemia: probleema+N+Pl+Par
  • probleemoita: probleema+N+Pl+Par
  • probleemien: probleema+N+Pl+Gen
  • probleemoitten: probleema+N+Pl+Gen
  • probleemoiden: probleema+N+Pl+Gen
  • probleemiin: probleema+N+Pl+Ill
  • probleemoihin: probleema+N+Pl+Ill Also less commonly:
  • probleemain: probleema+N+Pl+Gen+Use/Rare
  • probleemojen: probleema+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Gen
  • probleemoja: probleema+N+Use/Rare+Pl+Par

Noun 11 front examples:

  • käpälä: käpälä+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # paw)
  • käpälää: käpälä+N+Sg+Par
  • käpälänä: käpälä+N+Sg+Ess
  • käpälässä: käpälä+N+Sg+Ine
  • käpälinä: käpälä+N+Pl+Ess
  • käpälien: käpälä+N+Pl+Gen
  • käpäliin: käpälä+N+Pl+Ill

Some a stems with a: o variation have slightly different set of allomorphs

Nouns 12 back examples:

  • makkara: makkara+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # sausage)
  • makkaraa: makkara+N+Sg+Par
  • makkarana: makkara+N+Sg+Ess
  • makkaroina: makkara+N+Pl+Ess
  • makkaroita: makkara+N+Pl+Par

Nouns 12 front examples:

  • häkkyrä: häkkyrä+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # thingie)
  • häkkyrää: häkkyrä+N+Sg+Par
  • häkkyränä: häkkyrä+N+Sg+Ess
  • häkkyröinä: häkkyrä+N+Pl+Ess
  • häkkyröitä: häkkyrä+N+Pl+Par

There is a possible class for further variation of a: o in the old dictionary dictionary that is worth re-evaluating.

There’s one more allomorph pattern.

Nouns 12++ front examples:

  • mörinä: mörinä+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # murr)
  • mörinää: mörinä+N+Sg+Par
  • mörinänä: mörinä+N+Sg+Ess
  • mörinässä: mörinä+N+Sg+Ine

The trisyllabic a-final words with quantitative consonant gradation allow same illative variation as o, u, y, and ö finals described earlier.

Nouns 14 back examples:

  • lusikka: lusikka+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # spoon)
  • lusikkoina: lusikka+N+Pl+Ess
  • lusikoissa: lusikka+N+Pl+Ine
  • lusikoihin: lusikka+N+Pl+Ill
  • lusikkoihin: lusikka+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 14 front examples:

  • kämmekkä: kämmekkä+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # handy)
  • kämmeköihin: kämmekkä+N+Pl+Ill
  • kämmekköihin: kämmekkä+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 14 back p̃0 examples:

  • ulappa: ulappa+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # horizon)
  • ulappoina: ulappa+N+Pl+Ess
  • ulapoissa: ulappa+N+Pl+Ine
  • ulapoihin: ulappa+N+Pl+Ill
  • ulappoihin: ulappa+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 14 back t0 examples:

  • pohatta: pohatta+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # shark)
  • pohattoina: pohatta+N+Pl+Ess
  • pohatoissa: pohatta+N+Pl+Ine
  • pohattoihin: pohatta+N+Pl+Ill
  • pohatoihin: pohatta+N+Pl+Ill

The a-final words ending in long vowels with syllable boundary have a: 0 variation and more allomorphs for plyral GENITIVE or illative.

Nouns 15 ea examples:

  • sokea: sokea+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # blind)
  • sokeana: sokea+N+Sg+Ess
  • sokeina: sokea+N+Pl+Ess
  • sokeissa: sokea+N+Pl+Ine
  • sokeihin: sokea+N+Pl+Ill
  • sokeisiin: sokea+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 15 eä examples:

  • lipeä: lipeä+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. sodium hydroxide)
  • lipeänä: lipeä+N+Sg+Ess
  • lipeinä: lipeä+N+Pl+Ess
  • lipeissä: lipeä+N+Pl+Ine
  • lipeihin: lipeä+N+Pl+Ill
  • lipeisiin: lipeä+N+Pl+Ill

Lexicalised comparatives

Lexicalised comparatives have the same special inflection pattern as comparatives have: stem final i varies with a, and mp gradates into mm. There are not many comparatives that lexicalise into nouns.

Nouns 16 examples:

  • vanhempi: vanhempi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # parent)
  • vanhempana: vanhempi+N+Sg+Ess
  • vanhemmassa: vanhempi+N+Sg+Ine
  • vanhempina: vanhempi+N+Pl+Ess
  • vanhemmista: vanhempi+N+Pl+Ela

Long vowel stems

The long vowel stems have shortening variation in plural inflection, and special singular illatives, partitives.

Bisyllabic and longer stems with long vowels have -seen illative suffix. This class has some of the old -UU derivations.

Nouns 17 a examples:

  • vapaa: vapaa+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # free)
  • vapaata: vapaa+N+Sg+Par
  • vapaaseen: vapaa+N+Sg+Ill

Nouns 17 o examples:

  • tienoo: tienoo+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # neighborhood)
  • tienoota: tienoo+N+Sg+Par
  • tienooseen: tienoo+N+Sg+Ill

Nouns 17 u examples:

  • kerjuu: kerjuu+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # begging)
  • kerjuuta: kerjuu+N+Sg+Par
  • kerjuuseen: kerjuu+N+Sg+Ill

Monosyllabic long vowel stems have illative suffixes of form -hVn.

Nouns 18 a examples:

  • maa: maa+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # earth)
  • maata: maa+N+Sg+Par
  • maahan: maa+N+Sg+Ill

Nouns 18 e examples:

  • tee: tee+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # tea)
  • teetä: tee+N+Sg+Par
  • teehen: tee+N+Sg+Ill

Nouns 18 i back examples:

  • hai: hai+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # shark)
  • haita: hai+N+Sg+Par
  • haihin: hai+N+Sg+Ill

Nouns 18 i examples:

  • pii: pii+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # silica)
  • piitä: pii+N+Sg+Par
  • piihin: pii+N+Sg+Ill

Nouns 18 o examples:

  • ookoo: ookoo+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # OK)
  • ookoota: ookoo+N+Sg+Par
  • ookoohon: ookoo+N+Sg+Ill

Nouns 18 u examples:

  • puu: puu+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # tree)
  • puuta: puu+N+Sg+Par
  • puuhun: puu+N+Sg+Ill

Nouns 18 y examples:

  • pyy: pyy+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. kind of a bird)
  • pyytä: pyy+N+Sg+Par
  • pyyhyn: pyy+N+Sg+Ill

Nouns 18 ä examples:

  • pää: pää+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # head)
  • päätä: pää+N+Sg+Par
  • päähän: pää+N+Sg+Ill

Nouns 18 ö examples:

  • köö: köö+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. pool/billiard stick)
  • köötä: köö+N+Sg+Par
  • kööhön: köö+N+Sg+Ill

Opening diphthong stems

In old opening diphthong final words, the dipthong simplifies for plural forms by dropping the initial vowel. For new words of this class, no stem mutations happen and they are in above mentioned classes, (e.g. NOUN_ZOMBIE).

Nouns 19 ie examples:

  • tie: tie+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # road)
  • tietä: tie+N+Sg+Par
  • teitä: tie+N+Pl+Par

Nouns 19 uo examples:

  • suo: suo+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # swamp)
  • suota: suo+N+Sg+Par
  • soita: suo+N+Pl+Par


Nouns 19 yö examples:

  • työ: työ+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # work)
  • työtä: työ+N+Sg+Par
  • töitä: työ+N+Pl+Par

Newer loan words

The loan words that end in long vowel, and have been modified to Finnish orthography, have combination of long vowel stem’s allomorphs for e.g illatives. Sometimes rules for these classes of words are vague.

Nouns 20 a examples:

  • nugaa: nugaa+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # nougat)
  • nugaata: nugaa+N+Sg+Par
  • nugaana: nugaa+N+Sg+Ess
  • nugaahan: nugaa+N+Sg+Ill
  • nugaaseen: nugaa+N+Sg+Ill
  • nugaissa: nugaa+N+Pl+Ine
  • nugaista: nugaa+N+Pl+Ela
  • nugaiden: nugaa+N+Pl+Gen
  • nugaitten: nugaa+N+Pl+Gen
  • nugaisiin: nugaa+N+Pl+Ill
  • nugaihin: nugaa+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 20 e examples:

  • patee: patee+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # paté)
  • pateeta: patee+N+Sg+Par
  • pateena: patee+N+Sg+Ess
  • pateehen: patee+N+Sg+Ill
  • pateeseen: patee+N+Sg+Ill
  • pateissa: patee+N+Pl+Ine
  • pateista: patee+N+Pl+Ela
  • pateiden: patee+N+Pl+Gen
  • pateitten: patee+N+Pl+Gen
  • pateisiin: patee+N+Pl+Ill
  • pateihin: patee+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 20 e front examples:

  • bidee: bidee+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # bidet)
  • bideetä: bidee+N+Sg+Par
  • bideenä: bidee+N+Sg+Ess
  • bideehen: bidee+N+Sg+Ill
  • bideeseen: bidee+N+Sg+Ill
  • bideissä: bidee+N+Pl+Ine
  • bideistä: bidee+N+Pl+Ela
  • bideiden: bidee+N+Pl+Gen
  • bideitten: bidee+N+Pl+Gen
  • bideisiin: bidee+N+Pl+Ill
  • bideihin: bidee+N+Pl+Ill

There’s a gap in -ii final loan stems.

Nouns 20 o examples:

  • trikoo: trikoo+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # tights)
  • trikoota: trikoo+N+Sg+Par
  • trikoona: trikoo+N+Sg+Ess
  • trikoissa: trikoo+N+Pl+Ine
  • trikoista: trikoo+N+Pl+Ela
  • trikooseen: trikoo+N+Sg+Ill
  • trikoiden: trikoo+N+Pl+Gen
  • trikoitten: trikoo+N+Pl+Gen
  • trikoihin: trikoo+N+Pl+Ill
  • trikoisiin: trikoo+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 20 u examples:

  • raguu: raguu+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # ragout)
  • raguuta: raguu+N+Sg+Par
  • raguuna: raguu+N+Sg+Ess
  • raguussa: raguu+N+Sg+Ine
  • raguista: raguu+N+Pl+Ela
  • raguuseen: raguu+N+Sg+Ill
  • raguiden: raguu+N+Pl+Gen
  • raguiden: raguu+N+Pl+Gen
  • raguisiin: raguu+N+Pl+Ill
  • raguihin: raguu+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 20 y examples:

  • fondyy: fondyy+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # fondue)
  • fondyytä: fondyy+N+Sg+Par
  • fondyynä: fondyy+N+Sg+Ess
  • fondyyssä: fondyy+N+Sg+Ine
  • fondyistä: fondyy+N+Pl+Ela
  • fonduuseen: fondyy+N+Sg+Ill
  • fondyyhyn: fondyy+N+Sg+Ill
  • fondyiden: fondyy+N+Pl+Gen
  • fondyitten: fondyy+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 20 ö examples:

  • miljöö: miljöö+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # milieu)
  • miljöötä: miljöö+N+Sg+Par
  • miljöönä: miljöö+N+Sg+Ess
  • miljöössä: miljöö+N+Sg+Ine
  • miljöistä: miljöö+N+Pl+Ela
  • miljööseen: miljöö+N+Sg+Ill
  • miljöiden: miljöö+N+Pl+Gen
  • miljöitten: miljöö+N+Pl+Gen
  • miljöihin: miljöö+N+Pl+Ill
  • miljöisiin: miljöö+N+Pl+Ill

Some loan words don’t end in long vowel but work like they would. The official dictionary says these words should avoid plural GENITIVE itten but not iden, in reality they may be in absolutely free variation. In general the rules for loan words are vague and do not always seem to work.

Nouns 21 e back examples:

  • rosé: rosé+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # rosé)
  • roséta: rosé+N+Sg+Par
  • roséhen: rosé+N+Sg+Ill
  • roséseen: rosé+N+Sg+Ill

Nouns 21 e front examples:

  • bébé: bébé+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # bébé)
  • bébétä: bébé+N+Sg+Par
  • bébéhen: bébé+N+Sg+Ill
  • bébéseen: bébé+N+Sg+Ill

The rules are even more wonky when the vowel harmony does not follow the orthography, or the orthography leaves things open to interpretation. Only way to even begin to understand the norm is to look up examples on RILF site (to me, some of the forms on that normative guide are just bizarre).

Nouns 21 i back examples:

  • brasserie: brasserie+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # brasserie)
  • brasserieta: brasserie+N+Sg+Par
  • brasserietä: brasserie+N+Sg+Par
  • brasseriehen: brasserie+N+Sg+Ill
  • brasseriehin: brasserie+N+Sg+Ill

Nouns 21 i front examples:

  • brie: brie+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # brie)
  • brietä: brie+N+Sg+Par
  • briehen: brie+N+Sg+Ill

Nouns 21 ye examples:

  • fondue: fondue+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # fondue)
  • fondueta: fondue+N+Sg+Par
  • fonduetä: fondue+N+Sg+Par
  • fonduena: fondue+N+Sg+Ess
  • fonduenä: fondue+N+Sg+Ess
  • fonduessa: fondue+N+Sg+Ine
  • fonduessä: fondue+N+Sg+Ine
  • fondueina: fondue+N+Pl+Ess
  • fondueinä: fondue+N+Pl+Ess
  • fondueiden: fondue+N+Pl+Gen
  • fondueitten: fondue+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 21 yi examples:

  • jockey: jockey+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # jockey)
  • jockeyta: jockey+N+Sg+Par
  • jockeytä: jockey+N+Sg+Par
  • jockeya: jockey+N+Sg+Par

Nouns 21 iy examples:

  • cowboy: cowboy+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # cowboy)
  • cowboytä: cowboy+N+Sg+Par
  • cowboyta: cowboy+N+Sg+Par

Nouns 21 u back examples:

  • kungfu: kungfu+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # kung-fu)
  • kungfuta: kungfu+N+Sg+Par

Nouns 21 yi examples:

  • gay: gay+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # gay)
  • gayhin: gay+N+Sg+Ill
  • gayhyn: gay+N+Sg+Ill

Nouns 21 a examples:

  • chachacha: chachacha+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. cha cha cha)
  • chachachata: chachacha+N+Sg+Par

The loan words that end in consonant when written but vowel when pronounced are inflected with an apostrophe ’. With half-vowels the rule is a bit shaky, but officially apostrophe is the only way.

Nouns 22 a examples:

  • nougat: nougat+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # nougat)
  • nougat’ta: nougat+N+Sg+Par
  • nougat’han: nougat+N+Sg+Ill

Nouns 22 e examples:

  • parfait: parfait+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # parfait)
  • parfait’ta: parfait+N+Sg+Par
  • parfait’hen: parfait+N+Sg+Ill

Nouns 22 e front examples:

  • beignet: beignet+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # beignet)
  • beignet’tä: beignet+N+Sg+Par
  • beignet’hen: beignet+N+Sg+Ill

Nouns 22 o examples:

  • bordeaux: bordeaux+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # bordeaux)
  • bordeaux’ta: bordeaux+N+Sg+Par
  • bordeaux’hon: bordeaux+N+Sg+Ill

Nouns 22 u examples:

  • show: show+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # show)
  • show’ta: show+N+Sg+Par
  • show’hun: show+N+Sg+Ill

Nouns 22 ö examples:

  • monsieur: monsieur+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # monsieur)
  • monsieur’tä: monsieur+N+Sg+Par
  • monsieur’hön: monsieur+N+Sg+Ill

I-final stems (old e stems)

Some i-final stems have i: e variation in singular forms, as they are originated from -e forms, only nominative has -i. They also have some consonant stem forms that are archaic for other classes of words. The difference between these classes are in the selection of singular partitives and plural GENITIVEs (but the boundaries of norm are not clear-cut, and most variants are found in the wild):

Nouns 23 examples:

  • tuli: tuli+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # fire)
  • tulessa: tuli+N+Sg+Ine
  • tulta: tuli+N+Sg+Par
  • tulien: tuli+N+Pl+Gen
  • tuliin: tuli+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 23++ examples:

  • vuohi: vuohi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # goat)
  • vuohessa: vuohi+N+Sg+Ine
  • vuohea: vuohi+N+Sg+Par
  • vuohta: vuohi+N+Sg+Par
  • vuohien: vuohi+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 24 back examples:

  • ruuhi: ruuhi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # boat)
  • ruuhessa: ruuhi+N+Sg+Ine
  • ruuhta: ruuhi+N+Sg+Par
  • ruuhien: ruuhi+N+Pl+Gen
  • ruuhten: ruuhi+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 24 front examples:

  • hiiri: hiiri+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # mouse)
  • hiiressä: hiiri+N+Sg+Ine
  • hiirtä: hiiri+N+Sg+Par
  • hiirten: hiiri+N+Pl+Gen
  • hiirien: hiiri+N+Pl+Gen

It is noteworthy of the official dictionary classification, that classes with numbers 24 and 26 are identical. The distinction should probably not be retained in future versions.

Nouns 26 back examples:

  • kaari: kaari+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # arc)

Nouns 24 front examples:

  • mieli: mieli+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # mind)

The -mi stems will rarely undego m: n variation for consonant stem forms.

Nouns 25 back examples:

  • luomi: luomi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # mole)
  • luomea: luomi+N+Sg+Par
  • luonta: luomi+N+Sg+Par
  • luomien: luomi+N+Pl+Gen
  • luonten: luomi+N+Pl+Gen

Nouns 25 front examples:

  • liemi: liemi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # sauce)
  • liemeä: liemi+N+Sg+Par
  • lientä: liemi+N+Sg+Par
  • liemien: liemi+N+Pl+Gen
  • lienten: liemi+N+Pl+Gen

The -si words that originate from old -te stems have the consonant gradation patterns left in their stems. The si is only in nominative stem and this class mainly concerns stems that are old enough to have undergone ti>si transformation.

Nouns 27 back examples:

  • kausi: kausi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # term)
  • kautena: kausi+N+Sg+Ess
  • kaudessa: kausi+N+Sg+Ine
  • kautta: kausi+N+Sg+Par
  • kausina: kausi+N+Pl+Ess

Nouns 27 front examples:

  • köysi: köysi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # rope)
  • köytenä: köysi+N+Sg+Ess
  • köydessä: köysi+N+Sg+Ine
  • köyttä: köysi+N+Sg+Par
  • köysinä: köysi+N+Pl+Ess

Nouns 27 back t~n examples:

  • ponsi: ponsi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # straw)
  • pontena: ponsi+N+Sg+Ess
  • ponnessa: ponsi+N+Sg+Ine
  • pontta: ponsi+N+Sg+Par
  • ponsina: ponsi+N+Pl+Ess

Nouns 27 front t~n examples:

  • kynsi: kynsi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # nail)
  • kyntenä: kynsi+N+Sg+Ess
  • kynnessä: kynsi+N+Sg+Ine
  • kynttä: kynsi+N+Sg+Par
  • kynsiin: kynsi+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 27 back t~r examples:

  • varsi: varsi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # stem)
  • vartena: varsi+N+Sg+Ess
  • varressa: varsi+N+Sg+Ine
  • vartta: varsi+N+Sg+Par
  • varsiin: varsi+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 27 front t~r examples:

  • hirsi: hirsi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # timber)
  • hirtenä: hirsi+N+Sg+Ess
  • hirressä: hirsi+N+Sg+Ine
  • hirttä: hirsi+N+Sg+Par
  • hirsiin: hirsi+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns 27 front t~l examples:

  • jälsi: jälsi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # bark)
  • jältenä: jälsi+N+Sg+Ess
  • jällessä: jälsi+N+Sg+Ine
  • jälttä: jälsi+N+Sg+Par
  • jälsiin: jälsi+N+Pl+Ill

A few -psi, -ksi, -tsi stems have consonant simplification for consonant stems. Other variation with these stems is the selection of plural GENITIVE allomorphs.

Nouns 27 psi examples:

  • lapsi: lapsi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # child)
  • lapsena: lapsi+N+Sg+Ess
  • lasta: lapsi+N+Sg+Par

Nouns 27 ksi examples:

  • uksi: uksi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # door)
  • uksena: uksi+N+Sg+Ess
  • usta: uksi+N+Sg+Par

Nouns 27 tsi back examples:

  • peitsi: peitsi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # lance)
  • peistä: peitsi+N+Sg+Par

Nouns 27 tsi front examples:

  • veitsi: veitsi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # knife)

The -ksi stem in haaksi includes k: h variation.

Nouns 27 ksi examples:

  • haaksi: haaksi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # boat)
  • haahtena: haaksi+N+Sg+Ess
  • haahdessa: haaksi+N+Sg+Ine

Consonant final nouns

The consonant stems use inverted gradation if applicable, that is, the nominatives have end in consonants and their gradating consonants are in weak form. The singular forms of consonant final words have intervening e before suffixes. The basic consonant final words have no stem modifications.

Nouns 32 back examples:

  • ahven: ahven+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # berch)
  • ahvenessa: ahven+N+Sg+Ine
  • ahvenina: ahven+N+Pl+Ess

Nouns 32 back examples:

  • joutsen: joutsen+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # swan)

Nouns 32 front examples:

  • siemen: siemen+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # seed)
  • siemenenä: siemen+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 32 tar examples:

  • ajatar: ajatar+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. mythological creature)
  • ajattarena: ajatar+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 32 tär examples:

  • tytär: tytär+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # daughter)
  • tyttärenä: tytär+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 32 ien examples:

  • ien: ien+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # gum)
  • ikenenä: ien+N+Sg+Ess

Some of the n-final stems have n: m variation.

Nouns 33 back examples:

  • puhelin: puhelin+N+Sg+Nom
  • puhelimena: puhelin+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 33 front examples:

  • elin: elin+N+Sg+Nom
  • elimenä: elin+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 33 back tin examples:

  • suodatin: suodatin+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # filter)
  • suodattimena: suodatin+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 33 front tin examples:

  • heitin: heitin+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # thrower)
  • heittimenä: heitin+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 33 back k~in examples:

  • puin: puin+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # cloth)
  • pukimena: puin+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 33 front k~in examples:

  • pyyhin: pyyhin+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # eraser)
  • pyyhkimenä: pyyhin+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 33 back vin examples:

  • raavin: raavin+N+Sg+Nom
  • raapimena: raavin+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 33 front vin examples:

  • särvin: särvin+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # foodstuff)
  • särpimenä: särvin+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 33 back din examples:

  • vaadin: vaadin+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. female moose)
  • vaatimena: vaadin+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 33 back dun examples:

  • laidun: laidun+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # meadows)
  • laitumena: laidun+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 33 fron din examples:

  • säädin: säädin+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # controller)
  • säätimenä: säädin+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 33 back lin examples:

  • askellin: askellin+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # stepper)
  • askeltimena: askellin+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 33 frontlin examples:

  • sivellin: sivellin+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # paint-brush)
  • siveltimenä: sivellin+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 33 frpnt nin examples:

  • käännin: käännin+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # turner)
  • kääntimenä: käännin+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 33 back nin examples:

  • muunnin: muunnin+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # adapter)
  • muuntimena: muunnin+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 33 back rin examples:

  • kiharrin: kiharrin+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # curler)
  • kihartimena: kiharrin+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 33 back roin examples:

  • kerroin: kerroin+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # multiplier)
  • kertoimena: kerroin+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 33 fron rin examples:

  • kierrin: kierrin+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # turner)
  • kiertimenä: kierrin+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 33 back jin examples:

  • poljin: poljin+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # pedal)
  • polkimena: poljin+N+Sg+Ess

-tOn suffixes

The caritive suffix -ton inflects with A before the singular suffixes.

Nouns 34 ton examples:

  • viaton: viaton+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # innocent)
  • viattomana: viaton+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 34 tän examples:

  • nimetön: nimetön+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # unnamed)
  • nimettömänä: nimetön+N+Sg+Ess

Lexicalised superlatives

The lexicalised superlatives have special inflection pattern.

Nouns 35 back examples:

  • kylänvanhin: kylänvanhin+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # elder)
  • kylänvanhimpana: kylänvanhin+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 35 front examples:

  • lähin: lähin+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # relative)
  • lähimpänä: lähin+N+Sg+Ess

Vasen inflects almost like superlative:

Nouns 35 examples:

  • vasen: vasen+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # left)
  • vasempana: vasen+N+Sg+Ess

-nen suffixed forms

Number of derivations end in -nen, that has special alternation pattern.

Nouns 38 back examples:

  • aakkostaminen: aakkostaminen+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # alphabetising)
  • aakkostamisena: aakkostaminen+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 38 front examples:

  • kylkiäinen: kylkiäinen+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # add-on)
  • kylkiäisenä: kylkiäinen+N+Sg+Ess

-s final words

The s final words have some variation patterns that are determined lexically.

The basic variation is s: ks, with e before the singular suffixes.

Nouns 39 back examples:

  • vakuutus: vakuutus+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # insurance)
  • vakuutuksena: vakuutus+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 39 front examples:

  • räjäytys: räjäytys+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # explosion)
  • räjäytyksenä: räjäytys+N+Sg+Ess

Some of the s final stems have additional s: t: d variation in singular stems. Most notably, the UUs derivations are in this class.

Nouns 40 back examples:

  • aakkosellisuus: aakkosellisuus+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # alphabetificationness)
  • aakkosellisuutena: aakkosellisuus+N+Sg+Ess
  • aakkosellisuudessa: aakkosellisuus+N+Sg+Ine
  • aakkosellisuuksina: aakkosellisuus+N+Pl+Ess

Nouns 40 front examples:

  • köyhyys: köyhyys+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # poverty)
  • köyhyytenä: köyhyys+N+Sg+Ess
  • köyhyydessä: köyhyys+N+Sg+Ine

Some s final words have special lengthening inflection.

Nouns 41 as examples:

  • patsas: patsas+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # statue)
  • patsaana: patsas+N+Sg+Ess
  • patsaissa: patsas+N+Pl+Ine

Nouns 41 is examples:

  • ruumis: ruumis+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # body)
  • ruumiina: ruumis+N+Sg+Ess
  • ruumiissa: ruumis+N+Pl+Ine

Nouns 41 is front examples:

  • ilmatiivis: ilmatiivis+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # airtight)
  • ilmatiiviinä: ilmatiivis+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 41 es back examples:

  • Aristoteles: Aristoteles+N+Prop+Sg+Nom (Eng. # Aristotle)
  • Aristoteleena: Aristoteles+N+Prop+Sg+Ess

Nouns 41 es front examples:

  • kirves: kirves+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # ax)
  • kirveenä: kirves+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 41 äs examples:

  • äyräs: äyräs+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # wavetop)
  • äyräänä: äyräs+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 41 kas examples:

  • asukas: asukas+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # inhabitant)
  • asukkaana: asukas+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 41 käs examples:

  • kärsäkäs: kärsäkäs+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # elephant)
  • kärsäkkäänä: kärsäkäs+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 41 pas examples:

  • saapas: saapas+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # boot)
  • saappaana: saapas+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 41 päs examples:

  • rypäs: rypäs+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # cluster)
  • ryppäänä: rypäs+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 41 tas examples:

  • ratas: ratas+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # cog)
  • rattaana: ratas+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 41 täs examples:

  • mätäs: mätäs+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # mound)
  • mättäänä: mätäs+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 41 tis examples:

  • amerikankeltis: amerikankeltis+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. kind of a bird)
  • amerikankelttiinä: amerikankeltis+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 41 ies examples:

  • ies: ies+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # ???)
  • ikeenä: ies+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 41 as examples:

  • varas: varas+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # thief)
  • varkaana: varas+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 41 is examples:

  • ruis: ruis+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # rye)
  • rukiina: ruis+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 41 vas examples:

  • varvas: varvas+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # toe)
  • varpaana: varvas+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 41 väs examples:

  • seiväs: seiväs+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # pole)
  • seipäänä: seiväs+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 41 das examples:

  • tehdas: tehdas+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # factory)
  • tehtaana: tehdas+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 41 gas examples:

  • kangas: kangas+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # fabric)
  • kankaana: kangas+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 41 gäs examples:

  • köngäs: köngäs+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # moor)
  • könkäänä: köngäs+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 41 mas examples:

  • hammas: hammas+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # tooth)
  • hampaana: hammas+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 41 las examples:

  • allas: allas+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # pool)
  • altaana: allas+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 41 nas examples:

  • kinnas: kinnas+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # mitten)
  • kintaana: kinnas+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 41 näs examples:

  • rynnäs: rynnäs+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # breast)
  • ryntäänä: rynnäs+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 41 ras examples:

  • porras: porras+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # step)
  • portaana: porras+N+Sg+Ess

The word mies has special s: h variation pattern.

Nouns 42 examples:

  • mies: mies+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # man)
  • miehenä: mies+N+Sg+Ess

t-final words

The t-final words have t: 0 variation in the stem, and the singular suffixes are as usual joined with e. It is common to see non-standard forms of these words.

Nouns 43 back examples:

  • olut: olut+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # beer)
  • oluena: olut+N+Sg+Ess
  • oluen: olut+N+Sg+Gen
  • olueen: olut+N+Sg+Ill

Nouns 43 front examples:

  • neitsyt: neitsyt+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # virgin)
  • neitsyeen: neitsyt+N+Sg+Ill

Nouns 43 myt examples:

  • immyt: immyt+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. old wife)
  • impyenä: immyt+N+Sg+Ess
  • impyeen: immyt+N+Sg+Ill

Few t-final words have lengthening in singular stems

Nouns 44 examples:

  • kevät: kevät+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # spring)
  • keväänä: kevät+N+Sg+Ess

Nominalised nut participles have special inflection just as well.

Nouns 47 back examples:

  • aivokuollut: aivokuollut+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # braindead)
  • aivokuolleena: aivokuollut+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 47 front examples:

  • sivistynyt: sivistynyt+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # civilised)
  • sivistyneenä: sivistynyt+N+Sg+Ess

Old e^ stems

The e final words that have lost final consonant inflect like consonant final words, including the inverse consonant gradation. This class includes all deverbal -e suffixed nouns.

Nouns 48 back examples:

  • aste: aste+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # grade)
  • asteena: aste+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 48 Front examples:

  • piste: piste+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. full stop)
  • pisteenä: piste+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 48 back ke examples:

  • kastike: kastike+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # sauce)
  • kastikkeena: kastike+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 48 front ke examples:

  • lääke: lääke+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # medicine)
  • lääkkeenä: lääke+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 48 back pe examples:

  • ape: ape+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # grub)
  • appeena: ape+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 48 front pe examples:

  • ripe: ripe+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # leftovers)
  • rippeenä: ripe+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 48 back te examples:

  • laite: laite+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # machine)
  • laitteena: laite+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 48 front te examples:

  • käsite: käsite+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # concept)
  • käsitteenä: käsite+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 48 back 0k examples:

  • koe: koe+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # test)
  • kokeena: koe+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 48 front 0k examples:

  • pyyhe: pyyhe+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # towel)
  • pyyhkeenä: pyyhe+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 48 back ve examples:

  • tarve: tarve+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # need)
  • tarpeena: tarve+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 48 front ve examples:

  • lieve: lieve+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. tux tail)
  • liepeenä: lieve+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 48 front de examples:

  • kide: kide+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # crystal)
  • kiteenä: kide+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 48 back de examples:

  • johde: johde+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # electrode)
  • johteena: johde+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 48 back me examples:

  • lumme: lumme+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. pond leaf)
  • lumpeena: lumme+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 48 front le examples:

  • mielle: mielle+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # thought)
  • mielteenä: mielle+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 48 back le examples:

  • vuolle: vuolle+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # woodcut)
  • vuolteena: vuolle+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 48 back ne examples:

  • rakenne: rakenne+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # construct)
  • rakenteena: rakenne+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 48 front ne examples:

  • kiinne: kiinne+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # hairspray)
  • kiinteenä: kiinne+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 48 back re examples:

  • aarre: aarre+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # treasure)
  • aarteena: aarre+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 48 fron re examples:

  • kierre: kierre+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # spin)
  • kierteenä: kierre+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 48 front je examples:

  • hylje: hylje+N+Sg+Nom
  • hylkeenä: hylje+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 48 back je examples:

  • pohje: pohje+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # thigh)
  • pohkeena: pohje+N+Sg+Ess

Dual nominative paradigms

A handful of words can use two completely distinct inflection patterns where a bit of overlapping inflection has been cut out. These words have two nominatives, and thus often two dictionary entries: one which is regular entry from the e^ class of words (like NOUN_ASTE), and one which is consonant final, and may have inverse gradation.

Nouns 49 ar examples:

  • askar: askar+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # chore)
  • askare: askar+N+Sg+Nom
  • askarena: askar+N+Sg+Ess
  • askareena: askar+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 49 el examples:

  • kyynel: kyynel+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # tear)
  • kyynele: kyynel+N+Sg+Nom
  • kyynelenä: kyynel+N+Sg+Ess
  • kyyneleenä: kyynel+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 49 en examples:

  • säen: säen+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # spark)
  • säkene: säen+N+Sg+Nom
  • säkenenä: säen+N+Sg+Ess
  • säkeneenä: säen+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 49 val examples:

  • taival: taival+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # hike)
  • taipale: taival+N+Sg+Nom
  • taipalena: taival+N+Sg+Ess
  • taipaleena: taival+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 49 dar examples:

  • udar: udar+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # teat)
  • utare: udar+N+Sg+Nom
  • utarena: udar+N+Sg+Ess
  • utareena: udar+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 49 ger examples:

  • penger: penger+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # bank)
  • penkere: penger+N+Sg+Nom
  • penkerenä: penger+N+Sg+Ess
  • penkereenä: penger+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 49 mel examples:

  • ommel: ommel+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # stitch)
  • ompele: ommel+N+Sg+Nom
  • ompelena: ommel+N+Sg+Ess
  • ompeleena: ommel+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 49 mel examples:

  • vemmel: vemmel+N+Sg+Nom
  • vempele: vemmel+N+Sg+Nom
  • vempelenä: vemmel+N+Sg+Ess
  • vempeleenä: vemmel+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 49 ner examples:

  • kinner: kinner+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # heel)
  • kintere: kinner+N+Sg+Nom
  • kinterenä: kinner+N+Sg+Ess
  • kintereenä: kinner+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 49 nel examples:

  • kannel: kannel+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # kantele)
  • kantele: kannel+N+Sg+Nom
  • kantelena: kannel+N+Sg+Ess
  • kanteleena: kannel+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 49 ner examples:

  • manner: manner+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # continent)
  • mantere: manner+N+Sg+Nom
  • manterena: manner+N+Sg+Ess
  • mantereena: manner+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 49 nar examples:

  • piennar: piennar+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # curb)
  • pientare: piennar+N+Sg+Nom
  • pientarena: piennar+N+Sg+Ess
  • pientareena: piennar+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns 49 auer examples:

  • auer: auer+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # morning mist)
  • autere: auer+N+Sg+Nom
  • auterena: auer+N+Sg+Ess
  • autereena: auer+N+Sg+Ess

Exceptions to dictionary inflection

There are few cases where dictionaries traditionally have never indicated correct inflection by classification. In computational implementation we need to assign some classes or exceptional paths to them, and they are described here.

Two words have exceptions in their vowel harmony patterns:

Nouns veri examples:

  • veri: veri+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # blood)
  • verta: veri+N+Sg+Par
  • *vertä: veri+N+Sg+Par (is not standard language)

Nouns meri examples:

  • meri: meri+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # sea)
  • merta: meri+N+Sg+Par
  • *mertä: meri+N+Sg+Par (is not standard language)

Noun uros examples:

  • uros: uros+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # male)
  • uroksen: uros+N+Sg+Gen
  • uroon: uros+N+Sg+Gen

It is not noted anywhere that the common inflection pattern for veli is exceptional:

Noun veli examples:

  • veli: veli+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # brother)
  • veljeä: veli+N+Sg+Par
  • veljen: veli+N+Sg+Gen

A few of ika-final nouns, but not all, have the shifting half vowel written as j in normative orthography.

Nouns aika examples:

  • aika: aika+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # time)
  • ajassa: aika+N+Sg+Ine

Nouns poika examples:

  • poika: poika+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # boy)
  • pojassa: poika+N+Sg+Ine

Noun forms of numerals with special inflection

The numerals are not really nouns in this morphology, for details see numeral-stems, but some of their compounds are nouns, and the following classes are for those that have special stem or suffix patterns not available with other nouns. The numerals 1 and 2 are in paradigm that is currently left with one other noun, _haaksi_, so nominals with 2 go to that class but 1 gets a new class for being front vowelled. 3 Has its own paradigm, 4 is like koira, 5 like hiisi and 6 like kausi. The numerals 7, 8, 9 have their own paradigm, which, other than the nominative having extra n at the end, is same as the tri-syllabic a, ä stems, similarly 10 is quite like sisar with the extra en in nominative.

Nouns from numerals yksi examples:

  • aamuyksi: aamuyksi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. 1 a.m.)
  • aamuyhtä: aamuyksi+N+Sg+Par
  • aamuyhtenä: aamuyksi+N+Sg+Ess

Nouns from numerals kolme examples:

  • aamukolme: aamukolme+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. 3 a.m.)
  • aamukolmea: aamukolme+N+Sg+Par
  • aamukolmeen: aamukolme+N+Sg+Ill
  • aamukolmia: aamukolme+N+Pl+Par
  • aamukolmien: aamukolme+N+Pl+Gen
  • aamukolmiin: aamukolme+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns from numerals 8 examples:

  • aamukahdeksan: aamukahdeksan+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. 8 a.m.)
  • aamukahdeksaa: aamukahdeksan+N+Sg+Par
  • aamukahdeksana: aamukahdeksan+N+Sg+Ess
  • aamukahdeksassa: aamukahdeksan+N+Sg+Ine
  • aamukahdeksina: aamukahdeksan+N+Pl+Ess
  • aamukahdeksien: aamukahdeksan+N+Pl+Gen
  • aamukahdeksiin: aamukahdeksan+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns from numerals 9 examples:

  • aamuyhdeksän: aamuyhdeksän+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. 9 a.m.)
  • aamuyhdeksää: aamuyhdeksän+N+Sg+Par
  • aamuyhdeksänä: aamuyhdeksän+N+Sg+Ess
  • aamuyhdeksässä: aamuyhdeksän+N+Sg+Ine
  • aamuyhdeksinä: aamuyhdeksän+N+Pl+Ess
  • aamuyhdeksien: aamuyhdeksän+N+Pl+Gen
  • aamuyhdeksiin: aamuyhdeksän+N+Pl+Ill

Nouns from numerals 10 examples:

  • aamukymmenen: aamukymmenen+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. 10 a.m.)

Nouns from numerals 1000 examples:

  • vuosituhat: vuosituhat+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # millennium)
  • vuosituhantena: vuosituhat+N+Sg+Ess

Plurales tantum

For some words, the singular forms are rare, odd, or even deemed ungrammatical, these words have separate classes for them. In Finnish words to commonly be in this class are events like häät (wedding), juhlat (party), etc. then all things that are semantically coupled, like clothes with two somethings (as with English): farkut (jeans), housut (pants). It is noteworthy, that sometimes dictionaries classify common words as plurale tantum for semantic reasons: joukot (troops) versus joukko (group). We don’t need that at this point. The compounds of plurale tantum words are made from singular forms: farkkukangas (jean fabric), hääjuhla (wedding party).

Noun 1o plurt examples:

  • aivot: aivot+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # brains)
  • *aivo: aivot+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 1y plurt examples:

  • pöksyt: pöksyt+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # pants)
  • *pöksy: pöksyt+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 1u plurt examples:

  • housut: housut+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # pants)
  • *housu: housut+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 1ko plurt examples:

  • huoltojoukot: huolto#joukot+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # troops)
  • *huoltojoukko: huolto#joukot+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 1ku plurt examples:

  • farkut: farkut+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # jeans)
  • *farkku: farkut+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 1dot plurt examples:

  • perustiedot: perus#tiedot+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. knowledge (in school grades))
  • *perustieto: perus#tiedot+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 1töt plurt examples:

  • kaksostytöt: kaksos#tytöt+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. girls ?)
  • *kaksostyttö: kaksos#tytöt+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 1ot plurt examples:

  • pidot: pidot+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # bacchanalia)
  • *pito: pidot+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 1vut plurt examples:

  • ravut: ravut+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. crabs ??)
  • *rapu: ravut+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 1ut plurt examples:

  • urut: urut+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # organs)
  • *urku: urut+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 1put plurt examples:

  • raput: raput+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # stairs)
  • *rappu: raput+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 1dyt plurt examples:

  • käädyt: käädyt+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # necklace)
  • *kääty: käädyt+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 1lot plurt examples:

  • aallot: aallot+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # waves)
  • *aalto: aallot+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 1not plurt examples:

  • opinnot: opinnot+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # studies)
  • *opinto: opinnot+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 2iot plurt examples:

  • rauniot: rauniot+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # ruins)
  • *raunio: rauniot+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 3iot plurt examples:

  • pippalot: pippalot+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # party)
  • *pippalo: pippalot+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 3lut plurt examples:

  • neuvottelut: neuvottelut+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # negotiation)
  • *neuvottelu: neuvottelut+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 1nöt plurt examples:

  • säännöt: säännöt+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # rules)
  • *sääntö: säännöt+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 7 back t~n plurt examples:

  • tunnit: tunnit+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # classes)
  • *tunti: tunnit+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx a front k0 plurt examples:

  • sukat: sukat+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # socks)
  • *sukka: sukat+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx a front kg plurt examples:

  • kengät: kengät+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # shoes)
  • *kenkä: kengät+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 8 plurt examples:

  • ravet: ravet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # rave)
  • *rave: ravet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 8 front plurt examples:

  • bänet: bänet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # breakup)
  • *bäne: bänet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx a front plurt examples:

  • markkinat: markkinat+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # market)
  • *markkina: markkinat+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx a front pp plurt examples:

  • hipat: hipat+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # party)
  • *hippa: hipat+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx a back p plurt examples:

  • kuopat: kuopat+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. holes ?)
  • *kuoppa: kuopat+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx dat plurt examples:

  • raudat: raudat+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # irons)
  • *rauta: raudat+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx vat plurt examples:

  • tavat: tavat+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # manners)
  • *tapa: tavat+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx lat plurt examples:

  • *vallat: vallat+N+Pl+Nom (is not standard language # states)
  • valta: vallat+N+Sg+Nom

Noun xxx rrt plurt examples:

  • varat: varat+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # budget)
  • *vara: varat+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx t plurt examples:

  • juhlat: juhlat+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # party)
  • *juhla: juhlat+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxxihi t plurt examples:

  • kiharat: kiharat+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # curls)
  • *kihara: kiharat+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)
  • käräjät: käräjät+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # court)
  • käräjät: käräjät+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # court)

Nounäjäm xxx t plurt examples:

  • *käräjä: käräjät+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx kAt plurt examples:

  • paikat: paikat+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. body parts)
  • *paikka: paikat+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 14 kat plurt examples:

  • silakat: silakat+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. kinds of a fish)
  • *silakka: silakat+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 14 kat2 plurt examples:

  • rintsikat: rintsikat+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # bra)
  • *rintsikka: rintsikat+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx teet plurt examples:

  • tieteet: tieteet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # sciences)
  • *tiede: tieteet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx t plurt examples:

Noun xxx it plurt examples:

  • farmarit: farmarit+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # jeans)
  • *farmari: farmarit+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx tit plurt examples:

  • kastanjetit: kastanjetit+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. kind of an instrumemt)
  • *kastanjetti: kastanjetit+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx dit plurt examples:

  • taudit: taudit+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. diseases)
  • *tauti: taudit+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx dit front plurt examples:

  • pihdit: pihdit+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # jaws)
  • *pihti: pihdit+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx git plurt examples:

  • tongit: tongit+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # pliers)
  • *tonki: tongit+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx git fornt plurt examples:

  • syömingit: syömingit+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. eating party)
  • *syöminki: syöminki+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx get plurt examples:

  • länget: länget+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. some cowboy accessory thing)
  • *länki: länget+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx sit plurt examples:

  • lasit: lasit+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # glasses)
  • *lasi: lasit+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx nit plurt examples:

  • bikinit: bikinit+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # bikini)
  • *bikini: bikinit+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx iiiit plurt examples:

  • liivit: liivit+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # vest)
  • *liivi: liivit+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx eat plurt examples:

  • hopeat: hopeat+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. cutlery (silvers))
  • *hopea: hopeat+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 15 tiet plurt examples:

  • tiet: tiet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # roads)
  • *tie: tiet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx työt plurt examples:

  • työt: työt+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # employment)
  • *työ: työt+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx matt plurt examples:

  • vanhemmat: vanhemmat+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # parents)
  • *vanhempi: vanhemmat+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx maat plurt examples:

  • itämaat: itämaat+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. near east)
  • *itämaa: itämaat+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xx puu t plurt examples:

  • puut: puut+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # trees)
  • *puu: puut+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx äät plurt examples:

  • häät: häät+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # wedding)
  • *hää: häät+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx kooot plurt examples:

  • talkoot: talkoot+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. house party)
  • *talkoo: talkoot+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx sakset plurt examples:

  • sakset: sakset+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # scissors)
  • *saksi: sakset+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx ripset plurt examples:

  • ripset: ripset+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # eyebrows)
  • *ripsi: ripset+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun xxx nnet plurt examples:

  • kannet: kannet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # covers)
  • *kansi: kannet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 27 det plurt examples:

  • vuodet: vuodet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # years)
  • *vuosi: vuodet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 25 t plurt examples:

  • toimet: toimet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # actions)
  • *toimi: toimet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 32 t plurt examples:

  • höyhenet: höyhen+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # feathers)
  • *höyhen: höyhenet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 31 t plurt examples:

  • aterimet: aterimet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # cutlery)
  • *aterin: aterimet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 31 t fr plurt examples:

  • keritsimet: keritsimet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. sheep razor thing)
  • *keritsin: keritsimet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 31 nnin plurt examples:

  • antimet: antimet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # offerings)
  • *annin: antimet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 31 tin plurt examples:

  • hoksottimet: hoksottimet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # smarts)
  • *hoksotin: hoksottimet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 31 tin front plurt examples:

  • synnyttimet: synnyttimet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # ovaries)
  • *synnytin: synnyttimet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 31 puin plurt examples:

  • pukimet: pukimet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # clothes)
  • *puin: pukimet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 31 ien plurt examples:

  • ikenet: ikenet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # gums)
  • *ien: ikenet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun nut plurt examples:

  • liittoutuneet: liittoutuneet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # allied)
  • *liittoutunut: liittoutunut+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 38 nen plurt examples:

  • rappuset: rappuset+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # stairs)
  • *rappunen: rappuset+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun 38 nen fornt plurt examples:

  • vihkiäiset: vihkiäiset+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # engagement)
  • *vihkiäinen: vihkiäiset+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun jaat plurt examples:

  • valjaat: valjaat+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # strap)
  • *valjas: valjaat+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun kaat plurt examples:

  • tikkaat: tikkaat+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # ladders)
  • *tikas: tikkaat+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun taat plurt examples:

  • rattaat: rattaat+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # stroller)
  • *ratas: rattaat+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun gaat plurt examples:

  • renkaat: renkaat+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # tires)
  • *rengas: renkaat+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun ntääaat plurt examples:

  • ryntäät: ryntäät+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # breasts)
  • *rynnäs: ryntäät+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun ntyyaat plurt examples:

  • hynttyyt: hynttyyt+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # clothes)
  • *hyntys: hynttyyt+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun ntyyt plurt examples:

  • rynttyyt: rynttyyt+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # rags)
  • *ryntys: rynttyyt+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun ltaat plurt examples:

  • maltaat: maltaat+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # hops)
  • *mallas: maltaat+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun rtaat plurt examples:

  • portaat: portaat+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # stairs)
  • *porras: portaat+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun kset plurt examples:

  • serkukset: serkukset+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # cousins)
  • *serkus: serkukset+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun kset fr plurt examples:

  • ystävykset: ystävykset+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # friends)
  • *ystävys: ystävykset+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun sdet plurt examples:

  • oikeudet: oikeudet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # rights)
  • *oikeus: oikeudet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun mppt plurt examples:

  • kamppeet: kamppeet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # equipment)
  • *kampe: kamppeet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun ntteet plurt examples:

  • hyntteet: hyntteet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # clothes)
  • *hynte: hyntteet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun ukeet plurt examples:

  • pukeet: pukeet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # clothes)
  • *pue: pukeet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun kkkeeet plurt examples:

  • kuulokkeet: kuulokkeet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # earphones)
  • *kuuloke: kuulokkeet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun teeeeet plurt examples:

  • vaatteet: vaatteet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # clothes)
  • *vaate: vaatteet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun taateee plurt examples:

  • peitteet: peitteet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # covers)
  • *peite: peitteet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun taad plurt examples:

  • suhteet: suhteet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # relations)
  • *suhde: suhteet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun daat plurt examples:

  • lauteet: lauteet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. sitting bench in sauna)
  • *laude: lauteet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun daat plurt examples:

  • säteet: säteet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # rays)
  • *säde: säteet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun trate plurt examples:

  • siteet: siteet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # restraints)
  • *side: siteet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun veat plurt examples:

  • tarpeet: tarpeet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # necessities)
  • *tarve: tarpeet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun leat plurt examples:

  • hiutaleet: hiutaleet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # flakes)
  • *hiutale: hiutaleet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun jeet plurt examples:

  • alkeet: alkeet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # basics)
  • *alje: alkeet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun jeat plurt examples:

  • perkeet: perkeet+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. fish scales and guts)
  • *perje: perkeet+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Noun pojat plurt examples:

  • pojat: pojat+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # boys)
  • *poika: pojat+N+Sg+Nom (is not standard language)

Adjective-initial Compounds with Agreeing Inflection

The words in dictionary paradigm class ⁵¹ refer to old closed class of adjective initial compounds, which follow agreeing compound pattern same as numbers. The amount of these words is relatively small, so they have been spelled out here in full form rather than using more complex methods of agreeing compounding, Further reading: VISK § 420 FIXME: some are still missing

Old A+N compounds 51 examples:

  • aavameri: aavameri+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # wide open ocean)
  • aavanmeren: aavameri+N+Sg+Gen
  • aavoissamerissä: aavameri+N+Pl+Ine
  • Iso-Britannia: Iso-Britannia+N+Prop+Sg+Nom (Eng. # Great Britain)
  • Ison-Britannian: Iso-Britannia+N+Prop+Sg+Gen
  • Isoissa-Britannioissa: Iso-Britannia+N+Prop+Pl+Ine

Nouns and other nominals inflect in number, cases, possessives and with clitics, in that order. Combinations that this regular inflection can form is approximately 2×15×5×26=4900, so we do not show all variants in test cases and examples, but just central ones that are interesting and potential to break.


Singular nominative is the dictionary reference form for most of the words.

Noun nominative back examples:

  • talo: talo+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # a house)
  • taloko: talo+N+Sg+Nom+Qst
  • talohan: talo+N+Sg+Nom+Foc/han
  • *talohän: talo+N+Sg+Nom+Foc/han (is not standard language)

Noun nominative front examples:

  • pöly: pöly+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # dust)

The plural nominative attaches to singular stem. For plural words it is also the form that is used for dictionary lookups:

Noun nominative plural back examples:

  • talot: talo+N+Pl+Nom
  • sakset: sakset+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # scissors)
  • saksetpa: sakset+N+Pl+Nom+Foc/pa
  • *saksetpä: sakset+N+Pl+Nom+Foc/pa (is not standard language)

Noun nominative plural front examples:

  • pölyt: pöly+N+Pl+Nom
  • häät: häät+N+Pl+Nom (Eng. # wedding)

Singular case inflection

The nouns can inflect in 15 regular cases. Most of the cases have one or two case endings, with only varying part being the harmony vowel. For nouns with direct consonant gradation, the most of the singular case suffixes attach to the weak singular stem:

Noun basic singular back examples:

  • pata: pata+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # pot)
  • padan: pata+N+Sg+Gen
  • padassa: pata+N+Sg+Ine
  • padasta: pata+N+Sg+Ela
  • padalla: pata+N+Sg+Ade
  • padalta: pata+N+Sg+Abl
  • padalle: pata+N+Sg+All
  • padaksi: pata+N+Sg+Tra
  • padatta: pata+N+Sg+Abe

Noun basic singular front examples:

  • näky: näky+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # vision)
  • näyn: näky+N+Sg+Gen
  • näyssä: näky+N+Sg+Ine
  • näystä: näky+N+Sg+Ela
  • näyllä: näky+N+Sg+Ade
  • näyltä: näky+N+Sg+Abl
  • näylle: näky+N+Sg+All
  • näyksi: näky+N+Sg+Tra
  • näyttä: näky+N+Sg+Abe

For words with direct gradation the only forms that attach to strong singular stem may be essive and possessive's of nominative or genitive:

Noun basic singular strong back examples:

  • patana: pata+N+Sg+Ess
  • patani: pata+N+Sg+Nom+PxSg1
  • patasi: pata+N+Sg+Gen+PxSg2

Noun basic singular strong front examples:

  • näkynä: näky+N+Sg+Ess
  • näkyni: näky+N+Sg+Nom+PxSg1
  • näkysi: näky+N+Sg+Gen+PxSg2

Plural inflection

Noun basic plural back examples:

  • padoilta: pata+N+Pl+Abl
  • padoilla: pata+N+Pl+Ade
  • padoille: pata+N+Pl+All
  • padoista: pata+N+Pl+Ela
  • padoissa: pata+N+Pl+Ine
  • padoiksi: pata+N+Pl+Tra
  • padoitta: pata+N+Pl+Abe
  • padoin: pata+N+Pl+Ins

Noun basic plural front examples:

  • näyillä: näky+N+Pl+Ade
  • näyiltä: näky+N+Pl+Abl
  • näyille: näky+N+Pl+All
  • näyissä: näky+N+Pl+Ine
  • näyistä: näky+N+Pl+Ela
  • näyiksi: näky+N+Pl+Tra
  • näyittä: näky+N+Pl+Abe
  • näyin: näky+N+Pl+Ins

The strong plural stem of words with direct gradation contains only essive and comitative:

Noun basic plural back strong examples:

  • patoina: pata+N+Pl+Ess
  • patoine: pata+N+Com

Noun basic plural front strong examples:

  • näkyinä: näky+N+Pl+Ess
  • näkyine: näky+N+Com

Cases with allomorphic variation

The nominal cases which can take several different suffixes are singular and plural partitives, singular and plural illatives and plural genitives. After stem variation the selection of these allomorphs is the main factor of morphological classification of nouns.

The reconstructed historical suffix for partitives of Finnish is ða, ðä, the current variants according to that theory would be the different realisations of extinct ð.

For basic vowel stems the partitive suffix is a, ä.

Noun singular partitive a examples:

  • politiikka: politiikka+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # politics)
  • politiikkaa: politiikka+N+Sg+Par

Noun singular partitive ä examples:

  • kysyntä: kysyntä+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # demand)
  • kysyntää: kysyntä+N+Sg+Par

In stems other than -a, -ä stems, the 3rd possessive suffix may appear in -an, -än form after the partitive suffix.

Noun singular partitive a poss aan examples:

  • pato: pato+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # dam)
  • patoa: pato+N+Sg+Par
  • patoaan: pato+N+Sg+Par+PxSg3

Noun singular partitive ä poss ään examples:

  • näkyä: näky+N+Sg+Par
  • näkyään: näky+N+Sg+Par+PxSg3

The consonant stems and long vowel stems regularly take -ta, -tä suffix for singular partitives. It is up to interpretation whether the partitive suffix of the -e^ stem is considered to be -tta, -ttä, or just -ta, -tä. In principle the consonant that disappeared from -e^ stems could be from that.

Noun singular partitive ta examples:

  • taimen: taimen+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # trout)
  • taimenta: taimen+N+Sg+Par

Noun singular partitive tä examples:

  • tie: tie+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # road)
  • tietä: tie+N+Sg+Par
  • vene: vene+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # boat)
  • venettä: vene+N+Sg+Par

The singular illatives have more variants.

The variant with intervening h attaches to long vowel stems:

Noun singular illative han examples:

  • maa: maa+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # earth)
  • maahan: maa+N+Sg+Ill
  • maahansa: maa+N+Sg+Ill+PxSg3

Noun singular illative hen back examples:

  • toffee: toffee+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # taffy)
  • toffeehen: toffee+N+Sg+Ill

Noun singular illative hen front examples:

  • tiehen: tie+N+Sg+Ill

Noun singular illative hin back examples:

  • hai: hai+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # shark)
  • haihin: hai+N+Sg+Ill

Noun singular illative hin front examples:

  • pii: pii+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # silica)
  • piihin: pii+N+Sg+Ill

Noun singular illative hon examples:

  • suo: suo+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # swamp)
  • suohon: suo+N+Sg+Ill

Noun singular illative hun examples:

  • puu: puu+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # tree)
  • puuhun: puu+N+Sg+Ill

Noun singular illative hyn examples:

  • pyy: pyy+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # kind of a bird)
  • pyyhyn: pyy+N+Sg+Ill

Noun singular illative hän examples:

  • pää: pää+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # head)
  • päähän: pää+N+Sg+Ill

Noun singular illative hän examples:

  • työ: työ+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # job)
  • työhön: työ+N+Sg+Ill

The stems with short vowel do not have the intervening h.

Noun singular illative an examples:

  • kirja: kirja+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # book)
  • kirjaan: kirja+N+Sg+Ill

Noun singular illative en ba<ck examples:

  • tuli: tuli+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # fire)
  • tuleen: tuli+N+Sg+Ill

Noun singular illative en front examples:

  • hiiri: hiiri+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # mouse)
  • hiireen: hiiri+N+Sg+Ill

Noun singular illative in back examples:

  • ruuvi: ruuvi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # screw)
  • ruuviin: ruuvi+N+Sg+Ill

Noun singular illative in front examples:

  • tyyli: tyyli+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # style)
  • tyyliin: tyyli+N+Sg+Ill

Noun singular illative on examples:

  • taloon: talo+N+Sg+Ill

Noun singular illative un examples:

  • nielu: nielu+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # throat)
  • nieluun: nielu+N+Sg+Ill

Noun singular illative yn examples:

  • näkyyn: näky+N+Sg+Ill

Noun singular illative än examples:

  • räkä: räkä+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # booger)
  • räkään: räkä+N+Sg+Ill

Noun singular illative ön examples:

  • tönö: tönö+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # shack)
  • tönöön: tönö+N+Sg+Ill

Bisyllabic long vowel stems have illative suffix of -seen.

Noun singular illative seen back examples:

  • tienoo: tienoo+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # neighbourhood)
  • tienooseen: tienoo+N+Sg+Ill

Noun singular illative seen front examples:

  • miljöö: miljöö+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # millieu)
  • miljööseen: miljöö+N+Sg+Ill

Plural genitives have the most variants. Especially, many words have more or less free variation between handful of choices.

Noun plural genitive iden back examples:

  • aavikko: aavikko+N+Sg+Nom
  • aavikoiden: aavikko+N+Pl+Gen

Noun plural genitive iden front examples:

  • kännykkä: kännykkä+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # mobile phone)
  • kännyköiden: kännykkä+N+Pl+Gen

Noun plural genitive itten back examples:

  • tienoitten: tienoo+N+Pl+Gen

Noun plural genitive itten front examples:

  • teitten: tie+N+Pl+Gen

Noun plural genitive ien back examples:

  • nainen: nainen+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # woman)
  • naisien: nainen+N+Pl+Gen

Noun plural genitive ien back examples:

  • murha: murha+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # murder)
  • murhien: murha+N+Pl+Gen

Noun plural genitive jen back examples:

  • alivalikkojen: alivalikko+N+Pl+Gen

Noun plural genitive jen front examples:

  • pyhäkkö: pyhäkkö+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # sanctum)
  • pyhäkköjen: pyhäkkö+N+Pl+Gen

Noun plural genitive ten back examples:

  • sisar: sisar+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # sister)
  • sisarten: sisar+N+Pl+Gen

Noun plural genitive ten front examples:

  • väännin: väännin+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # turner)
  • väänninten: väännin+N+Pl+Gen

The -in suffix for plural genitive that goes with singular stem is always markedly archaic. Most commonly it appears in compound words.

Noun plural genitive rare in back examples:

  • patain: pata+N+Pl+Gen+Use/Rare

Noun plural genitive rare in front examples:

  • tyrmä: tyrmä+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # prison)
  • tyrmäin: tyrmä+N+Pl+Gen+Use/Rare

Plural partitive has a few variants:

Noun plural partitive ia examples:

  • koiria: koira+N+Pl+Par

Noun plural partitive iä examples:

  • kärsä: kärsä+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # trunk)
  • kärsiä: kärsä+N+Pl+Par

Noun plural partitive ita examples:

  • tienoita: tienoo+N+Pl+Par

Noun plural partitive itä examples:

  • teitä: tie+N+Pl+Par

Noun plural partitive ja examples:

  • lepakkoja: lepakko+N+Pl+Par

Noun plural partitive jä examples:

  • pyhäkköjä: pyhäkkö+N+Pl+Par

And plural illative has few variants:

Noun plural illative ihin back examples:

  • taloihin: talo+N+Pl+Ill

Noun plural illative ihin front examples:

  • näkyihin: näky+N+Pl+Ill

Noun plural illative iin back examples:

  • koiriin: koira+N+Pl+Ill

Noun plural illative iin front examples:

  • sieni: sieni+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # mushroom)
  • sieniin: sieni+N+Pl+Ill

Noun plural illative isiin back examples:

  • sokea: sokea+N+Sg+Nom
  • sokeisiin: sokea+N+Pl+Ill

Noun plural illative isiin front examples:

  • kevät: kevät+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # spring)
  • keväisiin: kevät+N+Pl+Ill

Possessive suffixes

Possessives come optionally after the case suffixes. For consonant final cases the possessives assimilate or eat the final part of the case ending or stem.

Noun possessive back examples:

  • taloni: talo+N+Sg+Nom+PxSg1
  • talosi: talo+N+Sg+Nom+PxSg2
  • talonsa: talo+N+Sg+Nom+PxSg3
  • talomme: talo+N+Sg+Nom+PxPl1
  • talonne: talo+N+Sg+Nom+PxPl2

Noun possessive front examples:

  • tönöni: tönö+N+Sg+Nom+PxSg1
  • tönösi: tönö+N+Sg+Nom+PxSg2
  • tönönsä: tönö+N+Sg+Nom+PxSg3
  • tönömme: tönö+N+Sg+Nom+PxPl1
  • tönönne: tönö+N+Sg+Nom+PxPl2

The possessive suffix of form -an, -än, attaches to some long vowel stems:

Noun possessive an examples:

  • taloaan: talo+N+Sg+Par+PxPl3

Noun possessive back en examples:

  • tienookseen: tienoo+N+Sg+Tra+PxSg3

Noun possessive front en examples:

  • tiekseen: tie+N+Sg+Tra+PxSg3

Noun possessive än examples:

  • tönöään: tönö+N+Sg+Par+PxPl3

Noun clitics

Clitics can attach to any word-form, including one that already has a clitic. Clitics do not modify the form they attach to and are simply concatenated to the end.

Noun clitic back examples:

  • talokaan: talo+N+Sg+Nom+Foc/kaan

Noun clitic front examples:

  • tönökään: tönö+N+Sg+Nom+Foc/kaan

Noun compounding

Nouns form compounds productively. The non-final parts of regular compounds are singular nominatives, or singular or plural genitives of nouns. The final parts are nominals and inflect regularly.


  • talojuttu: talo+N+Sg+Nom#juttu+N+Sg+Nom


  • talonjuttu: talo+N+Sg+Gen#juttu+N+Sg+Nom


  • naisienjuttu: nainen+N+Pl+Gen#juttu+N+Sg+Nom


  • lepakoidenjuttu: lepakko+N+Pl+Gen#juttu+N+Sg+Nom


  • vanhempainjuttu: vanhempi+N+Pl+Gen#juttu+N+Sg+Nom


  • lepakoittenjuttu: lepakko+N+Pl+Gen#juttu+N+Sg+Nom


  • talojenjuttu: talo+N+Pl+Gen#juttu+N+Sg+Nom


  • miestenjuttu: mies+N+Pl+Gen#juttu+N+Sg+Nom


  • aakkostamisjuttu: aakkostaminen+N+Der/s#juttu+N+Sg+Nom

Numeral inflection

Numeral inflection is like nominal, except that numerals compound in all forms which requires great amount of care in the inflection patterns.

  • LEXICON DIGITCASES to distinguish between 0 and oblique

Original file

Numeral nominative back examples:

  • kaksi: kaksi+Num+Card+Sg+Nom (Eng. # two)

Numeral nominative front examples:

  • yksi: yksi+Num+Card+Sg+Nom (Eng. # one)

Numeral nominative plural back examples:

  • kahdet: kaksi+Num+Card+Pl+Nom

Numeral nominative plural front examples:

  • yhdet: yksi+Num+Card+Pl+Nom

Numeral weak singular back examples:

  • kahden: kaksi+Num+Card+Sg+Gen
  • kahdella: kaksi+Num+Card+Sg+Ade
  • kahdelta: kaksi+Num+Card+Sg+Abl
  • kahdelle: kaksi+Num+Card+Sg+All
  • kahdessa: kaksi+Num+Card+Sg+Ine
  • kahdesta: kaksi+Num+Card+Sg+Ela
  • kahdeksi: kaksi+Num+Card+Sg+Tra
  • kahdetta: kaksi+Num+Card+Sg+Abe

Numeral weak singular front examples:

  • yhden: yksi+Num+Card+Sg+Gen
  • yhdellä: yksi+Num+Card+Sg+Ade
  • yhdeltä: yksi+Num+Card+Sg+Abl
  • yhdelle: yksi+Num+Card+Sg+All
  • yhdessä: yksi+Num+Card+Sg+Ine
  • yhdestä: yksi+Num+Card+Sg+Ela
  • yhdeksi: yksi+Num+Card+Sg+Tra
  • yhdettä: yksi+Num+Card+Sg+Abe

Numeral strong singular back examples:

  • kahtena: kaksi+Num+Card+Sg+Ess

Numeral strong singular front examples:

  • yhtenä: yksi+Num+Card+Sg+Ess

Numeral weak plural back examples:

  • kaksilla: kaksi+Num+Card+Pl+Ade
  • kaksilta: kaksi+Num+Card+Pl+Abl
  • kaksille: kaksi+Num+Card+Pl+All
  • kaksissa: kaksi+Num+Card+Pl+Ine
  • kaksista: kaksi+Num+Card+Pl+Ela
  • kaksiksi: kaksi+Num+Card+Pl+Tra
  • kaksitta: kaksi+Num+Card+Pl+Abe

Numeral weak plural front examples:

  • yksillä: yksi+Num+Card+Pl+Ade
  • yksiltä: yksi+Num+Card+Pl+Abl
  • yksille: yksi+Num+Card+Pl+All
  • yksissä: yksi+Num+Card+Pl+Ine
  • yksistä: yksi+Num+Card+Pl+Ela
  • yksiksi: yksi+Num+Card+Pl+Tra
  • yksittä: yksi+Num+Card+Pl+Abe

Numeral weak plural back strong examples:

  • kaksina: kaksi+Num+Card+Pl+Ess
  • kaksine: kaksi+Num+Card+Com

Numeral weak plural front strong examples:

  • yksinä: yksi+Num+Card+Pl+Ess
  • yksine: yksi+Num+Card+Com

Numeral singular partitive a examples:

  • kahdeksaa: kahdeksan+Num+Card+Sg+Par (Eng. # eight)

Numeral singular partitive ä examples:

  • neljää: neljä+Num+Card+Sg+Par (Eng. # four)

Numeral singular partitive a poss aan examples:

  • kolmea: kolme+Num+Card+Sg+Par (Eng. # three)

Numeral singular partitive ta examples:

  • kuutta: kuusi+Num+Card+Sg+Par (Eng. # six)

Numeral singular partitive tä examples:

  • viittä: viisi+Num+Card+Sg+Par (Eng. # five)

Numeral singular illative an examples:

  • kahdeksaan: kahdeksan+Num+Card+Sg+Ill

Numeral singular illative en back examples:

  • kolmeen: kolme+Num+Card+Sg+Ill

Numeral singular illative en front examples:

  • viiteen: viisi+Num+Card+Sg+Ill

Numeral singular illative in back examples:

  • miljardiin: miljardi+Num+Card+Sg+Ill (Eng. # billion)

Numeral singular illative än examples:

  • neljään: neljä+Num+Card+Sg+Ill

Numeral plural partitive ia examples:

  • kaksia: kaksi+Num+Card+Pl+Par

Numeral plural partitive iä examples:

  • neljiä: neljä+Num+Card+Pl+Par

Numeral plural partitive ja examples:

  • miljardeja: miljardi+Num+Card+Pl+Par

Numeral plural genitive ien back examples:

  • kaksien: kaksi+Num+Card+Pl+Gen (Eng. NUM_BACK_CLIT_OPT)

Numeral plural genitive ien front examples:

  • yksien: yksi+Num+Card+Pl+Gen (Eng. NUM_BACK_CLIT_OPT)

Numeral plural genitive jen back examples:

  • satojen: sata+Num+Card+Pl+Gen (Eng. # hundred NUM_BACK_CLIT_OPT)

Numeral plural genitive ten back examples:

  • kuutten: kuusi+Num+Card+Pl+Gen (Eng. NUM_BACK_CLIT_OPT)

Numeral plural genitive ten front examples:

  • viitten: viisi+Num+Card+Pl+Gen (Eng. NUM_BACK_CLIT_OPT)

Numeral plural genitive in back examples:

  • yhdeksäin: yhdeksän+Num+Card+Pl+Gen+Use/Rare (Eng. NUM_BACK_CLIT_OPT)

Numeral plural genitive in front examples:

  • neljäin: neljä+Num+Card+Pl+Gen+Use/Rare (Eng. NUM_BACK_CLIT_OPT)

Numeral plural illaive ihin bavk examples:

  • miljardeihin: miljardi+Num+Card+Pl+Ill

Numeral plural illaive iin back examples:

  • kaksiin: kaksi+Num+Card+Pl+Ill

Numeral plural illaive iin front examples:

  • yksiin: yksi+Num+Card+Pl+Ill

Numeral possessive back examples:

  • kahteni: kaksi+Num+Card+Sg+Nom+PxSg1

Numeral possessive front examples:

  • yhteni: yksi+Num+Card+Sg+Nom+PxSg1

Numeral possessive back aan examples:

  • kolmeaan: kolme+Num+Card+Sg+Par+PxSg3

Numeral possessive back eenback examples:

  • kahdekseen: kaksi+Num+Card+Sg+Tra+PxSg3

Numeral possessive back een front examples:

  • neljäkseen: neljä+Num+Card+Sg+Tra+PxSg3

Numeral possessive back ään examples:

  • viittään: viisi+Num+Card+Sg+Par+PxSg3

Numeral clitic back examples:

  • kaksihan: kaksi+Num+Card+Sg+Nom+Foc/han

Numeral clitic front examples:

  • yksihän: yksi+Num+Card+Sg+Nom+Foc/han

Finnish Numerals

Numerals have been split in three sections, the compounding parts of cardinals and ordinals, and the non-compounding ones:

Numeral examples:

  • kaksikymmentäkolmetuhatta: kaksi+Num+Card+Sg+Nom#kymmenen+Num+Card+Sg+Par#kolme+Num+Card+Sg+Nom#tuhat+Num+Card+Sg+Par (Eng. # 23,000)
  • kahdessadasneljäs: kahdes+Num+Ord+Sg+Nom#sadas+Num+Ord+Sg+Nom#neljäs+Num+Ord+Sg+Nom (Eng. # 204rd)
  • viitisenkymmentä: viitisen+Num#kymmentä (Eng. # 50-ish)

The compounding parts of cardinals are the number multiplier words.

cardinal examples:

  • yksi: yksi+Num+Card+Sg+Nom (Eng. # one)
  • viidelle: viisi+Num+Card+Sg+All (Eng. # five)
  • tuhatta: tuhat+Num+Card+Sg+Par (Eng. # thousand)

The suffixes only appear after cardinal multipliers

Cardinal multiplicants examples:

  • viisikymmentä: viisi+Num+Card+Sg+Nom#kymmentä
  • neljäsataatuhatta: neljä+Num+Card+Sg+Nom#sata+Num+Card+Sg+Par#tuhatta

The compounding parts of ordinals are the number multiplier words.

Ordinal numerals examples:

  • neljäs: neljäs+A+Ord+Sg+Nom
  • viidennelle: viides+A+Ord+Sg+All
  • tuhannetta: tuhannes+A+Ord+Sg+Par

The suffixes only appear after cardinal multipliers

Ordinal multiplicants examples:

  • viideskymmenes: viides+A+Ord+Sg+Nom#kymmenes
  • neljässadastuhannes: neljäs+A+Ord+Sg+Nom#sadas+A+Ord+Sg+Nom#tuhannes

There is a set of numbers or corresponding expressions that work like them, but are not basic cardinals or ordinals:

Numeral others examples:

  • viitisenkymmentä: viitisen+Num#kymmentä
  • puolikymmentä: puolikymmentä+Num+Sg+Nom

Numeral stem variation

Numerals follow the same stem variation patterns as nouns, some of these being very rare to extinct for nouns.

Numerals 31 examples:

  • yksi: yksi+Num+Card+Sg+Nom
  • yhteen: yksi+Num+Card+Sg+Ill
  • yhtenä: yksi+Num+Card+Sg+Ess
  • yhdessä: yksi+Num+Card+Sg+Ine
  • yhtä: yksi+Num+Card+Sg+Par
  • yksiä: yksi+Num+Card+Pl+Par
  • yksien: yksi+Num+Card+Pl+Gen
  • yksiin: yksi+Num+Card+Pl+Ill
  • yksinä: yksi+Num+Card+Pl+Ess
  • yksissä: yksi+Num+Card+Pl+Ine

Numerals 31 back§ examples:

  • kaksi: kaksi+Num+Card+Sg+Nom
  • kahteen: kaksi+Num+Card+Sg+Ill
  • kahtena: kaksi+Num+Card+Sg+Ess
  • kahdessa: kaksi+Num+Card+Sg+Ine
  • kahta: kaksi+Num+Card+Sg+Par
  • kaksia: kaksi+Num+Card+Pl+Par
  • kaksien: kaksi+Num+Card+Pl+Gen
  • kaksiin: kaksi+Num+Card+Pl+Ill
  • kaksina: kaksi+Num+Card+Pl+Ess
  • kaksissa: kaksi+Num+Card+Pl+Ine

Numerals 8~5 examples:

  • kolme: kolme+Num+Card+Sg+Nom
  • kolmeen: kolme+Num+Card+Sg+Ill
  • kolmena: kolme+Num+Card+Sg+Ess
  • kolmessa: kolme+Num+Card+Sg+Ine
  • kolmea: kolme+Num+Card+Sg+Par
  • kolmia: kolme+Num+Card+Pl+Par
  • kolmien: kolme+Num+Card+Pl+Gen
  • kolmiin: kolme+Num+Card+Pl+Ill
  • kolmina: kolme+Num+Card+Pl+Ess
  • kolmissa: kolme+Num+Card+Pl+Ine

Numerals 10 examples:

  • neljä: neljä+Num+Card+Sg+Nom
  • neljää: neljä+Num+Card+Sg+Par
  • neljään: neljä+Num+Card+Sg+Ill
  • neljänä: neljä+Num+Card+Sg+Ess
  • neljässä: neljä+Num+Card+Sg+Ine
  • neljiä: neljä+Num+Card+Pl+Par
  • neljien: neljä+Num+Card+Pl+Gen
  • neljiin: neljä+Num+Card+Pl+Ill
  • neljinä: neljä+Num+Card+Pl+Ess
  • neljissä: neljä+Num+Card+Pl+Ine
  • neljäin: neljä+Num+Card+Pl+Gen+Use/Rare

Numerals 27 front examples:

  • viisi: viisi+Num+Card+Sg+Nom
  • viiteen: viisi+Num+Card+Sg+Ill
  • viitenä: viisi+Num+Card+Sg+Ess
  • viidessä: viisi+Num+Card+Sg+Ine
  • viisinä: viisi+Num+Card+Pl+Ess
  • viisissä: viisi+Num+Card+Pl+Ine
  • viittä: viisi+Num+Card+Sg+Par
  • viitten: viisi+Num+Card+Pl+Gen
  • viisiä: viisi+Num+Card+Pl+Par
  • viisien: viisi+Num+Card+Pl+Gen
  • viisiin: viisi+Num+Card+Pl+Ill

Numerals 27 back examples:

  • kuusi: kuusi+Num+Card+Sg+Nom
  • kuutena: kuusi+Num+Card+Sg+Ess
  • kuudessa: kuusi+Num+Card+Sg+Ine
  • kuusina: kuusi+Num+Card+Pl+Ess
  • kuusissa: kuusi+Num+Card+Pl+Ine
  • kuutta: kuusi+Num+Card+Sg+Par
  • kuutten: kuusi+Num+Card+Pl+Gen
  • kuusia: kuusi+Num+Card+Pl+Par
  • kuusien: kuusi+Num+Card+Pl+Gen
  • kuusiin: kuusi+Num+Card+Pl+Ill

Numerals 10n examples:

  • kahdeksan: kahdeksan+Num+Card+Sg+Nom
  • kahdeksaa: kahdeksan+Num+Card+Sg+Par
  • kahdeksaan: kahdeksan+Num+Card+Sg+Ill
  • kahdeksassa: kahdeksan+Num+Card+Sg+Ine
  • kahdeksana: kahdeksan+Num+Card+Sg+Ess
  • kahdeksia: kahdeksan+Num+Card+Pl+Par
  • kahdeksien: kahdeksan+Num+Card+Pl+Gen
  • kahdeksiin: kahdeksan+Num+Card+Pl+Ill
  • kahdeksissa: kahdeksan+Num+Card+Pl+Ine
  • kahdeksina: kahdeksan+Num+Card+Pl+Ess
  • kahdeksain: kahdeksan+Num+Card+Pl+Gen+Use/Rare

Numerals 10n front examples:

  • yhdeksän: yhdeksän+Num+Card+Sg+Nom
  • yhdeksää: yhdeksän+Num+Card+Sg+Par
  • yhdeksään: yhdeksän+Num+Card+Sg+Ill
  • yhdeksässä: yhdeksän+Num+Card+Sg+Ine
  • yhdeksänä: yhdeksän+Num+Card+Sg+Ess
  • yhdeksiä: yhdeksän+Num+Card+Pl+Par
  • yhdeksien: yhdeksän+Num+Card+Pl+Gen
  • yhdeksissä: yhdeksän+Num+Card+Pl+Ine
  • yhdeksinä: yhdeksän+Num+Card+Pl+Ess
  • yhdeksäin: yhdeksän+Num+Card+Pl+Gen+Use/Rare

Numerals 32 examples:

  • kymmenen: kymmenen+Num+Card+Sg+Nom
  • kymmeneen: kymmenen+Num+Card+Sg+Ill
  • kymmenenä: kymmenen+Num+Card+Sg+Ess
  • kymmenessä: kymmenen+Num+Card+Sg+Ine
  • kymmentä: kymmenen+Num+Card+Sg+Par
  • kymmenten: kymmenen+Num+Card+Pl+Gen
  • kymmenien: kymmenen+Num+Card+Pl+Gen
  • kymmeniin: kymmenen+Num+Card+Pl+Ill
  • kymmenissä: kymmenen+Num+Card+Pl+Ine
  • kymmeninä: kymmenen+Num+Card+Pl+Ess

Numerals 9 examples:

  • sata: sata+Num+Card+Sg+Nom
  • satana: sata+Num+Card+Sg+Ess
  • sadassa: sata+Num+Card+Sg+Ine
  • sataan: sata+Num+Card+Sg+Ill
  • sataa: sata+Num+Card+Sg+Par
  • satojen: sata+Num+Card+Pl+Gen
  • satoihin: sata+Num+Card+Pl+Ill
  • sadoissa: sata+Num+Card+Pl+Ine
  • satoina: sata+Num+Card+Pl+Ess

Numerals 46 examples:

  • tuhat: tuhat+Num+Card+Sg+Nom
  • tuhanteen: tuhat+Num+Card+Sg+Ill
  • tuhantena: tuhat+Num+Card+Sg+Ess
  • tuhannessa: tuhat+Num+Card+Sg+Ine
  • tuhansien: tuhat+Num+Card+Pl+Gen
  • tuhatta: tuhat+Num+Card+Sg+Par
  • tuhansia: tuhat+Num+Card+Pl+Par
  • tuhansien: tuhat+Num+Card+Pl+Gen
  • tuhansiin: tuhat+Num+Card+Pl+Ill
  • tuhansina: tuhat+Num+Card+Pl+Ess
  • tuhansissa: tuhat+Num+Card+Pl+Ine

Numerals 10 examples:

  • miljoona: miljoona+Num+Card+Sg+Nom
  • miljoonana: miljoona+Num+Card+Sg+Ess
  • miljoonassa: miljoona+Num+Card+Sg+Ine
  • miljoonaa: miljoona+Num+Card+Sg+Par
  • miljoonaan: miljoona+Num+Card+Sg+Ill
  • miljoonia: miljoona+Num+Card+Pl+Par
  • miljoonien: miljoona+Num+Card+Pl+Gen
  • miljooniin: miljoona+Num+Card+Pl+Ill
  • miljoonissa: miljoona+Num+Card+Pl+Ine
  • miljoonina: miljoona+Num+Card+Pl+Ess

Numerals 5 examples:

  • miljardi: miljardi+Num+Card+Sg+Nom
  • miljardina: miljardi+Num+Card+Sg+Ess
  • miljardissa: miljardi+Num+Card+Sg+Ine
  • miljardeina: miljardi+Num+Card+Pl+Ess
  • miljardeissa: miljardi+Num+Card+Pl+Ine
  • miljardia: miljardi+Num+Card+Sg+Par
  • miljardiin: miljardi+Num+Card+Sg+Ill
  • miljardeja: miljardi+Num+Card+Pl+Par
  • miljardien: miljardi+Num+Card+Pl+Gen
  • miljardeihin: miljardi+Num+Card+Pl+Ill

Numerals 5 more examples:

  • Googol: Googol+Num+Card+Sg+Nom

Numerals 5 moremore examples:

  • pari: pari+Num+Card+Sg+Nom
  • parina: pari+Num+Card+Sg+Ess
  • parissa: pari+Num+Card+Sg+Ine
  • pareissa: pari+Num+Card+Pl+Ine
  • pareina: pari+Num+Card+Pl+Ess
  • paria: pari+Num+Card+Sg+Par
  • pareja: pari+Num+Card+Pl+Par
  • parien: pari+Num+Card+Pl+Gen
  • pareihin: pari+Num+Card+Pl+Ill
  • pariin: pari+Num+Card+Sg+Ill

Numerals 38 examples:

  • ensimmäinen: ensimmäinen+A+Ord+Sg+Nom
  • ensimmäisenä: ensimmäinen+A+Ord+Sg+Ess
  • ensimmäisessä: ensimmäinen+A+Ord+Sg+Ine
  • ensimmäistä: ensimmäinen+A+Ord+Sg+Par
  • ensimmäisten: ensimmäinen+A+Ord+Pl+Gen
  • ensimmäisiä: ensimmäinen+A+Ord+Pl+Par
  • ensimmäisiin: ensimmäinen+A+Ord+Pl+Ill
  • ensimmäisinä: ensimmäinen+A+Ord+Pl+Ess
  • ensimmäisissä: ensimmäinen+A+Ord+Pl+Ine

Numerals 38 back examples:

  • toinen: toinen+A+Ord+Sg+Nom
  • toiseen: toinen+A+Ord+Sg+Ill
  • toista: toinen+A+Ord+Sg+Par
  • toisten: toinen+A+Ord+Pl+Gen
  • toisien: toinen+A+Ord+Pl+Gen
  • toisia: toinen+A+Ord+Pl+Par
  • toisiin: toinen+A+Ord+Pl+Ill
  • toisena: toinen+A+Ord+Sg+Ess
  • toisessa: toinen+A+Ord+Sg+Ine
  • toisissa: toinen+A+Ord+Pl+Ine
  • toisina: toinen+A+Ord+Pl+Ess

Numerals 45 examples:

  • kolmas: kolmas+A+Ord+Sg+Nom
  • kolmantena: kolmas+A+Ord+Sg+Ess
  • kolmannessa: kolmas+A+Ord+Sg+Ine
  • kolmanteen: kolmas+A+Ord+Sg+Ill
  • kolmatta: kolmas+A+Ord+Sg+Par
  • kolmansia: kolmas+A+Ord+Pl+Par
  • kolmansien: kolmas+A+Ord+Pl+Gen
  • kolmansissa: kolmas+A+Ord+Pl+Ine
  • kolmansina: kolmas+A+Ord+Pl+Ess

Numerals 45 fron examples:

  • neljäs: neljäs+A+Ord+Sg+Nom
  • neljänteen: neljäs+A+Ord+Sg+Ill
  • neljäntenä: neljäs+A+Ord+Sg+Ess
  • neljännessä: neljäs+A+Ord+Sg+Ine
  • neljättä: neljäs+A+Ord+Sg+Par
  • neljänsiä: neljäs+A+Ord+Pl+Par
  • neljänsien: neljäs+A+Ord+Pl+Gen
  • neljänsiin: neljäs+A+Ord+Pl+Ill
  • neljänsissä: neljäs+A+Ord+Pl+Ine
  • neljänsinä: neljäs+A+Ord+Pl+Ess


The particles are all words that do not inflect at all. For compatibility reasons subsets of particles have been set off to classes like conjunctions, adverbs, adpositions, and interjections. The ones that are *not* in those classes are left here as particles.


Particles examples:

  • ahaa: ahaa+Pcle
  • edes: edes+Pcle


Adpositions are morphologically nominals that have defective inflection patterns. Some of them come from forms of nominals that are no longer used. The adpositions are classified along whether they take possessives clitics, or not. They also have slight syntactic and semantic differences, the syntactic differences are coded in the analyses to be compatible with other languages, but for most intents and purposes all adpositions can appear in both syntactic positions, after and before the head word.


Adpositions examples:

  • alta: alta+Po
  • alleen: alle+Po+PxSg3
  • irti: irti+Pr
  • irtikö: irti+Pr+Qst


Prefixes are bound morphs that can appear in beginning of the compounds, mostly forms of nominals. Finnish does not have almost any real prefix morphemes.

Prefixes examples:

  • alabanaani: ala+N+Pref#banaani+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # lower banana)
  • erikoistyyppi: erikois+N+Pref#tyyppi+N+Sg+Nom (Eng. # special guy)


Pronouns are a closed special sub class of nouns. Morphologically pronouns have often defective, heteroclitic or otherwise irregular inflectional patterns, and certain pronouns have an morphophonologically distinct accusative case, extinct from other noun classes Further reading: VISK §§ 100 – 104, Semantics ... VISK § 7XX

Pronouns are subdivided into categories by semantic and syntactic means. Semantic categories delimit the type of referents (humane, sentient, object), qualification and quantification. (interrogative, quantor). Morphosyntactically distinct is class of proadjectives, that inflect and act like adjectives. There are six personal pronouns for the six deictic references used; first, second and third singular and plural. The personal pronouns have separate accusative cases marked by t suffix. The pronouns in standard literary Finnish are *minä* (I), *sinä* (you), *hän* (he), *me* (we), *te* (you),

Personal pronouns examples:

  • minä: minä+Pron+Pers+Sg+Nom (Eng. # me)
  • sinut: sinä+Pron+Pers+Sg+Acc
  • heille: he+Pron+Pers+Pl+All

The personal pronouns are among the most dialectally varied words of the Finnish language. The pronouns forms are one of the factors separating eastern dialects from the western ones. The personal pronouns of eastern dialects are *mie*, *sie*, (*hää*, *hiä*), *myö*, *työ*, *hyö* resp.; The third singular being rare in modern use. |citation-needed| In the western dialects the pronouns are *mää*, *sää* for first and second singular, and more variedly *meitti*, *teitti*, *heitti* for plurals.

In standard spoken Finnish, and in many cases even in written form, the words *mä* and *sä* are more common and preferred to longer minä and sinä for first and second singular respectively. In practice the distinction is much like between Estonian corresponding pronouns, but official norm still recommends only the long forms. For third singular the nominative form is *hän* as in standard written language, however the inflection is without intervening *-ne-* part. In old literary Finnish and poetic language the forms *ma* and *sa* are still used.

There are six demonstrative pronouns for six non-personal references. In standard written Finnish these are *tämä* (this), *tuo* (that), *se* (it),

  • nämä* (these), *nuo* (those), *ne* (those).

Further reading: VISK § 101

Demonstrative pronouns examples:

  • tämä: tämä+Pron+Dem+Sg+Nom
  • tuolle: tuo+Pron+Dem+Sg+All

In standard spoken Finnish the demonstrative pronouns are commonly

  • tää*, *toi*, *nää*, *noi* instead of *tämä*, *tuo*, *nämä*, *nuo*.

Interrogative pronouns are used in question clauses. The basic interrogatives in standard written Finnish are *kuka* (who), *mikä* (what),

  • kumpi* (which); *millainen* (what kind of), *kuinka* (how),
  • miksi* (what for). Further reading: VISK §734

Interrogative pronouns examples:

  • kuka: kuka+Pron+Interr+Sg+Nom (Eng. # who)
  • ketä: kuka+Pron+Interr+Sg+Par
  • kenet: kuka+Pron+Interr+Sg+Acc

The stem of *kuka* is shortened by from *kene* to *ke* in spoken language.

Few forms of *kuka* based on *ken* stem and *ku* stem have become archaic. Fuhrer reading: VISK §102 Also the short form of *mi* is archaic and limited to poetic use. |citation-needed| Relative pronouns are *kuka*, *joka* and *mikä* (which, whose). VISK §735| They are morphologically indistinct from corresponding interrogative pronouns.

Relative pronouns examples:

  • kuka: kuka+Pron+Rel+Sg+Nom

Quantor pronouns correspond to existential and universal quantifiers and their negations. The generic quantors are *joku* (someone),

  • jokin* (something), *jokainen* (everyone), *kaikki* (everything),
  • kukin* (each one), *kukaan* (no one), *mikään* (nothing), *jokunen*,
  • muutama*, *harva* (a few), *moni* (many) and *useampi* (more). The dual quantors, quantifying over set of two objects are *jompikumpi* (either or), *kumpikin*, *molemmat* (both), *kumpikaan* (neither). VISK §740 The quantor pronouns subsume the class of indefinite pronouns used in older grammar defintions. VISK §742 The indefinite quantifiers are classified as indefinite quantors for the sake of compatibility. This covers *joku*,
  • jokin*, *jompikumpi*, as well as specific
  • eräs*, *muuan* (some), *yksi* (one). Further reading VISK §746 – 749.

Quantor pronouns examples:

  • joku: joku+Pron+Qu+Indef+Sg+Nom
  • jotkut: joku+Pron+Qu+Indef+Pl+Nom

Reflexive pronoun is the word *itse* refering to self, usually but not always coupled with possessive suffix to denote the referent. Further reading: VISK §729

Reflexive pronouns examples:

  • itse: itse+Pron+Refl+Sg+Nom

Reciprocal pronoun is *toinen* refering to each other. It uses possessive suffix to delimit the reciprocal group. Further reading: VISK §732

Reciprocal pronouns examples:

  • toisiamme: toinen+Pron+Recipr+Pl+Par+PxPl1

Proadjectives are pronouns that act in place of adjectives syntactically. They are formed by compounds (or derivations) of pronoun and *lainen* or

Proadjectives examples:

  • jollainen: jollainen+A+Rel+Sg+Nom

Proadverbs are the pronouns that have lexicalised into adverbs by their syntax and semantics. Further reading: VISK §715

Proadverbs examples:

  • missä: missä+Adv+Interr+Ine

forms of *jompi* may not exist as free morphs. The marginal forms of

  • monias* are extinct. Oddly enough, the semireduplicative intensifier monituinen is nowhere to be found in VISK either.

Marginally in the pro word category are nouns, adjectives and adverbs refering to equivalence in comparative context since they are also otherwise lacking meaning like other pro words. This fgroup includes words *sama* (same), *eri* (different), *muu* (other),

  • toinen* (another), and their derivations. Further reading: VISK §766

In spoken language the supposedly non-inflecting *eri* has common inflected forms.

Proper nouns

Proper nouns are morphologically indistinct subset of nouns. They have some orthographical differences, required capitalisations and compounding with hyphens. The derivations may lowercase. They may be classified semantically to match other giellatekno things in the future.

Proper nouns examples:

  • Kalle: Kalle+N+Prop+Sg+Nom
  • Joensuu: Joensuu+N+Prop+Sg+Nom

details see noun-stems.html. The proper nouns are classified and inflected along noun patterns, for

Many of Proper nouns inflect like nouns... however, compound differently

Nouns 20 ä examples:

  • Hyvinkää: Hyvinkää+N+Prop+Sg+Nom (Eng. # Hyvinkää)
  • Hyvinkäätä: Hyvinkää+N+Prop+Sg+Par
  • Hyvinkäähän: Hyvinkää+N+Prop+Sg+Ill
  • Hyvinkääseen: Hyvinkää+N+Prop+Sg+Ill

Other symbols

Punctuation characters detailed here are the characters that appear commonly in Finnish texts, but are not part of words or linguistic content. The punctuations control clause and sentence level annotations, and range from full stops and commas to brackets. While punctuation symbols might have limited use as inflecting units, the ones described here refer to punctuation symbols as used in their primary purpose, in isolation. The part of language norms controlling punctuation are from orthography and the references of punctuation in good language use are not from the grammar but issues of Kielikello journal on good Finnish language use. The most current issue on punctuation was Kielikello 2/2006 (N.B. you may need to buy subscription or route through university servers).

The primary punctuation marks are sentence final punctuation, they mark the end of a sentence. The most typical of these is full stop symbol, which ends neutral sentences. The exclamation mark and question mark end exclamative and questioning sentences respectively. An elliptic or unfinished sentence is ended with three successive full stops. In sloppy writing style it is common to use two, four or more full stops to mark an elliptic sentence. The Unicode compatibility character ellipsis has never been used for Finnish language and must not be used. Same applies for other combinations of sentence ending punctuation marks, the most common of these have separate analyses.

Punctuation and symbols examples:

  • .: .+Punct (Eng. # full stop)

The clause level punctuation marks are used in clause boundaries. The most typical of these is comma. The colon and semicolon are too. The clause boundaries do not have separate semantics needed in applications so they only have analyses for clause boundaries.

The brackets are used to offset portions of text in opening and closing pairs. The most common pair is round brackets. Others used in Finnish are square, curly and angle brackets, in somewhat decreasing order of commonness. The angle brackets are commonly replaced by lower than symbol for opening and greater than symbol for closing bracket. The bracketed question mark is used to indicate uncertainty and bracketed exclamation mark to indicate surprise, both of these annotations are used within sentence as other bracketed constructions.

The quotation marks are used to offset quotations. The typical ones in Finnish are the 9-shaped double quotation marks and apostrophes. Angle quotation marks can also be used, primarily in books and newspapers. It is possible to replace curly quotation marks with neutral typewriter ones where technology limits. It is also common to see foreign quotation marks or accent marks in place of quotation marks in sloppy writing style.

There are two different dashes in Finnish. The hyphen is used for mainly word internally and won't appear as itself. The dash is used to offset some sentences or mark elision. The dash symbol can be either of unicode dash symbols or replaced with dash offset by spaces. In sloppy writing, two hyphens are often used in place of dashes.

The space is used to separate words. For most applications the space has separate meaning so it rarely gets used as a symbol in applications of

Less used symbols that appear in the Finnish texts; these do not have special analyses. A slash can be used as a replacement of the meaning 'or', as a division slash or as a separator of verses in poem. Backslash is used only in computer systems. Underscore is used only in computer systems. The pipe is used in dictionaries as morhpeme boundary, and computer systems. At sign is used only in computer systems. An ampersand can be used as a replacement of the meaning 'and'. Percent symbol is used after numeric expressions meaning 0.01 multiplier. Permille symbol is used after numeric expressions meaning 0.001 multiplier. § sign is used for numbering sections etc. Degree sign is used with measurements. The second and minute signs can be used in conjunction with degree sign. The plus sign, specific minus sign and plus-minus signs are used in numeric expressions. The multiplication sign is used in numeric expressions. The equals sign is used in formulae. The asterisk is used as a marker for ungrammatical constructions and computer and other expressions. Registered and trademark symbols are rarely used. Copyright symbol is rarely used. Hash sign is used in phones and computer systems. The doubled § sign has been used as chapter range sign. The pilcrow sign can be used to mark chapters. The currency signs for euro, dollar, pound sterling, cent and yen can be used. I don't think anyone uses the currency sign ¤ ever. The lines below this one are not from any referenced source


Suffixes are bound morphs that come after nominals in compounds. Finnish doesn't quite have real suffixes, these are mostly compound parts.


Suffixes examples:

  • banaaniaaltoinen: banaani+N+Sg+Nom#aaltoinen+A+Sg+Nom (Eng. # banana waveful)

Symbol affixes

Verbs are the words that inflect in tense, mood, personal suffixes, and clitics, but verbs also have s.c. infinite inflection pattern which is basically nominal derivations. The dictionary entries of verbs are A-infinitive forms, there are no verbs in dictionary that do not end in a or ä. Verbs are very distinct from other classes, their classification is not difficult. The key to find unique class for a verb is to pick stems and suffixes from: indicative non-past 1st singular and 3rd singular, indicative past 1st singular, ...

The auxiliary verbs require infinintive verbal phrase objects. Infinitives usually:

  • aion tappaa*, *joudun kuolemaan*

The verbs are classified along the stem mutations suffix assimilation, and harmony:

Verb examples:

  • kutoo: kutoa+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg3 (Eng. # knit)
  • kudotaan: kutoa+V+Pss+Ind+Prs+Pe4
  • tietää: tietää+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg3 (Eng. # know)
  • tiesit: tietää+V+Act+Ind+Prt+Sg2
  • nähnyt: nähdä+V+Act+PrfPrc+Sg+Nom (Eng. # see)
  • juossut: juosta+V+Act+PrfPrc+Sg+Nom (Eng. # run)

Verb inflection and derivation

The verbs' conjugation includes voice (in Finnish grammars also verbal genus), tense/mood (tempus/modus), personal endings and negation marker The verbs also have productive derivations to defective nouns as infinitives, and to adjectives as participles, which are considered to be part of inflection and thus included in most versions ( VISK § 105). The morphology of participles and historical 4th infinitive is further detailed in section Deverbal nouns' morphology. The analysis strings of verb are not as systematic as nouns, as many categories collapse together in forms, e.g. the tense and mood are only distinct with indicative past and non-past, otherwise mood implies tense in semantic sense.

Verb stem variation

Verbs have no allomorphic variation per se, except for some assimilation and variation of ð forms, but the stem variation is the same as in nouns. The examples for verb stems are given for each class: A infinitive's lative, e infinitive's inessive, indicative present 1st singular, indicative present 3rd singular, indicative past 1st singular, indicative past 3rd singular, conditional past 3rd singular, imperative 2nd plural, potential 1st singular, present passive, past passive, nut participle passive

Verb stems without stem variation

The u stems have no stem variation:

Verbs 52u examples:

  • kaunistua: kaunistua+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # beautify)
  • kaunistuessa: kaunistua+V+Act+InfE+Sg+Ine
  • kaunistun: kaunistua+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg1
  • kaunistuu: kaunistua+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg3
  • kaunistuin: kaunistua+V+Act+Ind+Prt+Sg1
  • kaunistui: kaunistua+V+Act+Ind+Prt+Sg3
  • kaunistuisi: kaunistua+V+Act+Cond+Sg3
  • kaunistukaa: kaunistua+V+Act+Imprt+Pl2
  • kaunistunen: kaunistua+V+Act+Pot+Sg1
  • kaunistutaan: kaunistua+V+Pss+Ind+Prs+Pe4
  • kaunistuttiin: kaunistua+V+Pss+Ind+Prt+Pe4
  • kaunistuttu: kaunistua+V+Pss+PrfPrc+Sg+Nom
  • kaunistuminen: kaunistua+V+Der/minen+Sg+Nom

The o stems have no stem variation:

Verbs 52o examples:

  • punoa: punoa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # bundle?)
  • punoessa: punoa+V+Act+InfE+Sg+Ine
  • punon: punoa+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg1
  • punoo: punoa+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg3
  • punoin: punoa+V+Act+Ind+Prt+Sg1
  • punoi: punoa+V+Act+Ind+Prt+Sg3
  • punoisi: punoa+V+Act+Cond+Sg3
  • punokaa: punoa+V+Act+Imprt+Pl2
  • punonen: punoa+V+Act+Pot+Sg1
  • punotaan: punoa+V+Pss+Ind+Prs+Pe4
  • punottiin: punoa+V+Pss+Ind+Prt+Pe4
  • punottu: punoa+V+Pss+PrfPrc+Sg+Nom
  • punominen: punoa+V+Der/minen+Sg+Nom

The ö stems have no stem variation:

Verbs 52ö examples:

  • säilöä: säilöä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # store)
  • säilöessä: säilöä+V+Act+InfE+Sg+Ine
  • säilön: säilöä+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg1
  • säilöö: säilöä+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg3
  • säilöin: säilöä+V+Act+Ind+Prt+Sg1
  • säilöi: säilöä+V+Act+Ind+Prt+Sg3
  • säilöisi: säilöä+V+Act+Cond+Sg3
  • säilökää: säilöä+V+Act+Imprt+Pl2
  • säilönen: säilöä+V+Act+Pot+Sg1
  • säilötään: säilöä+V+Pss+Ind+Prs+Pe4
  • säilöttiin: säilöä+V+Pss+Ind+Prt+Pe4
  • säilötty: säilöä+V+Pss+PrfPrc+Sg+Nom
  • säilöminen: säilöä+V+Der/minen+Sg+Nom

The y stems have no stem variation:

Verbs 52y examples:

  • ällistyä: ällistyä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # amaze)
  • ällistyessä: ällistyä+V+Act+InfE+Sg+Ine
  • ällistyn: ällistyä+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg1
  • ällistyy: ällistyä+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg3
  • ällistyin: ällistyä+V+Act+Ind+Prt+Sg1
  • ällistyi: ällistyä+V+Act+Ind+Prt+Sg3
  • ällistyisi: ällistyä+V+Act+Cond+Sg3
  • ällistykää: ällistyä+V+Act+Imprt+Pl2
  • ällistynen: ällistyä+V+Act+Pot+Sg1
  • ällistytään: ällistyä+V+Pss+Ind+Prs+Pe4
  • ällistyttiin: ällistyä+V+Pss+Ind+Prt+Pe4
  • ällistytty: ällistyä+V+Pss+PrfPrc+Sg+Nom

Verb stems with only gradation

Verbs 52 k~0 o examples:

  • haukkoa: haukkoa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # gasp)

Verbs 52 k~0 u examples:

  • nuokkua: nuokkua+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # sleep)

Verbs 52 k~0 y examples:

  • kärkkyä: kärkkyä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # steal a base)

Verbs 52 p~0 o examples:

  • harppoa: harppoa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # walk)

Verbs 52 p~0 u examples:

  • loppua: loppua+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # end)

Verbs 52 p~0 y examples:

  • leppyä: leppyä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # settle)

Verbs 52 t~0 y examples:

  • kivettyä: kivettyä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # stone)

Verbs 52 t~0 o examples:

  • viittoa: viittoa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # sign)

Verbs 52 t~0 u examples:

  • hermottua: hermottua+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # nerve)

Verbs 52 k~0’ y examples:

  • mäikyä: mäikyä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # bong)

Verbs 52 k~0’ o examples:

  • takoa: takoa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # hammer)

Verbs 52 k~0’ u examples:

  • maukua: maukua+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # gong)

Verbs 52 p~v y examples:

  • elpyä: elpyä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # rescuscitate)

Verbs 52 p~v u examples:

  • hiipua: hiipua+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # fizzle)

Verbs 52 p~v o examples:

  • silpoa: silpoa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # slash)

Verbs 52 t~d o examples:

  • kietoa: kietoa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # entangle)

Verbs 52 t~d y examples:

  • siliytyä: siliytyä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # iron)

Verbs 52 t~d u examples:

  • rohtua: rohtua+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # scar)

Verbs 52 k~g u examples:

  • vinkua: vinkua+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # squeal)

Verbs 52 k~g o examples:

  • penkoa: penkoa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # dig)

Verbs 52 p~m o examples:

  • tempoa: tempoa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # tuck)

Verbs 52 p~m u examples:

  • ampua: ampua+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # shoot)

Verbs 52 t~l y examples:

  • mieltyä: mieltyä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # like)

Verbs 52 t~l u examples:

  • humaltua: humaltua+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # intoxicate)

Verbs 52 t~n u examples:

  • vakaantua: vakaantua+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # stabilise)

Verbs 52 t~n y examples:

  • tyhjentyä: tyhjentyä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # empty)

Verbs 52 t~r y examples:

  • pyörtyä: pyörtyä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # faint)

Verbs 52 t~r o examples:

  • vartoa: vartoa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # wait)

Verbs 52 t~r u examples:

  • pusertua: pusertua+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # squeeze)

Verbs with -a stems

Verbs 53 back examples:

  • mutristaa: mutristaa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # ?)

Verbs 53 front examples:

  • kivistää: kivistää+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # hurt)

Verbs 53 front t~0 examples:

  • räpsyttää: räpsyttää+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # blink)

Verbs 53 back t~0 examples:

  • vieroittaa: vieroittaa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat

Verbs 53 back k~0 examples:

  • purkaa: purkaa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # tear)

Verbs 53 front t~d examples:

  • kärähtää: kärähtää+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # fry)

Verbs 53 back t~d examples:

  • mojahtaa: mojahtaa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # smack)

Verbs 53 front t~n examples:

  • kyntää: kyntää+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # plow)

Verbs 53 back t~r examples:

  • sortaa: sortaa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # crush)

Some of the a stems have t: s in past stems by ti>si variation.

Verbs 54 back examples:

  • huutaa: huutaa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # yell)

Verbs 54 front examples:

  • pyytää: pyytää+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # aks)

Verbs 54 back t~l examples:

  • sivaltaa: sivaltaa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # slash)

Verbs 54 front t~l examples:

  • viheltää: viheltää+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # whistle)

Verbs 54 front t~n examples:

  • hiventää: hiventää+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat

Verbs 54 back t~n examples:

  • huonontaa: huonontaa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # worsen)

Verbs 54 back t~r examples:

  • kuhertaa: kuhertaa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # snuggle)

Verbs 54 front t~r examples:

  • näpertää: näpertää+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # twiddle)

In some cases t: s variation is optionally alongside the regular gradation:

Verbs 55 front examples:

  • kiitää: kiitää+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # rush)

Verbs 55 back examples:

  • joutaa: joutaa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat

Verbs 55 front t~l examples:

  • yltää: yltää+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # reach)

Verbs 55 front t~n examples:

  • entää: entää+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat

Other a stems undergo a: o variation

Verbs 56 back examples:

  • kasvaa: kasvaa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # grow)

Verbs 56 back k~0 examples:

  • jakaa: jakaa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # share)

Verbs 56 back p~0 examples:

  • tappaa: tappaa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # kill)

Verbs 56 back t~0 examples:

  • auttaa: auttaa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # help)

Verbs 56 back t~d examples:

  • sataa: sataa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # rain)

Verbs 56 back t~n examples:

  • kantaa: kantaa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # carry)

In some of the a: o variations the t: s variant is also possible.

Verbs 57 back examples:

  • kaataa: kaataa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # pour)

Verbs 57 back t~r examples:

  • saartaa: saartaa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # surround)

Verbs with e stems

Verbs 58 front examples:

  • kytkeä: kytkeä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # switch)

Verbs 58 back examples:

  • sotkea: sotkea+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # mess)

Verbs 58 back k~0 examples:

  • pukea: pukea+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # dress)

Verbs 58 front p~v examples:

  • rypeä: rypeä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # bathe)

Verbs 58 front t~d examples:

  • päteä: päteä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # nitpick)

Verbs 58 back t~d examples:

  • kutea: kutea+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # breed)

Verbs 58 back k~g examples:

  • tunkea: tunkea+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # push)

Verbs 58 back k~j examples:

  • polkea: polkea+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # stomp)

Verbs 58 front k~j examples:

  • särkeä: särkeä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # break)

Some of the e stems allow for optional t: s variation in past form.

Verbs 59 examples:

  • tuntea: tuntea+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # feel)

The rare ht: ks kind of variation is also possible.

Verbs 60 examples:

  • lähteä: lähteä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # go)

Verbs with i stems

Verbs 61 back examples:

  • kosia: kosia+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # propose)

Verbs 61 front examples:

  • ryskiä: ryskiä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # crash)

Verbs 61 back k~0 examples:

  • kukkia: kukkia+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # bloom)

Verbs 61 front k~0 examples:

  • sörkkiä: sörkkiä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # meddle)

Verbs 61 back p~0 examples:

  • kalppia: kalppia+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat

Verbs 61 front p~0 examples:

  • hyppiä: hyppiä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # jump)

Verbs 61 back t~0 examples:

  • moittia: moittia+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat

Verbs 61 front t~0 examples:

  • miettiä: miettiä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # ponder)

Verbs 61 front p~v examples:

  • riipiä: riipiä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # pull)

Verbs 61 back p~v examples:

  • raapia: raapia+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # scratch)

Verbs 61 back t~d examples:

  • ahnehtia: ahnehtia+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # greed)

Verbs 61 front t~d examples:

  • ehtiä: ehtiä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat

Verbs 61 front k~g examples:

  • mönkiä: mönkiä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # crawl)

Verbs 61 back k~g examples:

  • onkia: onkia+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # fish)

Verbs 61 frontp~m examples:

  • tympiä: tympiä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # bore)

Verbs 61 back t~n examples:

  • kontia: kontia+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # mole)

Verbs 61 back k~j examples:

  • hylkiä: hylkiä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # reject)

Verbs with long vowel stem

These verbs also have da variant of a infinitive forms.

Verbs 62 back examples:

  • kopioida: kopioida+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # copy)

Verbs 62 front examples:

  • öykkäröidä: öykkäröidä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # bully)

Verbs 63 a examples:

  • saada: saada+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # get)

Verbs 63 y examples:

  • myydä: myydä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # sell)

Verbs 63 ä examples:

  • jäädä: jäädä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # stay)

Monosyllabic verbs with widening diphthong

Widening diphthongs are simplified before past and conditional suffix i's by removal of first component.

Verbs 64 ie examples:

  • viedä: viedä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # take)

Verbs 64 uo examples:

  • tuoda: tuoda+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # bring)

Verbs 64 yö examples:

  • syödä: syödä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # eat)

In past and conditional forms of käydä, the glide before suffix is marked even in normative orthography.

Verbs 65 examples:

  • käydä: käydä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # visit, go for)

Verbs with consonant stems

Verbs with momentane derivation are common consonant stems.

Verbs 66 back examples:

  • marista: marista+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # whine)

Verbs 66 front examples:

  • äristä: äristä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # arr)

Verbs 66 front v p examples:

  • häväistä: häväistä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # sacrilege)

Verbs 66 back v~p examples:

  • vavista: vavista+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # shake)

Verbs 66 back k~g examples:

  • rangaista: rangaista+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # punish)

Verbs with n, r, l, s stems

Notably, the a infinitive forms d assimilates to preceding consonant.

Verbs 67 back r examples:

  • surra: surra+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # meh)

Verbs 67 front r examples:

  • pierrä: pierrä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # fart)

Verbs 67 back n examples:

  • panna: panna+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # put)

Verbs 67 front n examples:

  • mennä: mennä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # go)

Frequentative derivations are most common source of l stemmed verbs.

Verbs 67 back l examples:

  • vastailla: vastailla+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # answer)

Verbs 67 frot l examples:

  • äksyillä: äksyillä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat

Verbs 67 front l 0k examples:

  • leikellä: leikellä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # cut)

Verbs 67 back l 0k examples:

  • nakella: nakella+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # throw)

Verbs 67 back l 0p examples:

  • tapella: tapella+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # fight)

Verbs 67 front l 0p examples:

  • hypellä: hypellä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # jump)

Verbs 67 back l 0t examples:

  • sulatella: sulatella+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # melt)

Verbs 67 front l 0t examples:

  • herätellä: herätellä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # wake)

Verbs 67 back l d~t examples:

  • tipahdella: tipahdella+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # drop)

Verbs 67 front l d~t examples:

  • säpsähdellä: säpsähdellä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # wake)

Verbs 67 back l m~p examples:

  • ommella: ommella+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # sow)

Verbs 67 back l l~t examples:

  • vaellella: vaellella+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # wander)

Verbs 67 frpnt l l~t examples:

  • kiillellä: kiillellä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # sparkle)

Verbs 67 back l n~t examples:

  • komennella: komennella+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # boss)

Verbs 67 front l n~t examples:

  • käännellä: käännellä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # turn)

Verbs 67 back l r~t examples:

  • nakerrella: nakerrella+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # bite)

Verbs 67 front l r~t examples:

  • kiherrellä: kiherrellä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # giggle)

tse stuff

Some verbs have possible optional heteroclitic indicative stems:

Verbs 68 front examples:

  • isännöidä: isännöidä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # host)

Verbs 68 back examples:

  • mellakoida: mellakoida+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # riot)

In these stems the tse formed stem is only one.

Verbs 69 back examples:

  • palkita: palkita+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # reward)

Verbs 69 front examples:

  • merkitä: merkitä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # mark)

Few words have special consonant cluster simplification for ks forms.

Verbs 70 back examples:

  • juosta: juosta+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # run)

Verbs 70 front examples:

  • piestä: piestä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # spank)

nähdä has special h: k variation.

Verbs 71 examples:

  • nähdä: nähdä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # see)

Verbs with -ne- stems

Verbs 72 back examples:

  • karheta: karheta+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat

Verbs 72 rfont examples:

  • vähetä: vähetä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # lessen)

Verbs 72 back 0~k examples:

  • niuketa: niuketa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # tighten)

Verbs 72 front 0~k examples:

  • jyrketä: jyrketä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat

Verbs 72 back 0~p examples:

  • hapata: hapata+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # ensour)

Verbs 72 front 0~p examples:

  • supeta: supeta+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # tighten)

Verbs 72 front 0~p examples:

  • tylpetä: tylpetä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # dull)

Verbs 72 back 0~p o examples:

  • helpota: helpota+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # ease)

Verbs 72 back 0~t examples:

  • loitota: loitota+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # distance)

Verbs 72 back 0~k o examples:

  • ulota: ulota+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # outen)

Verbs 72 back v~p examples:

  • kaveta: kaveta+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # tighten)

Verbs 72 front d~t examples:

  • mädätä: mädätä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # rot)

Verbs 72 back d~t examples:

  • leudota: leudota+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat

Verbs 72 front d~t e examples:

  • pidetä: pidetä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # lengthen)

Verbs 72 front m~p examples:

  • lämmetä: lämmetä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # warm)

Verbs 72 front n~t examples:

  • kiinnetä: kiinnetä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # firm)

Verbs 72 back j~k examples:

  • juljeta: juljeta+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # dare)

Vowel lengthening(?) stems

Verbs 73 back examples:

  • arvata: arvata+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # guess)

Verbs 73 front examples:

  • ynnätä: ynnätä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # add)

Verbs 73 back 0~k examples:

  • morkata: morkata+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # blame)

Verbs 73 front 0~k examples:

  • yökätä: yökätä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # yuck)

Verbs 73 back 0~p examples:

  • siepata: siepata+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # kidnap)

Verbs 73 frot 0~p examples:

  • välpätä: välpätä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat

Verbs 73 back 0~t examples:

  • luntata: luntata+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # cheat)

Verbs 73 front 0~t examples:

  • läntätä: läntätä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # splat)

Verbs 73 back v~p examples:

  • kaivata: kaivata+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # long)

Verbs 73 front v~p examples:

  • levätä: levätä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # rest)

Verbs 73 back d~r examples:

  • jahdata: jahdata+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # hunt)

Verbs 73 front d~t examples:

  • tähdätä: tähdätä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # aim)

Verbs 73 back g~k examples:

  • vongata: vongata+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # beg)

Verbs 73 front g~k examples:

  • vängätä: vängätä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # argue)

Verbs 73 back m~p examples:

  • temmata: temmata+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # pull)

Verbs 73 back l~t examples:

  • mullata: mullata+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # dirt)

Verbs 73 back n~t examples:

  • suunnata: suunnata+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # go)

Verbs 73 front n~t examples:

  • rynnätä: rynnätä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # rush)

Verbs 73 back r~t examples:

  • virrata: virrata+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # stream)

Verbs 73 front j~k examples:

  • hyljätä: hyljätä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # abandon)

Verbs 73 back 0~g examples:

  • digata: digata+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # dig)

Verbs 73 back 0~b examples:

  • lobata: lobata+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # lobby)

Verbs 74 back examples:

  • karhuta: karhuta+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # tax)

Verbs 74 front examples:

  • tähytä: tähytä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # periscope)

Verbs 74 back 0~k examples:

  • kaikota: kaikota+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # disappear)

Verbs 74 back 0~k e examples:

  • poiketa: poiketa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat

Verbs 74 front 0~k e examples:

  • keretä: keretä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat

Verbs 74 front 0~k u examples:

  • koukuta: koukuta+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # hook)

Verbs 74 back 0~p examples:

  • pulputa: pulputa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # pulp)

Verbs 74 back 0~p o examples:

  • upota: upota+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # sink)

Verbs 74 back 0~to examples:

  • lotota: lotota+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # lotto)

Verbs 74 back 0~tu examples:

  • luututa: luututa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # mop)

Verbs 74 back v~p examples:

  • kivuta: kivuta+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # climb)

Verbs 74 back v~pe examples:

  • korveta: korveta+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat

Verbs 74 front v~pe examples:

  • kiivetä: kiivetä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # climb)

Verbs 74 back v~po examples:

  • kirvota: kirvota+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # loose)

Verbs 74 back d~t examples:

  • kadota: kadota+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # disappear)

Verbs 74 back t~de examples:

  • todeta: todeta+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # note)

Verbs 74 front t~de examples:

  • vyyhdetä: vyyhdetä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # entangle)

Verbs 74 back d~tu examples:

  • liiduta: liiduta+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # chalk)

Verbs 74 back g~ke examples:

  • tungeta: tungeta+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # push)

Verbs 74 back g~ko examples:

  • pingota: pingota+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # ping)

Verbs 74 front g~ke examples:

  • ängetä: ängetä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # push)

Verbs 74 back m~p examples:

  • kummuta: kummuta+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat

Verbs 74 back p~mu examples:

  • kammeta: kammeta+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # lever)

Verbs 74 back p~mu examples:

  • sammota: sammota+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat

Verbs 74 back t~no examples:

  • innota: innota+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # eager)

Verbs 74 back t~to examples:

  • irrota: irrota+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # tear)

Verbs 74 back j~ke examples:

  • haljeta: haljeta+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # split)

Verbs 74 front j~k examples:

  • iljetä: iljetä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # dare)

Verbs 75 front examples:

  • myrskytä: myrskytä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # storm)

Verbs 75 back examples:

  • lassota: lassota+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # lasso)

Verbs 75 itä examples:

  • selvitä: selvitä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # manage)

Verbs 75 pytä examples:

  • ryöpytä: ryöpytä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # flood)

Verbs 75 tota examples:

  • peitota: peitota+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # beat)

Verbs 75 itä examples:

  • keritä: keritä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat

Verbs 75 dota examples:

  • muodota: muodota+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # form)

Verbs 75 mitä examples:

  • lämmitä: lämmitä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # heat)

Verbs 75 lota examples:

  • aallota: aallota+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # wave)

Verbs 75 litä examples:

  • hellitä: hellitä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # loose)

Vowel stems with t:s variation

Verbs 76 back examples:

  • taitaa: taitaa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # can)

Verbs 76 front examples:

  • tietää: tietää+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # know)

Verbs with defective paradigms

For some verbs, the normative inflection does not allow full set of forms:

Verbs 77 back examples:

  • vipajaa: vipajaa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # thump)

Verbs 77 front examples:

  • heläjää: heläjää+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # chime)

Verbs 78 back examples:

  • raikaa: raikaa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # baum)

Verbs 78 front examples:

  • ähkää: ähkää+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # meh)

Verbs with exceptional inflection patterns

There is a handful of verbs that does not fit to the patterns of old dictionaries.

The verb olla has very peculiar and heteroclitic inflection with lot of common short forms in standard spoken Finnish:

Verb olla examples:

  • olla: olla+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # be)
  • lienen: olla+V+Act+Pot+Sg1
  • lie: olla+V+Act+Pot+ConNeg
  • olija: olla+V+Der/ja+Sg+Nom

Verb inflection proper

Present vowel stems

  • kutoa: kutoa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # knit)
  • kudon: kutoa+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg1
  • yltää: yltää+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # reach)
  • yllän: yltää+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg1

The strong form of present indicative endings in strong stems and ma infinitive, and maisilla derivation (nee infinitive).

Verb strong present back examples:

  • kutovat: kutoa+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Pl3
  • kutomatta: kutoa+V+Act+InfMa+Sg+Abe

Verb strong present front examples:

  • yltävät: yltää+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Pl3
  • yltämättä: yltää+V+Act+InfMa+Sg+Abe

Verb 3rd singular forms

The third singular form of present tense has few allomorphs according to preceding vowel context, either lengthening or zero after long vowel stem:

Verb 3rd singular a examples:

  • rakentaa: rakentaa+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg3 (Eng. # builds)

Verb 3rd singular e back examples:

  • tulee: tulla+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg3 (Eng. # comes)

Verb 3rd singular e front examples:

  • menee: mennä+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg3 (Eng. # goes)

Verb 3rd singular i back examples:

  • munii: munia+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg3 (Eng. # lays eggs)

Verb 3rd singular e front examples:

  • rämpii: rämpiä+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg3 (Eng. # hikes)

Verb 3rd singular o back examples:

  • kutoo: kutoa+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg3

Verb 3rd singular u back examples:

  • viruu: virua+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg3 (Eng. # stretches)

Verb 3rd singular y examples:

  • kääntyy: kääntyä+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg3 (Eng. # turns)

Verb 3rd singular ö examples:

  • säilöö: säilöä+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg3 (Eng. # conserves)

Verb 3rd singular ä examples:

  • vääntää: vääntää+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg3 (Eng. # twist)

Past forms

Verb past back examples:

  • kudoin: kutoa+V+Act+Ind+Prt+Sg1

Verb past front examples:

  • ylsin: yltää+V+Act+Ind+Prt+Sg1

Verb past back strong examples:

  • kutoivat: kutoa+V+Act+Ind+Prt+Pl3

Verb past front strong examples:

  • ylsivät: yltää+V+Act+Ind+Prt+Pl3


Verb imperative back examples:

  • kutokaa: kutoa+V+Act+Imprt+Pl2

Verb imperative front examples:

  • yltäkää: yltää+V+Act+Imprt+Pl2


Verb conditional back examples:

  • kutoisin: kutoa+V+Act+Cond+Sg1

Verb conditional front examples:

  • yltäisin: yltää+V+Act+Cond+Sg1


Verb potential n back examples:

  • kutonen: kutoa+V+Act+Pot+Sg1

Verb potential n front examples:

  • yltänen: yltää+V+Act+Pot+Sg1

Verb potential s back examples:

  • juossen: juosta+V+Act+Pot+Sg1 (Eng. # I might run)

Verb potential s front examples:

  • päässen: päästä+V+Act+Pot+Sg1 (Eng. # I might be able to)

Verb potential l back examples:

  • tullen: tulla+V+Act+Pot+Sg1

Verb potential l front examples:

  • kävellen: kävellä+V+Act+Pot+Sg1 (Eng. # I might walk)

Verb potential r back examples:

  • surren: surra+V+Act+Pot+Sg1 (Eng. # I might be sad)

Verb potential r front examples:

  • pierren: pierrä+V+Act+Pot+Sg1 (Eng. # I might fart)

Passive forms

The passive forms usually contain -ta-, -tä-, -da-, -dä-, element in them. The variation between the realisations is one key factor of determining the classification of the verb roots.

Verb passive back examples:

  • kudottiin: kutoa+V+Pss+Ind+Prt+Pe4
  • juostiin: juosta+V+Pss+Ind+Prt+Pe4

Verb passive front examples:

  • nähtiin: nähdä+V+Pss+Ind+Prt+Pe4

The form of present passive assimilates leftwards, varying between -ta, -tä, -da, -dä, -la, -lä, -ra, -rä, -na, -nä.

Verb passive back t examples:

  • juostaan: juosta+V+Pss+Ind+Prs+Pe4

Verb passive front t examples:

  • ylletään: yltää+V+Pss+Ind+Prs+Pe4

Verb passive back d examples:

  • kopioidaan: kopioida+V+Pss+Ind+Prs+Pe4 (Eng. # copy-passive)

Verb passive front d examples:

  • nähdään: nähdä+V+Pss+Ind+Prs+Pe4

Verb passive back l examples:

  • vuollaan: vuolla+V+Pss+Ind+Prs+Pe4 (Eng. # carve wood-passive)

Verb passive front l examples:

  • niellään: niellä+V+Pss+Ind+Prs+Pe4 (Eng. # swallow-passive)

Verb passive back r examples:

  • surraan: surra+V+Pss+Ind+Prs+Pe4 (Eng. # sorrow-passive)

Verb passive front r examples:

  • pierrään: pierrä+V+Pss+Ind+Prs+Pe4 (Eng. # fart-passive)

Verb passive back n examples:

  • pannaan: panna+V+Pss+Ind+Prs+Pe4 (Eng. # put-passive)

Verb passive front n examples:

  • mennään: mennä+V+Pss+Ind+Prs+Pe4

Infinite verb forms

Verb a infinitive examples:

  • juoda: juoda+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat (Eng. # drink)

Verb ä infinitive examples:

  • nähdä: nähdä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Lat

Verb E infinitive back examples:

  • kutoessa: kutoa+V+Act+InfE+Sg+Ine

Verb E infinitive front examples:

  • yltäessä: yltää+V+Act+InfE+Sg+Ine


Verb nut participle passive tu examples:

  • valkaistu: valkaista+V+Pss+PrfPrc+Sg+Nom (Eng. # bleached)

Verb nut participle passive ty examples:

  • häpäisty: häpäistä+V+Pss+PrfPrc+Sg+Nom (Eng. # sacrileged)

Verb nut participle passive tu~u examples:

  • huudettu: huutaa+V+Pss+PrfPrc+Sg+Nom (Eng. # yelled)

Verb nut participle passive ty~y examples:

  • ylennetty: ylentää+V+Pss+PrfPrc+Sg+Nom (Eng. # promoted)

Verb nut participle passive tu~du examples:

  • viipaloitu: viipaloida+V+Pss+PrfPrc+Sg+Nom (Eng. # sliced)

Verb nut participle passive ty~dy examples:

  • yksilöity: yksilöidä+V+Pss+PrfPrc+Sg+Nom (Eng. # singled out)

Verb nut participle passive tu~lu examples:

  • paranneltu: parannella+V+Pss+PrfPrc+Sg+Nom (Eng. # embettered)

Verb nut participle passive ty~ly examples:

  • vähätelty: vähätellä+V+Pss+PrfPrc+Sg+Nom (Eng. # belittled)

Verb nut participle passive tu~nu examples:

  • pantu: panna+V+Pss+PrfPrc+Sg+Nom (Eng. # put)

Verb nut participle passive ty~ny examples:

  • menty: mennä+V+Pss+PrfPrc+Sg+Nom (Eng. # went)

Verb nut participle passive tu~ru examples:

  • purtu: purra+V+Pss+PrfPrc+Sg+Nom (Eng. # bitten)

Verb nut participle passive ty~ry examples:

  • pierty: pierrä+V+Pss+PrfPrc+Sg+Nom

Possessives for infinite verb forms

Verb possessive front examples:

  • kutoakseni: kutoa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Tra+PxSg1
  • kutoessasi: kutoa+V+Act+InfE+Sg+Ine+PxSg2

Verb possessive back examples:

  • nähdäkseni: nähdä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Tra+PxSg1
  • nähdessäsi: nähdä+V+Act+InfE+Sg+Ine+PxSg2

Verb possessive back an examples:

  • kutomattaan: kutoa+V+Act+InfMa+Sg+Abe+PxSg3

Verb possessive back en examples:

  • kutoakseen: kutoa+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Tra+PxPl3

Verb possessive front en examples:

  • nähdäkseen: nähdä+V+Act+InfA+Sg+Tra+PxPl3

Verb possessive back än examples:

  • näkemättään: nähdä+V+Act+InfMa+Sg+Abe+PxSg3

Verb clitics

Verbs clitic back examples:

  • kudonhan: kutoa+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg1+Foc/han
  • kudotko: kutoa+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg2+Qst

Verbs clitic front examples:

  • näenhän: nähdä+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg1+Foc/han
  • näetkö: nähdä+V+Act+Ind+Prs+Sg2+Qst

Deverbal derivations

Part of the deverbal derivation system in Finnish is so regular that it has been included as part of inflectional morphology in many traditional systems. These derivations are treated as inflection in our system as well.

-minen, "Fourth infinitive"


Verbs participle back examples:

  • kutomani: kutoa+V+AgPrc+Sg+Nom+PxSg1
  • kutomaton: kutoa+V+NegPrc+Sg+Nom
  • kutova: kutoa+V+Act+PrsPrc+Sg+Nom

Verbs participle front examples:

  • näkemäni: nähdä+V+AgPrc+Sg+Nom+PxSg1
  • näkemätön: nähdä+V+NegPrc+Sg+Nom
  • näkevä: nähdä+V+Act+PrsPrc+Sg+Nom
  • "Force hyphen between vowels"