liv

Free and Open source Liv analyser giella-liv

Authors
Renate Blumberga and Jack Rueter in cooperation with the Divvun and Giellatekno teams, community members
Software version
2012
Documentation license
GNU GFDL
SVN Revision
$Revision:68217 $
SVN Date
$Date:2013-01-16 11:31:33 +0200 (Wed, 16 Jan 2013) $

giella-liv

This is free and open source Liv morphology.

Morphology

INTRODUCTION TO THE MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSER OF LIVONIAN.

List of the multichar symbols

The morphological analyses of wordforms in Livonian are presented in this system in terms of following symbols.

(It is highly suggested to follow existing GIELLATEKNO standards when adding new tags).

The parts-of-speech are:

  • +A = adjective
  • +Adp = adposition
  • +Adv = adverb
  • +CS = subordinating conjunction
  • +CC = coordinating conjunction
  • +Interj = interjection
  • +N = noun
  • +Num = numeral
  • +Pcle = particle
  • +Pr = preposition
  • +Po = postposition
  • +Pron = pronoun
  • +Qnt = quantifier
  • +V = verb

Parts of speech are further split up into:

Nouns

  • +Prop = proper nouns

Pronouns

  • +Dem = demonstrative
  • +Indef = indefinite
  • +Interr = interrogative
  • +Pers = personal
  • +Recipr = reciprocal
  • +Refl = reflexive
  • +Rel = relative

Nominals are inflected for Number and Case

Number

  • +Sg = singular
  • +Pl = plural

Case

  • +Abe = abessive
  • +Abl = ablative case
  • +Ade = adessive
  • +All = allative
  • +Dat = dative case
  • +Ela = elative
  • +Ess = essive
  • +Exe = essive
  • +Gen = genitive case
  • +Ill = illative
  • +Ine = inessive
  • +Ins = instrumental -KÕKS
  • +Instr = instructive -IN
  • +Lat = Lative
  • +Nom = nominative case
  • +Par = partitive
  • +Prl = prolative
  • +Tra = translative
  • +Voc = Vocative

Possession is marked as such:

  • +PxSg1
  • +PxSg2
  • +PxSg3
  • +PxPl1
  • +PxPl2
  • +PxPl3

The comparative forms are:

  • +Pos
  • +Comp
  • +Superl

Numerals are classified under:

  • +Attr
  • +Card
  • +Ord

Verb moods are:

  • +Cond = conditional
  • +Ind = indicative
  • +Imprt = imperative
  • +ImprtII
  • +Jus = jussitive
  • +Quo = quotative, quoted speech

Tenses

  • +Prs
  • +Prt

Voice

  • +Act = active
  • +Pss = passive

Verb personal forms are:

  • +Sg1 = first person singular conjugation
  • +Sg2 = second person singular conjugation
  • +Sg3 = third person singular conjugation
  • +Pl1 = first person plural conjugation
  • +Pl2 = second person plural conjugation
  • +Pl3 = third person plural conjugation

Other verb forms are

  • +ConNeg = connegative, main verb complement to Neg,
  • +Ger = gerund
  • +Inf = infinitive
  • +Neg = verb of negation эзь, аволь, иля
  • +Prc = participle CHECK! how is this used ?
  • +PrsPrc
  • +PrfPrc
  • +Sup
  • +VGen
  • +VAbess
  • +Aux = Auxiliary verb

Verbs are syntactically split according to transitivity:

  • +TV = Transitive verb
  • +IV = Intransitive verb

Usage extents are marked using following tags:

  • +Err/Orth
  • +Use/-Spell

Abbreviated words are classified with:

  • +ABBR containing period
  • +Symbol = independent symbols in the text stream, like £, €, ©
  • +ACR acronyms, not containing period

Special symbols are classified with:

  • +CLB
  • +PUNCT
  • +LEFT
  • +RIGHT

Special multiword units are analysed with:

  • +Multi

Normative/prescriptive compounding tags

(to govern compound behaviour for the speller, ie what a compound SHOULD BE):

The first part of the component may be ..

  • +CmpN/Sg Sg
  • +CmpN/SgN SgNominative
  • +CmpN/SgG SgGenitive
  • +CmpN/PlG PlGenitive

This entry / word can ...

  • +CmpNP/All - ... be in all positions, default, this tag does not have to be written
  • +CmpNP/First - ... only be first part in a compound or alone
  • +CmpNP/Pref - ... only first part in a compound, NEVER alone
  • +CmpNP/Last - ... only be last part in a compound or alone
  • +CmpNP/Suff - ... only last part in a compound, NEVER alone
  • +CmpNP/None - ... not take part in compounds
  • +CmpNP/Only - ... only be part of a compound, i.e. can never be used alone, but can appear in any position

Non-dictionary words can be recognised with:

  • +Guess

Question and Focus particles:

  • +Qst
  • +Foc
  • +Sem/Act Activity
  • +Sem/Amount Amount
  • +Sem/Ani Animate
  • +Sem/Aniprod Animal Product
  • +Sem/Body Bodypart
  • +Sem/Body-abstr siellu, vuoig?a, jierbmi
  • +Sem/Build Building
  • +Sem/Build-part Part of Bulding, like the closet
  • +Sem/Cat Category
  • +Sem/Clth Clothes
  • +Sem/Clth-jewl Jewelery
  • +Sem/Clth-part part of clothes, boallu, sávdnji...
  • +Sem/Ctain Container
  • +Sem/Ctain-abstr Abstract container like bank account
  • +Sem/Ctain-clth
  • +Sem/Curr Currency like dollár, Not Money
  • +Sem/Dance Dance
  • +Sem/Dir Direction like GPS-kursa
  • +Sem/Domain Domain like politics, reindeerherding (a system of actions)
  • +Sem/Drink Drink
  • +Sem/Dummytag Dummytag
  • +Sem/Edu Educational event
  • +Sem/Event Event
  • +Sem/Feat Feature, like Árvu
  • +Sem/Feat-phys Physiological feature, ivdni, fárda
  • +Sem/Feat-psych Psychological feauture
  • +Sem/Feat-measr Psychological feauture
  • +Sem/Fem Female name
  • +Sem/Food Food
  • +Sem/Food-med Medicine
  • +Sem/Furn Furniture
  • +Sem/Game Game
  • +Sem/Geom Geometrical object
  • +Sem/Group Animal or Human Group
  • +Sem/Hum Human
  • +Sem/Hum-abstr Human abstract
  • +Sem/Ideol Ideology
  • +Sem/Lang Language
  • +Sem/Mal Male name
  • +Sem/Mat Material for producing things
  • +Sem/Measr Measure
  • +Sem/Money Has to do with money, like wages, not Curr(ency)
  • +Sem/Obj Object
  • +Sem/Obj-clo Cloth
  • +Sem/Obj-cogn Cloth
  • +Sem/Obj-el (Electrical) machine or apparatus
  • +Sem/Obj-ling Object with something written on it
  • +Sem/Obj-rope flexible ropelike object
  • +Sem/Obj-surfc Surface object
  • +Sem/Org Organisation
  • +Sem/Part Feature, oassi, bealli
  • +Sem/Perc-cogn Cognative perception
  • +Sem/Perc-emo Emotional perception
  • +Sem/Perc-phys Physical perception
  • +Sem/Perc-psych Physical perception
  • +Sem/Plant Plant
  • +Sem/Plant-part Plant part
  • +Sem/Plc Place
  • +Sem/Plc-abstr Abstract place
  • +Sem/Plc-elevate Place
  • +Sem/Plc-line Place
  • +Sem/Plc-water Place
  • +Sem/Pos Position (as in social position job)
  • +Sem/Process Process
  • +Sem/Prod Product
  • +Sem/Prod-audio Audio product
  • +Sem/Prod-cogn Cognition product
  • +Sem/Prod-ling Linguistic product
  • +Sem/Prod-vis Visual product
  • +Sem/Rel Relation
  • +Sem/Route Name of a Route
  • +Sem/Rule Rule or convention
  • +Sem/Semcon Semantic concept
  • +Sem/Sign Sign (e.g. numbers, punctuation)
  • +Sem/Sport Sport
  • +Sem/State
  • +Sem/State-sick Illness
  • +Sem/Substnc Substance, like Air and Water
  • +Sem/Sur Surname
  • +Sem/Symbol Symbol
  • +Sem/Time Time
  • +Sem/Tool Prototypical tool for repairing things
  • +Sem/Tool-catch Tool used for catching (e.g. fish)
  • +Sem/Tool-clean Tool used for cleaning
  • +Sem/Tool-it Tool used in IT
  • +Sem/Tool-measr Tool used for measuring
  • +Sem/Tool-music Music instrument
  • +Sem/Tool-write Writing tool
  • +Sem/Txt Text (girji, lávlla...)
  • +Sem/Veh Vehicle
  • +Sem/Wpn Weapon
  • +Sem/Wthr The Weather or the state of ground

Semantics are classified with

Derivations are classified under the morphophonetic form of the suffix, the source and target part-of-speech.

  • +V→N
  • +V→V
  • +V→A
  • +Der/xxx
  • +Der/A for example present participle to adjective
  • +Der/VN

Symbols that need to be escaped on the lower side (towards twolc):

»7
Literal »
«7
Literal «
  %[%>%]  - Literal >
  %[%<%]  - Literal <

Morphophonology

To represent phonologic variations in word forms we use the following symbols in the lexicon files:

  • {aä} back/front a
  • {oö} back/front o
  • {uü} back/front u
  • {uü} for consonant lengthening

And following triggers to control variation

  • %^PenVV2V penultimate vowel shortening
  • %^Ē2ĪE kēļ kīel
  • {front} = front vowels
  • {back} = back vowels
  • %^Tense = Tense stem will have stød if proper stem type
  • %^ConsL = Consonant lengthening
  • %^1Sh2L =
  • %^D2T d: t veʼž: veʼd: vietā
  • %^PreI i: 0 veʼž: veʼd: vietā
  • %^VowShIn1 This causes vowel shortening in 1. syll accompanied by coda consonant lengthening
  • %^A2ÕIn2 This causes 2. syll a => õ
  • %^ConsSh =
  • %^Stress1to2 =
  • %^Stress2to1 =
  • %^VowsSh1 = vowel shortening in first syllable
  • %^VowsShU1 =
  • %^VowsShI1 =
  • %^DiphthSh1 =
  • %^VowsLI1 = Vowel lengthening
  • %^VowsLU1 =
  • %^VowsL1 =
  • %^LongV2Õin2 = long vowel to õ in second syllable
  • %^Vow2Iin2 = vowel to i or ī in second syllable
  • %^VowsõToi kīndõr: kīndiriž
  • %^DiphthL1 =
  • %^D2Ž = The *ti => *si
  • %^D2ZERO The d => 0
  • %^LowerVows lower vowel
  • %^RVows = Vowel raising
  • %^VowsMetath = vowel metathesis in verbs
  • %^VowsMRM Vow in middle ētam: eitmõd
  • %^VowsRM =
  • %^ConsRM =
  • %^StodRM = for removing Stød
  • %^PalatalizeLeft =
  • %^VowsL1aToǭ = a >> ǭ

Flag diacritics

We have manually optimised the structure of our lexicon using following flag diacritics to restrict morhpological combinatorics - only allow compounds with verbs if the verb is further derived into a noun again:

@P.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@D.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@C.NeedNoun@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised

For languages that allow compounding, the following flag diacritics are needed to control position-based compounding restrictions for nominals. Their use is handled automatically if combined with +CmpN/xxx tags. If not used, they will do no harm.

@P.CmpFrst.FALSE@ Require that words tagged as such only appear first
@D.CmpPref.TRUE@ Block such words from entering ENDLEX
@P.CmpPref.FALSE@ Block these words from making further compounds
@D.CmpLast.TRUE@ Block such words from entering R
@D.CmpNone.TRUE@ Combines with the next tag to prohibit compounding
@U.CmpNone.FALSE@ Combines with the prev tag to prohibit compounding
@P.CmpOnly.TRUE@ Sets a flag to indicate that the word has passed R
@D.CmpOnly.FALSE@ Disallow words coming directly from root.

Use the following flag diacritics to control downcasing of derived proper nouns (e.g. Finnish Pariisi -> pariisilainen). See e.g. North Sámi for how to use these flags. There exists a ready-made regex that will do the actual down-casing given the proper use of these flags.

@U.Cap.Obl@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.
@U.Cap.Opt@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.

Root lexicon

The word forms in Livonian start from the lexeme roots of basic word classes

  • adjectives ;
  • adpositions ;
  • adverbs ;
  • conjunctors ;
  • interjections ;
  • nouns ;
  • particles ;
  • pronouns ;
  • propernouns ;
  • quantifiers ;
  • verbs ;
  • Abbreviation ;
  • Acronym ;
  • Punctuation ;
  • Symbols ;
  • EXCEPTIONS ;
  • A_NEWWORDS ; This is for feeding new adjectives
  • ADV_NEWWORDS ; This is for feeding new adverbs
  • N_NEWWORDS ; This is for feeding new nouns
  • PROP_NEWWORDS ; This is for feeding new propernouns
  • V_NEWWORDS ; This is for feeding new verbs
  • QUESTIONABLEMISC_NEWWORDS ; This is for feeding new words of questionable status

Lexica for words that are not inflected

These are but here for the time being

adverb lexicon

  • LEXICON ADV_KĒRATÕKS
  • LEXICON ADV_KǬRAND
  • LEXICON ADV_IRM

Interjections lexicon

pcle-mod lexicon

pcle-lexicon

This is used in compounding, e.g. äʼb-:äʼb

  • LEXICON K is the clitic lexicon, but no clitica here, only #.

Adjective inflection

Livonian adjectives compare.

modifiers that do not decline

Stem lexica

LEXICON A_PŪ contains pū: 12

LEXICON A_TĪE contains tīe: tīe 15

LEXICON A_BRĪ contains brī: brī 16

LEXICON A_KALĀ contains kalā: kaʼlā 18

LEXICON A_TUBĀ tubā: tuʼbā 19

LEXICON A_AIGĀ aigā: aigā 20

LEXICON A_LĒBA lēba: lēba 21

LEXICON A_KŪJA kūja: ??lēba 21

LEXICON A_IZĀ izā: izā 25

LEXICON A_OKSĀ oksā: oksā 30

LEXICON A_ĀIGA āiga: āiga 33

LEXICON A_SĪLMA sīlma: sīlma 34

LEXICON A_PADĀ padā: padā 39

LEXICON A_KÄPĀ käpā: käpā 41

LEXICON A_MAKSĀ maksā: maksā 42

LEXICON A_KĒRA kēra: kēra 43

LEXICON A_JǬRA jǭra: jǭra 44

LEXICON A_PŪOLA pūola: pūola 45

LEXICON A_ĀITA āita: āita 46

LEXICON A_ŪŠKA ūška: ūška 47

LEXICON A_MȬKA mȭka: mȭka 48

LEXICON A_DADŽĀ dadžā: dadžā 49

LEXICON A_TĪERA tīera: tīera 54

LEXICON A_LILLA kuțā: kuțā 57

LEXICON A_KIʼV kiʼv: kiv 59

LEXICON A_PIʼŅ piʼņ: piņ 64

LEXICON A_OKŠ : 68

LEXICON A_KAŠ : 69

LEXICON A_TORĪ torī: 71

LEXICON A_KÕʼL kõʼl: kõl 73

LEXICON A_NIʼM niʼm: nim 76

LEXICON A_KAND kand: 94

LEXICON A_UL ul: 99

LEXICON A_NIŖȚ niŗț: 102

LEXICON A_DAŅTŠ daņtš: 105

LEXICON A_TÄUŽ täuž: adres 112

LEXICON A_SIELDÕ sieldõ: 118

LEXICON A_NǬʼGÕ nǭʼgõ: nǭgõ 119

LEXICON A_AŠŠÕ : 120

LEXICON A_DRŪʼOŠÕ drūʼošõ: drūošõ 121

LEXICON A_IRM : 125

LEXICON A_KIM : 126

LEXICON A_VAʼIT vaʼit: vait 128

LEXICON A_AMĀT : 129

LEXICON A_SAʼGDIT saʼgdit: sagdit 131

LEXICON A_VIĻȚ : 132

LEXICON A_EĻ eļ: 133

LEXICON A_BLĒʼḐ blēʼḑ: blēḑ 134

LEXICON A_FAKT : 135

LEXICON A_SĪEND sīend: 138

LEXICON A_LǞʼND lǟʼnd: lǟnd 139

LEXICON A_ĀIGAST āigast: 140

LEXICON A_ANALĪZ analīz: 141

LEXICON A_NĪʼEM nīʼem: nīem 142

LEXICON A_VIŠ : 144

LEXICON A_SIDĀM : 157

LEXICON A_TŪOITÕG : 158

LEXICON A_KǬRAND kǭrand: 159

  • Yaml: armtõb

LEXICON A_ȬʼDÕG ȭʼdõg: ȭdõg 160

LEXICON A_TAPTÕD taptõd: 161

LEXICON A_TĪʼEDÕD tīʼedõd: tīedõd 162

LEXICON A_MĪEZ : 166

LEXICON A_KÄBRĀZ : 168

LEXICON A_MAIGĀZ : 169

LEXICON A_NÕTKĀZ : 170

LEXICON A_RIKĀZ : 171

LEXICON A_ĀMBAZ āmbaz: āmba 173

LEXICON A_PŪŖAZ : 174

LEXICON A_PǬĻAZ : 175

LEXICON A_MÕTKÕZ mõtkõz: 179

LEXICON A_VȬRÕZ vȭrõz: 180

LEXICON A_ARĀGÕZ : 181

LEXICON A_ÄʼGGÕZ ä'ggõz: äggõz 182

LEXICON A_PŪʼDÕZ pūʼdõz: pūdõz 183

LEXICON A_SĒJI : 186 āndaji: āndaji sēji: sēji

LEXICON A_AKKIJI akkiji: akkiji 187

LEXICON A_LĒʼJI lēʼji: lēʼji 188

LEXICON A_AʼIGI aʼigi: aigi 192

LEXICON A_PUʼNNI pu'nni: punni 193

LEXICON A_KAȚKI : 194

LEXICON A_KUKKI : 195

LEXICON A_AIGI aigi: aigi 196

LEXICON A_OUKI : 197

LEXICON A_PAŖĪ : 198

LEXICON A_TŪĻI : 199

LEXICON A_AʼBLI aʼbli: abli 200

LEXICON A_SĒMI : 201

LEXICON A_LĒʼMI lē'mi: lēʼmi 202

LEXICON A_ALĪZ : 203

LEXICON A_KĒRATÕKS : 207

LEXICON A_VARĪKŠ varīkš: 209

LEXICON A_ŪŽ : 219 ūž: ūd

LEXICON A_JŪŖ jūŗ: jūr 221

LEXICON A_SŪR sūr: sūr 222

LEXICON A_SALĀJ : 225

LEXICON A_UMĀRZ umārz: umār 226

LEXICON A_DULLÕNZ dullõnz: dullõn 227

LEXICON A_AŅGÕRZ : aņgõrz: aņgõr 229

LEXICON A_TIDĀR tidār: tidār 233

LEXICON A_APPÕN appõn: appõn 235

LEXICON A_ǬʼRÕN ǭʼrõn: ǭrõn 236

LEXICON A_KĪNDÕR kīndõr: kīndõr 237

LEXICON A_BÄʼZMÕR bäʼzmõr: bäzmõr 238

LEXICON A_TARĪĻ tarīļ: tarīļ 239

LEXICON A_ĀNKAŖ ānkaŗ: ānkaŗ 240

LEXICON A_ǬʼBIĻ ǭʼbiļ: ǭbiļ 242

Livonian noun inflection

PROBLEMS with dictionary lexica

  • LEXICON N _
  • LEXICON N_¤51
  • LEXICON N_37
  • LEXICON N_¤29

Stem lexica

  • LEXICON N_PŪ contains pū: 12 ~156
  • LEXICON N_PŪ-PL contains pū: 12
  • LEXICON N_RǬʼ contains rǭʼ: rǭʼ 13
  • LEXICON N_PǞ contains pǟ: pǟ 14
  • LEXICON N_TĪE contains tīe: tīe 15
  • LEXICON N_TĪE-PL contains tīe: tīe 15
  • LEXICON N_BRĪ contains brī: brī 16
  • LEXICON N_TEI contains tei: tei 17
  • LEXICON N_KUŖĒ contains kuŗē: kuʼŗŗē 18
  • LEXICON N_KUŖĒ-SG contains kuŗē: kuʼŗŗē 18
  • LEXICON N_KUŖĒ-PL contains kuŗē: kuʼŗŗē 18
  • LEXICON N_KALĀ contains kalā: kaʼlā 18
  • LEXICON N_KALĀ-SG contains kalā: kaʼlā 18
  • LEXICON N_KALĀ-PL contains kalā: kaʼlā 18
  • LEXICON N_TUBĀ tubā: tuʼbā 19
  • LEXICON N_TUBĀ-SG tubā: tuʼbā 19
  • LEXICON N_TUBĀ-PL tubā: tuʼbā 19
  • LEXICON N_AIGĀ aigā: aigā 20
  • LEXICON N_LĒBA lēba: leiba 21
  • LEXICON N_KŪJA kūja: lēba 21
  • LEXICON N_PŪOGA pūoga: pūoga 22
  • LEXICON N_LǬJA lǭja: lǭja 23
  • LEXICON N_LǬJA-SG lǭja: lǭja 23
  • LEXICON N_LǬJA-PL lǭja: lǭja 23
  • LEXICON N_PǞVA pǟva: pǟva 24
  • LEXICON N_PǞVA-PL pǟva: pǟva 24
  • LEXICON N_IZĀ izā: izā 25
  • LEXICON N_PIEZĀ piezā: pieʼzzā 25
  • LEXICON N_AŽĀ ažā: aʼžā 26
  • LEXICON N_AŽĀ-SG ažā: aʼžā 26
  • LEXICON N_AŽĀ-PL ažā: aʼžā 26
  • LEXICON N_ĀĻDŽA āļdža: āļdža 27
  • LEXICON N_ĀĻDŽA-SG āļdža: āļdža 27
  • LEXICON N_ĀĻDŽA-PL āļdža: āļdža 27
  • LEXICON N_SUKĀ sukā: sukā 28
  • LEXICON N_LIEPĀ liepā: liepā 29
  • LEXICON N_OKSĀ oksā: oksā 30
  • LEXICON N_VȰNTSA vȱntsa: vȱntsa 31
  • LEXICON N_LIESTĀ liestā: liestā 32
  • LEXICON N_ĀIGA āiga: āiga 33
  • LEXICON N_LĀNGA lānga: lānga 33
  • LEXICON N_SĪLMA sīlma: sīlma 34
  • LEXICON N_SĪLMA-PL sīlma: sīlma 34
  • LEXICON N_KǞNGA kǟnga: kǟnga 35
  • LEXICON N_ĀINA āina: āina 36
  • LEXICON N_ĀINA-SG āina: āina 36
  • LEXICON N_ĀINA-PL āina: āina 36
  • LEXICON N_VĒNA vēna: vēna 37
  • LEXICON N_RŌDA rōda: rōda 38
  • LEXICON N_RŌDA-PL rōda: rōda 38
  • LEXICON N_PADĀ padā: padā 39
  • LEXICON N_PADĀ-SG padā: padā 39
  • LEXICON N_PADĀ-PL padā: padā 39
  • LEXICON N_SÕBRĀ sõbrā: sõbrā 40
  • LEXICON N_SÕBRĀ-SG sõbrā: sõbrā 40
  • LEXICON N_SÕBRĀ-PL sõbrā: sõbrā 40
  • LEXICON N_KÄPĀ käpā: käpā 41
  • LEXICON N_KÄPĀ-SG käpā: käpā 41
  • LEXICON N_KÄPĀ-PL käpā: käpā 41
  • LEXICON N_MAKSĀ maksā: maksā 42
  • LEXICON N_MAKSĀ-PL maksā: maksā 42
  • LEXICON N_KĒRA kēra: kēra 43
  • LEXICON N_JǬRA jǭra: jǭra 44
  • LEXICON N_JǬRA-PL jǭra: jǭra 44
  • LEXICON N_PŪOLA pūola: pūola 45
  • LEXICON N_ĀITA āita: āita 46
  • LEXICON N_ĀITA-PL āita: āita 46
  • LEXICON N_ŪŠKA ūška: ūška 47
  • LEXICON N_MȬKA mȭka: mȭka 48
  • LEXICON N_DADŽĀ dadžā: daʼdžā 49
  • LEXICON N_DADŽĀ-SG dadžā: daʼdžā 49
  • LEXICON N_DADŽĀ-PL dadžā: daʼdžā 49
  • LEXICON N_SUŠĀ sušā: sušā 50
  • LEXICON N_KUPŠĀ kupšā: kupšā 51
  • LEXICON N_TŠŪRTŠA tšūrtša: tšūrtša 52
  • LEXICON N_SĒMḐA sēmḑa: sēmḑa 53
  • LEXICON N_TĪERA tīera: tīera 54
  • LEXICON N_KRǬIPA krǭipa: krǭipa 55
  • LEXICON N_LILLA kuțā: kuțā 57
  • LEXICON N_KUȚĀ kuțā: kuțā 57
  • LEXICON N_NĒTŠA nētša: nētša 58
  • LEXICON N_KIʼV kiʼv: kiv 59
  • LEXICON N_KUOʼIG kuoʼig: kuoʼig 60
  • LEXICON N_KEP kep: kep aʼb 61
  • LEXICON N_KEP-SG kep: kep aʼb 61
  • LEXICON N_KEP-PL kep: kep aʼb 61
  • LEXICON N_KRUȚK: 62
  • LEXICON N_KRÄMP: 63
  • LEXICON N_PIʼŅ piʼņ: piņ 64
  • LEXICON N_PIʼŅ-SG piʼņ: piņ 64
  • LEXICON N_PIʼŅ-PL piʼņ: piņ 64
  • LEXICON N_KUOȚ: 65
  • LEXICON N_KUOȚ-PL: 65
  • LEXICON N_VAKȚ: 66
  • LEXICON N_REŅ: 67
  • LEXICON N_OKŠ: 68
  • LEXICON N_KAŠ: 69
  • LEXICON N_DUŅTŠ: 70
  • LEXICON N_TORĪ: 71
  • LEXICON N_VAʼG vaʼg: vag 72
  • LEXICON N_VAʼG-PL vaʼg: vag 72
  • LEXICON N_KÕʼL kõʼl: kõl 73
  • LEXICON N_SUʼG suʼg: sug 74
  • LEXICON N_JOʼUG joʼug: joug 75
  • LEXICON N_NIʼM niʼm: nim 76
  • LEXICON N_NIʼM-PL niʼm: nim 76
  • LEXICON N_USK usk: 77
  • LEXICON N_VAŠK: 78
  • LEXICON N_TUP tup: tup 79
  • LEXICON N_TUP-SG tup: tup 79
  • LEXICON N_TUP-PL tup: tup 79
  • LEXICON N_MAKS: 80
  • LEXICON N_MAKS-PL: 80
  • LEXICON N_LUʼM luʼm: lum 81
  • LEXICON N_MIEʼR mieʼr: mier 82
  • LEXICON N_MEʼR meʼr: mer 83
  • LEXICON N_MUʼR muʼr: mur 84
  • LEXICON N_KUOʼD kuoʼd: kuod aig 85
  • LEXICON N_SUʼŽ suʼž: suž 86
  • LEXICON N_KEʼŽ keʼž: kež aim 87
  • LEXICON N_VEʼŽ veʼž: veʼž 88
  • LEXICON N_KUʼŽ kuʼž: kuž 89
  • LEXICON N_RUZŪ: 90
  • LEXICON N_RADIO: 91
  • LEXICON N_ANG: 92
  • LEXICON N_KOUV: 93
  • LEXICON N_KAND: 94 kand: kand
  • LEXICON N_KAND-SG: 94
  • LEXICON N_KAND-PL: 94
  • LEXICON N_PȮRT: 95
  • LEXICON N_NUŖM: 96
  • LEXICON N_LAINT: 97
  • LEXICON N_LOUL: 98
  • LEXICON N_UL: 99 ul: ul
  • LEXICON N_PAN: 100
  • LEXICON N_TÄM täm: tam 101
  • LEXICON N_NIŖȚ: 102
  • LEXICON N_KUĻ: 103
  • LEXICON N_PAŅ: 104
  • LEXICON N_DAŅTŠ: 105
  • LEXICON N_KOUŠ: 106
  • LEXICON N_SPLEIŠ: 107
  • LEXICON N_VEIS: 108
  • LEXICON N_PȮIS: 109 pȯis: pȯis
  • LEXICON N_KIĻG: 110
  • LEXICON N_VȮĻG: 111
  • LEXICON N_TÄUŽ täuž: täud adres 112 N_SgGen/d-Nom/ž-Par//ta täuž:täud
  • LEXICON N_TÄUŽ-SG: 116
  • LEXICON N_TÄUŽ-PL: 116
  • LEXICON N_VAŖŽ: 113
  • LEXICON N_PIERZ: 114
  • LEXICON N_VÕRGÕ: 115
  • LEXICON N_JÕUGÕ: 116 N_SgPar/VowsLI1/ța-PlPar/VowsRM/idi jõugõ:jõugõ
  • LEXICON N_JÕUGÕ-SG: 116
  • LEXICON N_JÕUGÕ-PL: 116
  • LEXICON N_VȬIDAG: 117
  • LEXICON N_SIELDÕ: 118
  • LEXICON N_SIELDÕ-PL: 118
  • LEXICON N_NǬʼGÕ nǭʼgõ: nǭgõ 119
  • LEXICON N_NǬʼGÕ-PL nǭʼgõ: nǭgõ 119
  • LEXICON N_AŠŠÕ: 120
  • LEXICON N_AŠŠÕ-SG: 120
  • LEXICON N_AŠŠÕ-PL: 120
  • LEXICON N_DRŪʼOŠÕ drūʼošõ: drūošõ 121
  • LEXICON N_SOʼV: 122
  • LEXICON N_SOʼV-PL: 122
  • LEXICON N_KǬJ: 123
  • LEXICON N_KǬJ-PL: 123
  • LEXICON N_ǬʼJ ǭʼj: ǭj 124
  • LEXICON N_IRM: 125
  • LEXICON N_IRM-PL: 125
  • LEXICON N_KIM: 126
  • LEXICON N_KIM-SG: 126
  • LEXICON N_KIM-PL: 126
  • LEXICON N_VȮŅ: 127
  • LEXICON N_VAʼIT vaʼit: vait 128
  • LEXICON N_VAʼIT-PL vaʼit: vait 128
  • LEXICON N_AMĀT: 129
  • LEXICON N_AMĀT-PL: 129
  • LEXICON N_KULTŪR: 130
  • LEXICON N_SAʼGDIT saʼgdit: sagdit 131
  • LEXICON N_VIĻȚ: 132
  • LEXICON N_VIĻȚ-PL: 132
  • LEXICON N_EĻ: 133
  • LEXICON N_BLĒʼḐ blēʼḑ: blēʼḑ 134
  • LEXICON N_BLĒʼḐ-SG blēʼḑ: blēʼḑ 134
  • LEXICON N_BLĒʼḐ-PL blēʼḑ: blēʼḑ 134
  • LEXICON N_FAKT: 135
  • LEXICON N_FAKT-PL: 135
  • LEXICON N_TAS: 136
  • LEXICON N_NEITST neitst: neits 137
  • LEXICON N_SĪEND: 138
  • LEXICON N_LǞʼND lǟʼnd: lǟnd 139
  • LEXICON N_ĀIGAST: 140
  • LEXICON N_ĀIGAST-PL: 140
  • LEXICON N_ANALĪZ: 141
  • LEXICON N_NĪʼEM nīʼem: nīem 142
  • LEXICON N_JAĻKŠ: 143
  • LEXICON N_JAĻKŠ-PL : 143
  • LEXICON N_VIŠ: 144 viš: viš
  • LEXICON N_VIŠ-SG: 144
  • LEXICON N_VIŠ-PL: 144
  • LEXICON N_RŪʼTŠ rūʼtš: rūtš 145
  • LEXICON N_RŪʼTŠ-PL rūʼtš: rūtš 145
  • LEXICON N_TĒʼḐ tēʼḑ: tēḑ 146
  • LEXICON N_LĒʼḐ lēʼḑ: lēḑ 147
  • LEXICON N_LĒʼḐ-PL lēʼḑ: lēḑ 147
  • LEXICON N_KĪNTŠ: 148
  • LEXICON N_KǬŅTŠ: 149
  • LEXICON N_LĒŅTŠ: 150
  • LEXICON N_LĪEM: 151
  • LEXICON N_AʼM aʼm: am 152
  • LEXICON N_AZŪM: 153 azūm: aʼzūm
  • LEXICON N_AZŪM-SG: 153
  • LEXICON N_AZŪM-PL: 153
  • LEXICON N_VÕȚĪM võțīm: võțīm 154
  • LEXICON N_VÕȚĪM-SG: 154
  • LEXICON N_VÕȚĪM-PL: 154
  • LEXICON N_KǬŅIM: 155
  • LEXICON N_KǬŅIM-SG: 155
  • LEXICON N_KǬŅIM-PL: 155
  • LEXICON N_ĒTAM: 156
  • LEXICON N_ĒTAM-SG: 156
  • LEXICON N_ĒTAM-PL: 156
  • LEXICON N_SIDĀM: 157
  • LEXICON N_SIDĀM-PL : 157
  • LEXICON N_TŪOITÕG: 158
  • LEXICON N_KǬRAND: 159
  • Yaml: armtõb
  • LEXICON N_KǬRAND-SG: 159
  • LEXICON N_KǬRAND-PL: 159
  • LEXICON N_ȬʼDÕG ȭʼdõg: ȭdõg 160
  • LEXICON N_TAPTÕD: 161
  • LEXICON N_TĪʼEDÕD tīʼedõd: tīedõd 162
  • LEXICON N-VĪDÕZ: 163
  • LEXICON N_TUOISTÕNZ: 164
  • LEXICON N_ĪʼDÕKSMÕZ īʼdõksmõz: īdõksmõz 165
  • LEXICON N_MĪEZ: 166
  • LEXICON N_ROʼVZ: 167 roʼvz: roʼv
  • LEXICON N_ROʼVZ-SG: 167 roʼvz: roʼv
  • LEXICON N_ROʼVZ-PL: 167 roʼvz: roʼv
  • LEXICON N_KÄBRĀZ: 168
  • LEXICON N_MAIGĀZ: 169
  • LEXICON N_NÕTKĀZ: 170
  • LEXICON N_RIKĀZ rikāz: 171
  • LEXICON N_RIKĀZ-PL rikāz: 171
  • LEXICON N_BIKŠĀZ: 172
  • LEXICON N_BIKŠĀZ-SG: 172
  • LEXICON N_BIKŠĀZ-PL: 172
  • LEXICON N_ĀMBAZ: 173
  • LEXICON N_ĀMBAZ-PL: 173
  • LEXICON N_PŪŖAZ: 174
  • LEXICON N_PǬĻAZ: 175
  • LEXICON N_RĒNAZ: 176
  • LEXICON N_RĒNAZ-PL : 176
  • LEXICON N_TŌVAZ: 177
  • LEXICON N_PŪORAZ pūoraz: 178
  • LEXICON N_MÕTKÕZ mõtkõz: 179
  • LEXICON N_MÕTKÕZ-PL mõtkõz: 179
  • LEXICON N_VȬRÕZ vȭrõz: vȭrõ 180
  • LEXICON N_VȬRÕZ-SG vȭrõz: vȭrõ 180
  • LEXICON N_VȬRÕZ-PL vȭrõz: vȭrõ 180
  • LEXICON N_ARĀGÕZ: 181 arāgõz: arāgõ
  • LEXICON N_ARĀGÕZ-SG: 181
  • LEXICON N_ARĀGÕZ-PL: 181
  • LEXICON N_ÄʼGGÕZ äʼggõz: äggõz 182
  • LEXICON N_ÄʼGGÕZ-PL äʼggõz: äggõz 182
  • LEXICON N_PŪʼDÕZ pūʼdõz: pūdõz 183
  • LEXICON N_PŪʼDÕZ-PL pūʼdõz: pūdõz 183
  • LEXICON N_VĪETŠÕZ: 184
  • LEXICON N_VĪETŠÕZ-PL: 184
  • LEXICON N_LǬʼTŠÕZ lǭʼtšõz: lǭtšõz 185
  • LEXICON N_SĒJI: 186
  • LEXICON N_AKKIJI akkiji: akkiji 187
  • LEXICON N_AKKIJI-SG: 187
  • LEXICON N_AKKIJI-PL: 187
  • LEXICON N_LĒʼJI lēʼji: lēji 188
  • LEXICON N_LĒʼJI-SG lēʼji: lēji 188
  • LEXICON N_LĒʼJI-PL lēʼji: lēji 188
  • LEXICON N_TUĻĻI: 189
  • LEXICON N_LÄʼBḐI läʼbḑi: läbḑi 190
  • LEXICON N_NAI: 191
  • LEXICON N_AʼIGI aʼigi: aigi 192
  • LEXICON N_AʼIGI-PL aʼigi: aigi 192
  • LEXICON N_PUʼNNI puʼnni: punni 193
  • LEXICON N_PUʼNNI-PL puʼnni: punni 193
  • LEXICON N_KAȚKI kațki: 194
  • LEXICON N_KUKKI kukki: 195
  • LEXICON N_AIGI aigi: aigi 196
  • LEXICON N_OUKI: 197
  • LEXICON N_PAŖĪ: 198
  • LEXICON N_TŪĻI: 199 ~422
  • LEXICON N_TŪĻI-PL: 199
  • LEXICON N_AʼBLI aʼbli: aʼbli 200 ~567
  • LEXICON N_AʼBLI-SG aʼbli: aʼbli 200
  • LEXICON N_AʼBLI-PL aʼbli: aʼbli 200
  • LEXICON N_SĒMI: 201
  • LEXICON N_SĒMI-SG: 201
  • LEXICON N_SĒMI-PL: 201
  • LEXICON N_LĒʼMI lēʼmi: lēʼmi 202
  • LEXICON N_LĒʼMI-SG lēʼmi: lēʼmi 202
  • LEXICON N_LĒʼMI-PL lēʼmi: lēʼmi 202
  • LEXICON N_ALĪZ: 203
  • LEXICON N_ALĪZ-SG: 203
  • LEXICON N_ALĪZ-PL: 203
  • LEXICON N_NȬŖKÕZ: 204
  • LEXICON N_KATŪKS: 205
  • LEXICON N_KATŪKS-PL: 205
  • LEXICON N_ĀNDÕKS āndõks: 206
  • LEXICON N_ĀNDÕKS-PL āndõks: 206
  • LEXICON N_KĒRATÕKS kēratõks: kēratõks 207
  • LEXICON N_ÄʼBȚÕKS äʼbțõks: äbțõks 208
  • LEXICON N_ÄʼBȚÕKS-PL äʼbțõks: äbțõks 208
  • LEXICON N_VARĪKŠ: 209
  • LEXICON N_UKŠ: 210
  • LEXICON N_LÄPŠ läpš: laps 211
  • LEXICON N_LÄPŠ-PL läpš: laps 211
  • LEXICON N_RIŠTĪNG-SG: 212
  • LEXICON N_ROʼVZT-PL roʼvzt: roʼvz 212
  • LEXICON N_TUʼĻ: 213
  • LEXICON N_TŪĻ: 214
  • LEXICON N_KĒĻ kēļ: kēl 215
  • LEXICON N_PŪOL: 216 pūol: pūol
  • LEXICON N_PŪOL-PL: 216
  • LEXICON N_ĪKŠ: 217
  • LEXICON N_KAKŠ: 218
  • LEXICON N_ŪŽ: 219
  • LEXICON N_SĒŅ sēņ: sēn 220
  • LEXICON N_JŪŖ jūŗ: jūr 221
  • LEXICON N_JŪŖ-PL: 221
  • LEXICON N_SŪR: 222
  • LEXICON N_SĒR: 223
  • LEXICON N_BIRKOV: 224 birkov: birkov
  • LEXICON N_BIRKOV-SG: 224 birkov: birkov
  • LEXICON N_BIRKOV-PL: 224 birkov: birkov
  • LEXICON N_SALĀJ: 225
  • LEXICON N_SALĀJ-SG: 225
  • LEXICON N_UMĀRZ umārz: umār 226
  • LEXICON N_UMĀRZ-PL umārz: umār 226
  • LEXICON N_DULLÕNZ dullõnz: dullõn 227
  • LEXICON N_DULLÕNZ-SG dullõnz: dullõn 227
  • LEXICON N_DULLÕNZ-PL dullõnz: dullõn 227
  • LEXICON N_AʼBBÕNZ aʼbbõnz: aʼbbõn 228
  • LEXICON N_AʼBBÕNZ-SG aʼbbõnz: aʼbbõn 228
  • LEXICON N_AʼBBÕNZ-PL aʼbbõnz: aʼbbõn 228
  • LEXICON N_AŅGÕRZ: aņgõrz: aņgõr 229
  • LEXICON N_AŅGÕRZ-PL: aņgõrz: aņgõr 229
  • LEXICON N_KAʼGGÕRZ kaʼggõrz: kaʼggõr 230
  • LEXICON N_KAʼGGÕRZ-PL kaʼggõrz: kaʼggõr 230
  • LEXICON N_PǞGIŅŽ pǟgiņž: pǟgiņ 231
  • LEXICON N_PǞGIŅŽ-PL pǟgiņž: pǟgiņ 231
  • LEXICON N_VAGĀŖ vagāŗ: vagār 232
  • LEXICON N_VAGĀŖ-SG vagāŗ: vagār 232
  • LEXICON N_VAGĀŖ-PL vagāŗ: vagār 232
  • LEXICON N_TIDĀR tidār: tidār 233
  • LEXICON N_TIDĀR-PL tidār: tidār 233
  • LEXICON N_PĒGAL pēgal: pēgal 234
  • LEXICON N_PĒGAL-PL pēgal: pēgal 234
  • LEXICON N_APPÕN appõn: appõn 235
  • LEXICON N_APPÕN-SG appõn: appõn 235
  • LEXICON N_APPÕN-PL appõn: appõn 235
  • LEXICON N_ǬʼRÕN ǭʼrõn: ǭrõn 236
  • LEXICON N_ǬʼRÕN-PL ǭʼrõn: ǭrõn 236
  • LEXICON N_KĪNDÕR kīndõr: kīndõr 237
  • LEXICON N_KĪNDÕR-SG kīndõr: kīndõr 237
  • LEXICON N_KĪNDÕR-PL kīndõr: kīndõr 237
  • LEXICON N_BÄʼZMÕR bäʼzmõr: bäʼzmõr 238
  • LEXICON N_BÄʼZMÕR-SG bäʼzmõr: bäʼzmõr 238
  • LEXICON N_BÄʼZMÕR-PL bäʼzmõr: bäʼzmõr 238
  • LEXICON N_TARĪĻ tarīļ: tarīļ 239
  • LEXICON N_TARĪĻ-PL tarīļ: tarīļ 239
  • LEXICON N_ĀNKAŖ ānkaŗ: ānkaŗ 240
  • LEXICON N_ĀNKAŖ-PL ānkaŗ: ānkaŗ 240
  • LEXICON N_VIRPÕĻ virpõļ: virpõļ 241
  • LEXICON N_VIRPÕĻ-PL virpõļ: virpõļ 241
  • LEXICON N_ǬʼBIĻ ǭʼbiļ: ǭbiļ 242
  • LEXICON N_ǬʼBIĻ-PL ǭʼbiļ: ǭbiļ 242
  • LEXICON N_GOLĀTÕKS golātõks: golātõks 244 found in Liv-est-lat dictionary

Nominal inflection

Inflection lexica

  • LEXICON NMN_PŪ pū: pū 12 Stem change: None

13

  • Yaml: N-rooq Stem change: None

14 Stem change: Yes Vowel raising ǟ: ē +Pl +Ela/+Ill/+Par Stød: Yes

  • LEXICON NMN_TĪE tīe: tīʼe 15 Stem change: Yes Vowel lowering īe: ē +Pl +Ela/+Ill/+Par Stød: Yes
  • SG-ILL_zõ ; 2014.12.12 Stød loss problem, should be tīʼezõ

tēšti

16 Stem change: None

  • LEXICON NMN_TEI tei: tei 17 Stem change: Yes Vowel change: ei: ē
  • LEXICON NMN_KUŖĒ kuŗē: kuʼŗ 18 kuŗē: kuʼŗ

18

  • LEXICON NMN_KALĀ kalā: kaʼl Stem change: Yes Consonant lengthening Consonant palatalization Vowel change in 2nd syllable ā: õ/0 Stød: Yes

19

  • LEXICON NMN_TUBĀ tubā: tuʼb
  • Yaml: A-amaa, N-tubaa Pass: 2014.12.12 Stem change: Yes Vowel change in word-final position a: õ/0 Stød

20

  • LEXICON NMN_AIGĀ aigā: aʼig
  • Yaml: N-aigaa Stem change: Yes vowel in 2nd syllable ā: õ/0 Stød: Yes
  • LEXICON NMN_LĒBA lēba: leib 21
  • Yaml: N-leeba Passed: 2014.12.12 Stem change: Yes vowel change ei: e Stød: None

21

  • LEXICON NMN_KŪJA kūja: leiba No information

22

  • LEXICON NMN_PŪOGA pūoga: pūog Stem change: Yes Vowel change in 1st syllable ūo: ȯi Vowel change in word-final position a: õ/0 Stød: None

23

  • LEXICON NMN_LǬJA lǭja: lǭija Stem change: Yes Vowel change in 1st syllable ǭ: a Consonant change ij: j Stød: None

24

  • LEXICON NMN_PǞVA pǟva: pǟuva Stem change: Yes Vowel change ǟ: äu Stød: None
  • LEXICON NMN_IZĀ izā: iʼzzā 25 Stem change: yes Vowel loss ā: 0 Stød: Yes

25

  • LEXICON NMN_PIEZĀ piezā: pieʼzzā Stem change: yes Stød: Yes
  • LEXICON NMN_AŽĀ ažā: aʼžžā 26 Stem change: Yes
  • LEXICON NMN_AŽĀ-SG ažā: aʼžā 26
  • LEXICON NMN_AŽĀ-PL ažā: aʼžā 26
  • LEXICON NMN_ĀĻDŽA āļdža: āļdža 27 Stem change: Yes (Vowel)
  • LEXICON NMN_ĀĻDŽA-SG āļdža: āļdža 27
  • LEXICON NMN_ĀĻDŽA-PL āļdža: āļdža 27
  • LEXICON NMN_SUKĀ sukā: sukkā 28 Stem change: Yes
  • LEXICON NMN_SUKĀ-SG sukā: sukkā 28
  • LEXICON NMN_SUKĀ-PL sukā: sukkā 28
  • LEXICON NMN_LIEPĀ liepā: liep 29 Stem change: Yes consonant length Stød: None
  • LEXICON NMN_LIEPĀ-SG liepā: lieppā 29
  • LEXICON NMN_LIEPĀ-PL liepā: lieppā 29
  • LEXICON NMN_OKSĀ oksā: oksā 30 Stem change: Yes palatalization s: š Stød: None
  • LEXICON NMN_OKSĀ-SG oksā: oksā 30
  • LEXICON NMN_OKSĀ-PL oksā: oksā 30
  • LEXICON NMN_VȰNTSA vȱntsa: vȱntsa 31 Stem change: Yes Vowel length ??Palatalization?? of s: š Stød: None
  • LEXICON NMN_VȰNTSA-SG vȱntsa: vȱntsa 31
  • LEXICON NMN_VȰNTSA-PL vȱntsa: vȱntsa 31
  • LEXICON NMN_LIESTĀ liestā: liestā 32 Stem change: Yes Diphthong straightening ??Palatalization?? of s: š Stød: None
  • LEXICON NMN_LIESTĀ-SG liestā: liestā 32
  • LEXICON NMN_LIESTĀ-PL liestā: liestā 32

33

  • LEXICON NMN_ĀIGA āiga: āig Stem change: Yes Vowel length in first syllable Stød: None

33b LĀNGA Stem change: Yes (Vowel) Stød: None

34

  • LEXICON NMN_SĪLMA sīlma: sīlma Stem change: Yes (Vowel) Stød: None

35

  • LEXICON NMN_KǞNGA kǟnga: kǟnga 35
  • Yaml: N-aeaerga, N-aeaerga Stem change: Yes
  • LEXICON NMN_KǞNGA-SG kǟnga: kǟnga 35
  • LEXICON NMN_KǞNGA-PL kǟnga: kǟnga 35
  • LEXICON NMN_ĀINA āina: āina 36
  • Yaml: N-aaina Stem change: Yes (Vowel)
  • LEXICON NMN_ĀINA-SG āina: āina 36
  • LEXICON NMN_ĀINA-PL āina: āina 36

37

  • LEXICON NMN_VĒNA vēna: veina
  • Yaml: N-veena Stem change: Yes (Vowel)

38

  • LEXICON NMN_RŌDA rōda: rouda Stem change: Yes (Vowel)

39, 40, 41, 42

  • LEXICON NMN_PADĀ padā: paʼddā Stem change: Yes Stød: Yes

40

41

  • LEXICON NMN_KÄPĀ käpā: käpā

42

43

44

45

  • LEXICON NMN_PŪOLA pūola: pūola 45
  • LEXICON NMN_PŪOLA-SG pūola: pūola 45
  • LEXICON NMN_PŪOLA-PL pūola: pūola 45

46

  • LEXICON NMN_ŪŠKA ūška: ūiska 47 Stem change: Yes vowel length Stød: None
  • LEXICON NMN_ŪŠKA-SG ūška: ūiska 47
  • LEXICON NMN_ŪŠKA-PL ūška: ūiska 47
  • LEXICON NMN_MȬKA mȭka: mȭuka 48 Stem change: Yes vowel length Stød: None
  • LEXICON NMN_MȬKA-SG mȭka: mȭuka 48
  • LEXICON NMN_MȬKA-PL mȭka: mȭuka 48
  • LEXICON NMN_DADŽĀ dadžā: daʼdžā 49
  • LEXICON NMN_DADŽĀ-SG dadžā: daʼdžā 49
  • LEXICON NMN_DADŽĀ-PL dadžā: daʼdžā 49
  • LEXICON NMN_SUŠĀ sušā: sušā 50
  • LEXICON NMN_SUŠĀ-SG sušā: sušā 50
  • LEXICON NMN_SUŠĀ-PL sušā: sušā 50
  • LEXICON NMN_KUPŠĀ kupšā: kupšā 51
  • LEXICON NMN_KUPŠĀ-SG kupšā: kupšā 51
  • LEXICON NMN_KUPŠĀ-PL kupšā: kupšā 51
  • LEXICON NMN_TŠŪRTŠA tšūrtša: tšūrtša 52
  • LEXICON NMN_TŠŪRTŠA-SG tšūrtša: tšūrtša 52
  • LEXICON NMN_TŠŪRTŠA-PL tšūrtša: tšūrtša 52
  • LEXICON NMN_SĒMḐA sēmḑa: sēmḑa 53
  • LEXICON NMN_SĒMḐA-SG sēmḑa: sēmḑa 53
  • LEXICON NMN_SĒMḐA-PL sēmḑa: sēmḑa 53
  • LEXICON NMN_TĪERA tīera: tīer 54 Stem change: Yes Stød: None Sg Nom=Gen: Yes
  • LEXICON NMN_TĪERA-SG tīera: tīer 54
  • LEXICON NMN_TĪERA-PL tīera: tīer 54
  • LEXICON NMN_KRǬIPA krǭipa: krǭipa 55
  • LEXICON NMN_KRǬIPA-SG krǭipa: krǭipa 55
  • LEXICON NMN_KRǬIPA-PL krǭipa: krǭipa 55
  • LEXICON NMN_LILLA lilla: lilla 56
  • LEXICON NMN_LILLA-SG lilla: lilla 56
  • LEXICON NMN_LILLA-PL lilla: lilla 56
  • LEXICON NMN_KUȚĀ kuțā: kuțā 57
  • LEXICON NMN_KUȚĀ-SG kuțā: kuțā 57
  • LEXICON NMN_KUȚĀ-PL kuțā: kuțā 57
  • LEXICON NMN_NĒTŠA nētša: nētša 58 Stem change Yes final vowel loss Stød: None
  • LEXICON NMN_NĒTŠA-SG nētša: nētša 58
  • LEXICON NMN_NĒTŠA-PL nētša: nētša 58

59

60

  • LEXICON NMN_KEP kep: kep aʼb 61
  • LEXICON NMN_KEP-SG kep: kep aʼb 61
  • LEXICON NMN_KEP-PL kep: kep aʼb 61
  • LEXICON NMN_KRUȚK: 62
  • LEXICON NMN_KRUȚK-SG: 62
  • LEXICON NMN_KRUȚK-PL: 62
  • LEXICON NMN_KRÄMP: 63
  • LEXICON NMN_KRÄMP-SG: 63
  • LEXICON NMN_KRÄMP-PL: 63
  • LEXICON NMN_PIʼŅ piʼņ: piņ 64
  • LEXICON NMN_PIʼŅ-SG piʼņ: piņ 64
  • LEXICON NMN_PIʼŅ-PL piʼņ: piņ 64
  • LEXICON NMN_KUOȚ: 65
  • LEXICON NMN_KUOȚ-SG: 65
  • LEXICON NMN_KUOȚ-PL: 65
  • LEXICON NMN_VAKȚ: 66
  • LEXICON NMN_VAKȚ-SG: 66
  • LEXICON NMN_VAKȚ-PL: 66
  • LEXICON NMN_REŅ: 67
  • LEXICON NMN_REŅ-SG: 67
  • LEXICON NMN_REŅ-PL: 67
  • LEXICON NMN_OKŠ: 68
  • LEXICON NMN_OKŠ-SG: 68
  • LEXICON NMN_OKŠ-PL: 68
  • LEXICON NMN_KAŠ: 69
  • LEXICON NMN_KAŠ-SG: 69
  • LEXICON NMN_KAŠ-PL: 69
  • LEXICON NMN_DUŅTŠ: 70
  • LEXICON NMN_DUŅTŠ-SG: 70
  • LEXICON NMN_DUŅTŠ-PL: 70
  • LEXICON NMN_TORĪ: 71
  • LEXICON NMN_TORĪ-SG: 71
  • LEXICON NMN_TORĪ-PL: 71
  • LEXICON NMN_VAʼG vaʼg: vag 72
  • LEXICON NMN_VAʼG-SG vaʼg: vag 72
  • LEXICON NMN_VAʼG-PL vaʼg: vag 72
  • LEXICON NMN_KÕʼL kõʼl: kõl 73
  • LEXICON NMN_KÕʼL-SG kõʼl: kõl 73
  • LEXICON NMN_KÕʼL-PL kõʼl: kõl 73
  • LEXICON NMN_SUʼG suʼg: suʼg 74
  • LEXICON NMN_SUʼG-SG suʼg: suʼg 74
  • LEXICON NMN_SUʼG-PL suʼg: suʼg 74
  • LEXICON NMN_JOʼUG joʼug: joʼug 75
  • LEXICON NMN_JOʼUG-SG joʼug: joʼug 75
  • LEXICON NMN_JOʼUG-PL joʼug: joug 75

76

  • LEXICON NMN_USK usk: 77
  • LEXICON NMN_USK-SG usk: 77
  • LEXICON NMN_USK-PL usk: 77
  • LEXICON NMN_VAŠK: 78
  • LEXICON NMN_VAŠK-SG: 78
  • LEXICON NMN_VAŠK-PL: 78
  • LEXICON NMN_TUP tup: tup 79
  • LEXICON NMN_TUP-SG tup: tup 79
  • LEXICON NMN_TUP-PL tup: tup 79
  • LEXICON NMN_MAKS: 80
  • LEXICON NMN_MAKS-SG: 80
  • LEXICON NMN_MAKS-PL: 80
  • LEXICON NMN_LUʼM luʼm: lum 81
  • LEXICON NMN_LUʼM-SG luʼm: lum 81
  • LEXICON NMN_LUʼM-PL luʼm: lum 81
  • LEXICON NMN_MIEʼR mieʼr: mier 82
  • LEXICON NMN_MIEʼR-SG mieʼr: mier 82
  • LEXICON NMN_MIEʼR-PL mieʼr: mier 82
  • LEXICON NMN_MEʼR meʼr: mer 83
  • LEXICON NMN_MEʼR-SG meʼr: mer 83
  • LEXICON NMN_MEʼR-PL meʼr: mer 83
  • LEXICON NMN_MUʼR muʼr: mur 84
  • LEXICON NMN_MUʼR-SG muʼr: mur 84
  • LEXICON NMN_MUʼR-PL muʼr: mur 84
  • LEXICON NMN_KUOʼD kuoʼd: kuod aig 85
  • LEXICON NMN_KUOʼD-SG kuoʼd: kuod aig 85
  • LEXICON NMN_KUOʼD-PL kuoʼd: kuod aig 85
  • LEXICON NMN_SUʼŽ suʼž: suž 86
  • LEXICON NMN_SUʼŽ-SG suʼž: suž 86
  • LEXICON NMN_SUʼŽ-PL suʼž: suž 86
  • LEXICON NMN_KEʼŽ keʼž: kež aim 87
  • LEXICON NMN_KEʼŽ-SG keʼž: kež aim 87
  • LEXICON NMN_KEʼŽ-PL keʼž: kež aim 87
  • LEXICON NMN_VEʼŽ veʼž: vež 88
  • LEXICON NMN_VEʼŽ-SG veʼž: veʼd 88
  • LEXICON NMN_VEʼŽ-PL veʼž: veʼd 88
  • LEXICON NMN_KUʼŽ kuʼž: kuž 89
  • LEXICON NMN_KUʼŽ-SG kuʼž: kuž 89
  • LEXICON NMN_KUʼŽ-PL kuʼž: kuž 89
  • LEXICON NMN_RUZŪ: 90
  • LEXICON NMN_RUZŪ-SG: 90
  • LEXICON NMN_RUZŪ-PL: 90
  • LEXICON NMN_RADIO: 91
  • LEXICON NMN_RADIO-SG: 91
  • LEXICON NMN_RADIO-PL: 91
  • LEXICON NMN_ANG: 92
  • LEXICON NMN_ANG-SG: 92
  • LEXICON NMN_ANG-PL: 92
  • LEXICON NMN_KOUV: 93
  • LEXICON NMN_KOUV-SG: 93
  • LEXICON NMN_KOUV-PL: 93
  • LEXICON NMN_KAND: 94
  • LEXICON NMN_KAND-SG: 94
  • LEXICON NMN_KAND-PL: 94
  • LEXICON NMN_PȮRT: 95
  • LEXICON NMN_PȮRT-SG: 95
  • LEXICON NMN_PȮRT-PL: 95
  • LEXICON NMN_NUŖM: 96
  • LEXICON NMN_NUŖM-SG: 96
  • LEXICON NMN_NUŖM-PL: 96
  • LEXICON NMN_LAINT: 97
  • LEXICON NMN_LAINT-SG: 97
  • LEXICON NMN_LAINT-PL: 97
  • LEXICON NMN_LOUL: 98
  • LEXICON NMN_LOUL-SG: 98
  • LEXICON NMN_LOUL-PL: 98
  • LEXICON NMN_UL: 99 ul: ul
  • LEXICON NMN_UL-SG: 99
  • LEXICON NMN_UL-PL: 99
  • LEXICON NMN_PAN: 100
  • LEXICON NMN_PAN-SG: 100
  • LEXICON NMN_PAN-PL: 100
  • LEXICON NMN_TÄM täm: tam 101

102

  • LEXICON NMN_NIŖȚ: 102 niŗț: niŗț First-syllable Vowel lengthening in Pl Stød: None
  • LEXICON NMN_NIŖȚ-SG: 102
  • LEXICON NMN_NIŖȚ-PL: 102
  • LEXICON NMN_KUĻ: 103
  • LEXICON NMN_KUĻ-SG: 103
  • LEXICON NMN_KUĻ-PL: 103
  • LEXICON NMN_PAŅ: 104
  • LEXICON NMN_PAŅ-SG: 104
  • LEXICON NMN_PAŅ-PL: 104
  • LEXICON NMN_DAŅTŠ: 105
  • LEXICON NMN_DAŅTŠ-SG: 105
  • LEXICON NMN_DAŅTŠ-PL: 105
  • LEXICON NMN_KOUŠ: 106
  • LEXICON NMN_KOUŠ-SG: 106
  • LEXICON NMN_KOUŠ-PL: 106
  • LEXICON NMN_SPLEIŠ: 107
  • LEXICON NMN_SPLEIŠ-SG: 107
  • LEXICON NMN_SPLEIŠ-PL: 107
  • LEXICON NMN_VEIS: 108
  • LEXICON NMN_VEIS-SG: 108
  • LEXICON NMN_VEIS-PL: 108
  • LEXICON NMN_PȮIS: 109 pȯis: pȯis
  • LEXICON NMN_PȮIS-SG: 109
  • LEXICON NMN_PȮIS-PL: 109
  • LEXICON NMN_KIĻG: 110
  • LEXICON NMN_KIĻG-SG: 110
  • LEXICON NMN_KIĻG-PL: 110
  • LEXICON NMN_VȮĻG: 111
  • LEXICON NMN_VȮĻG-SG: 111
  • LEXICON NMN_VȮĻG-PL: 111
  • LEXICON NMN_TÄUŽ täuž: adres 112
  • LEXICON NMN_TÄUŽ-SG: 116
  • LEXICON NMN_TÄUŽ-PL: 116
  • LEXICON NMN_VAŖŽ: 113
  • LEXICON NMN_VAŖŽ-SG: 113
  • LEXICON NMN_VAŖŽ-PL: 113
  • LEXICON NMN_PIERZ: 114
  • LEXICON NMN_PIERZ-SG: 114
  • LEXICON NMN_PIERZ-PL: 114
  • LEXICON NMN_VÕRGÕ: 115
  • LEXICON NMN_VÕRGÕ-SG: 115
  • LEXICON NMN_VÕRGÕ-PL: 115
  • LEXICON NMN_JÕUGÕ: 116
  • LEXICON NMN_JÕUGÕ-SG: 116
  • LEXICON NMN_JÕUGÕ-PL: 116
  • LEXICON NMN_VȬIDAG: 117
  • LEXICON NMN_VȬIDAG-SG: 117
  • LEXICON NMN_VȬIDAG-PL: 117
  • LEXICON NMN_SIELDÕ: 118
  • LEXICON NMN_SIELDÕ-SG: 118
  • LEXICON NMN_SIELDÕ-PL: 118
  • LEXICON NMN_NǬʼGÕ nǭʼgõ: nǭgõ 119
  • LEXICON NMN_NǬʼGÕ-SG nǭʼgõ: nǭgõ 119
  • LEXICON NMN_NǬʼGÕ-PL nǭʼgõ: nǭgõ 119
  • LEXICON NMN_AŠŠÕ: 120
  • LEXICON NMN_AŠŠÕ-SG: 120
  • LEXICON NMN_AŠŠÕ-PL: 120
  • LEXICON NMN_DRŪʼOŠÕ drūʼošõ: drūošõ 121
  • LEXICON NMN_DRŪʼOŠÕ-SG drūʼošõ: drūošõ 121
  • LEXICON NMN_DRŪʼOŠÕ-PL drūʼošõ: drūošõ 121
  • LEXICON NMN_SOʼV: 122
  • LEXICON NMN_SOʼV-SG: 122
  • LEXICON NMN_SOʼV-PL: 122
  • LEXICON NMN_KǬJ: 123
  • LEXICON NMN_KǬJ-SG: 123
  • LEXICON NMN_KǬJ-PL: 123
  • LEXICON NMN_ǬʼJ ǭʼj: ǭj 124
  • LEXICON NMN_ǬʼJ-SG ǭʼj: ǭj 124
  • LEXICON NMN_ǬʼJ-PL ǭʼj: ǭj 124

125, 126, 128

126

  • LEXICON NMN_VȮŅ: 127
  • LEXICON NMN_VȮŅ-SG: 127
  • LEXICON NMN_VȮŅ-PL: 127
  • LEXICON NMN_VAʼIT vaʼit: vait 128
  • LEXICON NMN_VAʼIT-SG vaʼit: vait 128
  • LEXICON NMN_VAʼIT-PL vaʼit: vait 128

129, 130, 131

  • LEXICON NMN_KULTŪR: 130
  • LEXICON NMN_KULTŪR-SG: 130
  • LEXICON NMN_KULTŪR-PL: 130
  • LEXICON NMN_SAʼGDIT saʼgdit: sagdit 131
  • LEXICON NMN_SAʼGDIT-SG saʼgdit: sagdit 131
  • LEXICON NMN_SAʼGDIT-PL saʼgdit: sagdit 131

132

  • LEXICON NMN_VIĻȚ: 132
  • LEXICON NMN_VIĻȚ-SG: 132
  • LEXICON NMN_VIĻȚ-PL: 132
  • LEXICON NMN_EĻ: 133
  • LEXICON NMN_EĻ-SG: 133
  • LEXICON NMN_EĻ-PL: 133
  • LEXICON NMN_BLĒʼḐ blēʼḑ: blēʼḑ 134
  • LEXICON NMN_BLĒʼḐ-SG blēʼḑ: blēʼḑ 134
  • LEXICON NMN_BLĒʼḐ-PL blēʼḑ: blēʼḑ 134

135

  • LEXICON NMN_TAS: 136
  • LEXICON NMN_TAS-SG: 136
  • LEXICON NMN_TAS-PL: 136
  • LEXICON NMN_NEITST neitst: neits 137
  • LEXICON NMN_NEITST-SG neitst: neits 137
  • LEXICON NMN_NEITST-PL neitst: neits 137
  • LEXICON NMN_SĪEND sīend: sīen 138 Stem change: No Stød: None Sg Nom=Gen: No
  • LEXICON NMN_SĪEND-SG: 138
  • LEXICON NMN_SĪEND-PL: 138
  • LEXICON NMN_LǞʼND lǟʼnd: lǟnd 139
  • LEXICON NMN_LǞʼND-SG lǟʼnd: lǟnd 139
  • LEXICON NMN_LǞʼND-PL lǟʼnd: lǟnd 139

140, 141, 142 241

141 87

  • Yaml: N-analiiz analīz+N+Sg+Ela => analīzõst Change in stem: None +Sg+Ela preceded by -õ- consonant-final stem, long vowel in ultimate syllable belongs elsewhere N-kalendaar kalendār+N+Sg+Ela => kalendārst

142

143, 144, 145

  • LEXICON NMN_VIŠ: 144 viš: viš
  • LEXICON NMN_VIŠ-SG: 144
  • LEXICON NMN_VIŠ-PL: 144

145

  • LEXICON NMN_TĒʼḐ tēʼḑ: tēḑ 146
  • LEXICON NMN_TĒʼḐ-SG tēʼḑ: tēḑ 146
  • LEXICON NMN_TĒʼḐ-PL tēʼḑ: tēḑ 146
  • LEXICON NMN_LĒʼḐ lēʼḑ: lēḑ 147
  • LEXICON NMN_LĒʼḐ-SG lēʼḑ: lēḑ 147
  • LEXICON NMN_LĒʼḐ-PL lēʼḑ: lēḑ 147
  • LEXICON NMN_KĪNTŠ: 148
  • LEXICON NMN_KĪNTŠ-SG: 148
  • LEXICON NMN_KĪNTŠ-PL: 148
  • LEXICON NMN_KǬŅTŠ: 149
  • LEXICON NMN_KǬŅTŠ-SG: 149
  • LEXICON NMN_KǬŅTŠ-PL: 149
  • LEXICON NMN_LĒŅTŠ: 150
  • LEXICON NMN_LĒŅTŠ-SG: 150
  • LEXICON NMN_LĒŅTŠ-PL: 150
  • LEXICON NMN_LĪEM: 151
  • LEXICON NMN_LĪEM-SG: 151
  • LEXICON NMN_LĪEM-PL: 151
  • LEXICON NMN_AʼM aʼm: aʼm 152
  • LEXICON NMN_AʼM-SG aʼm: aʼm 152
  • LEXICON NMN_AʼM-PL aʼm: aʼm 152
  • LEXICON NMN_AZŪM: 153 azūm: aʼzūm
  • LEXICON NMN_AZŪM-SG: 153
  • LEXICON NMN_AZŪM-PL: 153
  • LEXICON NMN_VÕȚĪM võțīm: võțīm 154
  • LEXICON NMN_VÕȚĪM-SG: 154
  • LEXICON NMN_VÕȚĪM-PL: 154
  • LEXICON NMN_KǬŅIM: 155
  • LEXICON NMN_KǬŅIM-SG: 155
  • LEXICON NMN_KǬŅIM-PL: 155
  • LEXICON NMN_ĒTAM: 156
  • LEXICON NMN_ĒTAM-SG: 156
  • LEXICON NMN_ĒTAM-PL: 156
  • LEXICON NMN_SIDĀM: 157
  • LEXICON NMN_SIDĀM-PL: 157

158

159

  • Yaml: armtõb, N-aandam, N-akaatwb 221

160 72

  • LEXICON NMN_TAPTÕD taptõd: taptõd 161
  • LEXICON NMN_TAPTÕD-SG: 161
  • LEXICON NMN_TAPTÕD-PL: 161
  • LEXICON NMN_TĪʼEDÕD tīʼedõd: tīedõd 162
  • LEXICON NMN_TĪʼEDÕD-SG tīʼedõd: tīedõd 162
  • LEXICON NMN_TĪʼEDÕD-PL tīʼedõd: tīedõd 162
  • LEXICON NMN_VĪDÕZ: 163
  • LEXICON NMN_VĪDÕZ-SG vīdõz: 162
  • LEXICON NMN_VĪDÕZ-PL vīdõz: 162
  • :%^StodRM%^VowsRM%^ConsRM PL-ELA/INE_īst ; not same as 2012
  • :%^StodRM%^VowsRM%^ConsRM PL-PAR_īdi ; not same as 2012
  • LEXICON NMN_TUOISTÕNZ: 164
  • LEXICON NMN_TUOISTÕNZ-SG: 164
  • LEXICON NMN_TUOISTÕNZ-PL: 164
  • :%^StodRM%^VowsRM%^ConsRM PL-ELA/INE_īst ; not same as 2012
  • :%^StodRM%^VowsRM%^ConsRM PL-PAR_īdi ; not same as 2012
  • LEXICON NMN_ĪʼDÕKSMÕZ īʼdõksmõz: īdõksmõz 165
  • LEXICON NMN_ĪʼDÕKSMÕZ-SG īʼdõksmõz: īdõksmõz 165
  • LEXICON NMN_ĪʼDÕKSMÕZ-PL īʼdõksmõz: īdõksmõz 165
  • :%^StodRM%^VowsRM%^ConsRM PL-ELA/INE_īst ; not same as 2012
  • :%^StodRM%^VowsRM%^ConsRM PL-PAR_īdi ; not same as 2012
  • LEXICON NMN_MĪEZ: 166
  • LEXICON NMN_MĪEZ-SG: 166
  • LEXICON NMN_MĪEZ-PL: 166
  • :%^StodRM%^VowsRM%^ConsRM PL-ELA/INE_šti ;
  • :%^StodRM%^VowsRM%^ConsRM PL-PAR_ḑi ;
  • LEXICON NMN_ROʼVZ: 167 roʼvz: roʼv
  • LEXICON NMN_ROʼVZ-SG: 167
  • LEXICON NMN_ROʼVZ-PL: 167
  • LEXICON NMN_KÄBRĀZ: 168 käbrāz: käʼbrāz
  • LEXICON NMN_KÄBRĀZ-SG: 168
  • LEXICON NMN_KÄBRĀZ-PL: 168
  • :%^StodRM%^VowsRM%^ConsRM PL-ELA/INE_īst ; not same as 2012
  • :%^StodRM%^VowsRM%^ConsRM PL-PAR_īdi ; not same as 2012
  • LEXICON NMN_MAIGĀZ: 169 maigāz: maʼigāz
  • Yaml: A-maigaaz
  • LEXICON NMN_MAIGĀZ-SG: 169
  • LEXICON NMN_MAIGĀZ-PL: 169
  • :%^StodRM%^VowsRM%^ConsRM PL-ELA/INE_īst ; not same as 2012
  • :%^StodRM%^VowsRM%^ConsRM PL-PAR_īdi ; not same as 2012
  • LEXICON NMN_NÕTKĀZ: 170 nõtkāz: nõtkā
  • LEXICON NMN_NÕTKĀZ-SG: 170
  • LEXICON NMN_NÕTKĀZ-PL: 170
  • NMN_RIKĀZ-PL ; rikāz: 171
  • LEXICON NMN_RIKĀZ rikāz: rik 171 Stem change: Yes Stød: None Sg Nom=Gen: No
  • LEXICON NMN_RIKĀZ-SG rikāz: rik 171
  • LEXICON NMN_RIKĀZ-PL rikāz: 171
  • LEXICON NMN_BIKŠĀZ: 172
  • LEXICON NMN_BIKŠĀZ-SG: 172 bikšāz: bikšā
  • NMN_RIKĀZ-SG ;: 171
  • LEXICON NMN_BIKŠĀZ-PL: 172
  • LEXICON NMN_ĀMBAZ: 173 āmbaz: āmba
  • LEXICON NMN_ĀMBAZ-PL: 173
  • LEXICON NMN_PŪŖAZ: 174 pūŗaz: pūŗŗa
  • LEXICON NMN_PŪŖAZ-SG: 174
  • NMN_ĀMBAZ-SG ;: 173
  • LEXICON NMN_PŪŖAZ-PL: 174
  • NMN_ĀMBAZ-PL ;: 173
  • LEXICON NMN_PǬĻAZ: 175 pǭļaz: pǭļ Stød: None Sg Nom=Gen: No
  • LEXICON NMN_PǬĻAZ-SG: 175
  • LEXICON NMN_PǬĻAZ-PL: 175
  • LEXICON NMN_RĒNAZ: 176 rēnaz: rēna
  • LEXICON NMN_RĒNAZ-SG: 176
  • NMN_ĀMBAZ-SG ;: 173
  • LEXICON NMN_RĒNAZ-PL: 176
  • NMN_ĀMBAZ-PL ;: 173
  • LEXICON NMN_TŌVAZ: 177 tōvaz: tōva
  • LEXICON NMN_TŌVAZ-SG: 177
  • NMN_ĀMBAZ-SG ;: 173
  • LEXICON NMN_TŌVAZ-PL: 177
  • NMN_ĀMBAZ-PL ;: 173
  • LEXICON NMN_PŪORAZ pūoraz: pūora 178
  • LEXICON NMN_PŪORAZ-SG pūoraz: 178
  • NMN_ĀMBAZ-SG ;: 173
  • LEXICON NMN_PŪORAZ-PL pūoraz: 178
  • NMN_ĀMBAZ-PL ;: 173

179

  • LEXICON NMN_VȬRÕZ vȭrõz: vȭrõ 180 Sg Nom=Gen: No

181

182

183

  • LEXICON NMN_PŪʼDÕZ pūʼdõz: pūʼdõ Stød: Yes Sg Nom=Gen: No

184

  • LEXICON NMN_VĪETŠÕZ: 184
  • LEXICON NMN_LǬʼTŠÕZ lǭʼtšõz: lǭtšõz 185
  • LEXICON NMN_SĒJI: 186 Stem change: None
  • LEXICON NMN_SĒJI-SG: 186
  • LEXICON NMN_SĒJI-PL: 186
  • LEXICON NMN_AKKIJI: 187 123
  • Yaml: N-akkiji Stem change: None
  • LEXICON NMN_AKKIJI-SG: 187
  • LEXICON NMN_AKKIJI-PL: 187
  • LEXICON NMN_LĒʼJI lēʼji: lēʼji 188 61
  • Yaml: A-aeqbtiji, leeqji
  • LEXICON NMN_LĒʼJI-SG: 188
  • LEXICON NMN_LĒʼJI-PL: 188
  • LEXICON NMN_TUĻĻI: 189
  • LEXICON NMN_TUĻĻI-SG: 188
  • LEXICON NMN_TUĻĻI-PL: 188
  • LEXICON NMN_LÄʼBḐI läʼbḑi: läbḑi 190
  • LEXICON NMN_LÄʼBḐI-SG: 188
  • LEXICON NMN_LÄʼBḐI-PL: 188
  • LEXICON NMN_NAI: 191 nai: nai Vowel length Sg Nom=Gen: No Stød: None
  • LEXICON NMN_NAI-SG: 188
  • LEXICON NMN_NAI-PL: 188

192

  • LEXICON NMN_PUʼNNI puʼnni: puʼn 193 127 Stød: Yes Sg Nom=Gen: No
  • LEXICON NMN_PUʼNNI-SG puʼnni: puʼn 193
  • LEXICON NMN_PUʼNNI-PL puʼnni: punni 193
  • LEXICON NMN_KAȚKI kațki: 194 12
  • LEXICON NMN_KAȚKI-SG kațki: 194
  • LEXICON NMN_KAȚKI-PL kațki: 194
  • LEXICON NMN_KUKKI kukki: 195 33
  • LEXICON NMN_KUKKI-SG kukki: 195
  • LEXICON NMN_KUKKI-PL kukki: 195
  • LEXICON NMN_AIGI aigi: aigi 196 16 Stem change: Yes (vowel length in 1st syllable)
  • LEXICON NMN_AIGI-SG aigi: aigi 196
  • LEXICON NMN_AIGI-PL aigi: aigi 196
  • LEXICON NMN_OUKI: 197
  • LEXICON NMN_OUKI-SG: 197
  • LEXICON NMN_OUKI-PL: 197
  • LEXICON NMN_PAŖĪ: 198 paŗī: paŗŗī
  • LEXICON NMN_PAŖĪ-SG: 198
  • LEXICON NMN_PAŖĪ-PL: 198
  • :ž PL-PAR_i ; paŗrīži ?

199

  • LEXICON NMN_AʼBLI aʼbli: aʼbli 200 567
  • Yaml: aainagi Stem change: None
  • LEXICON NMN_AʼBLI-SG aʼbli: aʼbli 200
  • LEXICON NMN_AʼBLI-PL aʼbli: aʼbli 200
  • LEXICON NMN_SĒMI: 201
  • Yaml: A-ooqgi
  • LEXICON NMN_SĒMI-SG: 201
  • LEXICON NMN_SĒMI-PL: 201
  • LEXICON NMN_LĒʼMI lēʼmi: lēʼmi 202
  • Yaml: A-aqrlimi
  • LEXICON NMN_LĒʼMI-SG lēʼmi: lēʼmi 202
  • SG-PAR_t ; Should this work for A-aqrlimi ?
  • LEXICON NMN_LĒʼMI-PL lēʼmi: lēmi 202
  • LEXICON NMN_ALĪZ: 203
  • Yaml: N-aliiz
  • LEXICON NMN_ALĪZ-SG: 203
  • LEXICON NMN_ALĪZ-PL: 203
  • LEXICON NMN_NȬŖKÕZ: 204
  • Yaml: N-nwwrkwz
  • LEXICON NMN_NȬŖKÕZ-SG: 204
  • LEXICON NMN_NȬŖKÕZ-PL: 204
  • LEXICON NMN_KATŪKS: 205
  • Yaml: N-katuuks
  • LEXICON NMN_KATŪKS-PL: 205
  • LEXICON NMN_ĀNDÕKS āndõks: 206
  • Yaml: N-aandwks
  • LEXICON NMN_ĀNDÕKS-PL āndõks: 206
  • LEXICON NMN_KĒRATÕKS kēratõks: kēratõks 207
  • Yaml: N-keeratwks
  • LEXICON NMN_KĒRATÕKS-PL kēratõks: kēratõks 207
  • LEXICON NMN_ÄʼBȚÕKS äʼbțõks: äbțõks 208
  • Yaml: N-aeqbtwks
  • LEXICON NMN_ÄʼBȚÕKS-SG äʼbțõks: äbțõks 208
  • LEXICON NMN_ÄʼBȚÕKS-PL äʼbțõks: äbțõks 208
  • LEXICON NMN_VARĪKŠ: 209
  • Yaml: A-krwbiizh, N-variiksh
  • LEXICON NMN_VARĪKŠ-SG: 209
  • LEXICON NMN_VARĪKŠ-PL: 209
  • LEXICON NMN_UKŠ: 210 ukš: uks
  • Yaml: N-uksh
  • LEXICON NMN_UKŠ-SG: 210
  • LEXICON NMN_UKŠ-PL: 210

211

  • Yaml: N-laepsh läpš: laps
  • LEXICON NMN_LÄPŠ-PL läpš: laps 211

212

  • LEXICON NMN_RIŠTĪNG-SG: 212
  • Yaml: N-rishtiing
  • LEXICON NMN_ROʼVZT-PL roʼvzt: roʼvz 212
  • LEXICON NMN_TUʼĻ: 213 tuʼļ: tuʼl
  • Yaml: N-tuqlj
  • LEXICON NMN_TUʼĻ-SG: 213
  • LEXICON NMN_TUʼĻ-PL: 213
  • LEXICON NMN_TŪĻ tūļ: tūl 214
  • LEXICON NMN_KĒĻ kēļ: kēl 215
  • LEXICON NMN_KĒĻ-PL kēļ: kēl 215
  • LEXICON NMN_PŪOL: 216
  • LEXICON NMN_PŪOL-SG: 216
  • LEXICON NMN_PŪOL-PL: 216
  • LEXICON NMN_ĪKŠ: 217
  • LEXICON NMN_ĪKŠ-SG: 217
  • LEXICON NMN_ĪKŠ-PL: 217
  • LEXICON NMN_KAKŠ: 218
  • LEXICON NMN_KAKŠ-SG: 218
  • LEXICON NMN_KAKŠ-PL: 218
  • LEXICON NMN_ŪŽ: 219 ūž: ūd
  • Yaml: A-uuzh word-final consonant palatalization (ž): Sg_Nom, Pl_Par, Pl_Ill, Pl_Ela
  • LEXICON NMN_ŪŽ-SG: 219
  • LEXICON NMN_ŪŽ-PL: 219
  • LEXICON NMN_SĒŅ sēņ: sēn 220 Sg_Nom = consonant-final 1-syllable word word-final consonant palatalization: Sg_Nom, Pl_Par, Pl_Ill, Pl_Ela Diphthong realized as mid long vowel: Sg_Nom, Pl_Par, Pl_Ill, Pl_Ela
  • LEXICON NMN_SĒŅ-PL sēņ: sēn 211
  • LEXICON NMN_JŪŖ: jūŗ: jūr 221 Sg_Nom = consonant-final 1-syllable word word-final consonant palatalization: Sg_Nom, Pl_Par, Pl_Ill, Pl_Ela
  • LEXICON NMN_JŪŖ-SG jūŗ: jūr 221
  • LEXICON NMN_JŪŖ-PL: 221
  • PL-INS_DKÕKS-STEM ; jūrd
  • LEXICON NMN_SŪR: 222
  • LEXICON NMN_SŪR-PL sūr: sūr 211
  • LEXICON NMN_SĒR: 223
  • LEXICON NMN_SĒR-SG: 223
  • LEXICON NMN_SĒR-PL: 223
  • LEXICON NMN_BIRKOV: 224 birkov: birkov
  • LEXICON NMN_BIRKOV-SG: 224
  • LEXICON NMN_BIRKOV-PL: 224

225

  • LEXICON NMN_UMĀRZ 226 umārz: umār

226, 227, 228

  • LEXICON NMN_DULLÕNZ dullõnz: dullõn 227
  • LEXICON NMN_DULLÕNZ-SG dullõnz: dullõn 227
  • LEXICON NMN_DULLÕNZ-PL dullõnz: dullõn 227
  • LEXICON NMN_AʼBBÕNZ aʼbbõnz: aʼbbõn 228
  • LEXICON NMN_AʼBBÕNZ-SG aʼbbõnz: aʼbbõn 228
  • LEXICON NMN_AʼBBÕNZ-PL aʼbbõnz: aʼbbõn 228
  • LEXICON NMN_AŅGÕRZ: aņgõrz: aņgõr 229
  • LEXICON NMN_AŅGÕRZ-PL: aņgõrz: aņgõr 229
  • LEXICON NMN_KAʼGGÕRZ kaʼggõrz: kaʼggõr 230
  • LEXICON NMN_KAʼGGÕRZ-PL kaʼggõrz: kaʼggõr 230
  • LEXICON NMN_PǞGIŅŽ pǟgiņž: pǟgiņ 231
  • LEXICON NMN_PǞGIŅŽ-PL pǟgiņž: pǟgiņ 231
  • LEXICON NMN_VAGĀŖ vagāŗ: vagār 232
  • LEXICON NMN_VAGĀŖ-PL vagāŗ: vagār 232
  • LEXICON NMN_KŪOLÕN kūolõn: kūolõn 232
  • LEXICON NMN_KŪOLÕN-PL kūolõn: kūolõn 232

233

  • LEXICON NMN_PĒGAL pēgal: pēgal 234
  • LEXICON NMN_PĒGAL-PL pēgal: pēgal 234
  • LEXICON NMN_APPÕN appõn: appõn 235
  • LEXICON NMN_APPÕN-PL appõn: appõn 235
  • LEXICON NMN_ǬʼRÕN ǭʼrõn: ǭrõn 236
  • LEXICON NMN_ǬʼRÕN-SG ǭʼrõn: ǭrõn 236
  • LEXICON NMN_ǬʼRÕN-PL ǭʼrõn: ǭrõn 236
  • LEXICON NMN_KĪNDÕR kīndõr: kīndõr 237
  • LEXICON NMN_KĪNDÕR-PL kīndõr: kīndõr 237
  • LEXICON NMN_BÄʼZMÕR-SG bäʼzmõr: bäʼzmõr 238
  • LEXICON NMN_BÄʼZMÕR-PL bäʼzmõr: bäʼzmõr 238
  • LEXICON NMN_TARĪĻ tarīļ: tarīļ 239
  • LEXICON NMN_TARĪĻ-PL tarīļ: tarīļ 239
  • LEXICON NMN_ĀNKAŖ ānkaŗ: ānkaŗ 240
  • LEXICON NMN_ĀNKAŖ-PL ānkaŗ: ānkaŗ 240
  • LEXICON NMN_VIRPÕĻ virpõļ: virpõļ 241
  • LEXICON NMN_VIRPÕĻ-PL virpõļ: virpõļ 241
  • LEXICON NMN_ǬʼBIĻ ǭʼbiļ: ǭbiļ 242
  • LEXICON NMN_ǬʼBIĻ-PL ǭʼbiļ: ǭbiļ 242
  • LEXICON NMN_GOLĀTÕKS golātõks: golātõks 244 found in Liv-est-lat dictionary

NUMBER AND CASE

above as pair in SG-ELA/INE_st

  • LEXICON PL-DAT_õn This is peculiar to NMN_PŪOL-PL 216,219
  • LEXICON PL-INS_kõks This is peculiar to NMN_PŪOL-PL 216

A trigger for z: ž will be required

Verb inflection The LIVONIAN language verbs inflect in persons.

CONJUGATION TYPE MISSING

CONJUGATION TYPE MISSING

1 lǟʼdõ: lǟʼ

1 lǟʼdõ: lǟʼ

2 tǭʼdõ: tǭʼ

3 vīdõ: vī

3 vīdõ: vī

3 vīdõ: vī

4 nǟʼdõ: nǟʼ

4 nǟʼdõ: nǟʼ

  • Yaml: naeaeqdw

5 kǟʼdõ: kǟʼ

6 tīʼedõ: tīʼe

7 sīedõ: sīe

7 sīedõ: sīe

7 sīedõ: sīe

8 sǭdõ: s

8 sǭdõ: s

8 sǭdõ: s

9 jūodõ: jūo

9 jūodõ: jūo

10 vȱlda:

10 vȱlda:

11 tūlda:

12 pānda:

12 pānda:

12 pānda:

13 jeʼllõ: jeʼlā

13 jeʼllõ: jeʼllõ

18 astõ: astõ

18 astõ: astõ

19 võttõ: võttõ

24 vieʼddõ: vieʼddõ

24 vieʼddõ: vieʼddõ

25 maksõ: maksõ

25 maksõ: maksõ

26 tappõ: tappõ

14 mängõ: mǟnga

15 killõ: kīla

16 pallõ: pǭla

17 loulõ: lōla

20 laittõ: lāita

20 laittõ: lāita

21 täutõ: tǟta

21 täutõ: tǟta

22 pȯļtõ: pūoļta

22 pȯļtõ: pūoļta

23 mȯistõ: mūošta

23 mȯistõ: mūošta

27 andõ: ānda

27 andõ: ānda

28 tieudõ: tīeda

28 tieudõ: tīeda

29-48 follow same pattern luʼggõ: luʼggõ 29

luʼggõ: lugū 29

muʼdžõ: mudžū 30

muʼdžõ: mudžū 30

vakțõ: vakțū 31

vakțõ: vakțū 31

kittõ: kitū 32

kittõ: kitū 32

riʼddõ: ridū 33

riʼddõ: ridū 33

riʼddõ: ridū 33

kutsõ: kutsū 34

kutsõ: kutsū 34

laskõ: laskū 35

laskõ: laskū 35

laskõ: laskū 35

akkõ: akū 36 Should ss be s and šš be š? 2013-02-19

akkõ: akū 36

aigõ: āigõ 37

aigõ: āigõ 37

aigõ: āigõ 37

kuoŗŗõ: kūoŗõ 38

vannõ: vǭnõ 39

pȯļļõ: pūoļõ 40

pȯimõ: pūoimõ 41

pȯimõ: pūoimõ 41

ouŗõ: ōŗõ 42

keijõ: kējõ 43

keijõ: kējõ 43

aŗštõ: āŗštõ 44

aŗštõ: āŗštõ 44

pȯrtõ: pūortõ 45

outõ: ōtõ 46

tundõ: tūndõ 47

tundõ: tūndõ 47

tundõ: tūndõ 47

oudõ: ōdõ 48

kūlõ: kūlõ 49

kūlõ: kūlõ 49

arrõ: arrõ 50

arrõ: arrõ 50

aʼilõ: aʼilõ 51

aʼilõ: aʼilõ 51

svaʼrrõ: svaʼrrõ 52

kītõ: kīt 53

kītõ: kīt 53 ~701

kītõ: kīt 53

äʼbțõ: äʼbț 54

äʼbțõ: äʼbț 54

kūldõ: kūld 55

kūldõ: kūld 55

kūldõ: kūld 55

kūldõ: kūld 55

kīskõ: kīsk 56

īʼedõ: īed 57

īʼedõ: īed 57

īʼedõ: īed 57

umblõ: umblõ 58

umblõ: 58

umblõ: 58

mõtlõ: 59

mõtlõ: 59

mõtlõ: 59

mǟʼdlõ: 60

mǟʼdlõ: 60

naʼgrõ: 60

naʼgrõ: 60

62 alā: alā

62 äʼb: ä

62 iʼz: ä

63 sä: sä

64 piḑīks: piḑī

After transitive, intransitive, auxiliary and such tags have been added

1

2

3 This is mutual for 3: vīdõ: vī Prt Imprt

Jus Qvo

participles

LEXICON V-01_NǞʼDÕ 4 This is mutual for ??: 4 nǟʼdõ: nǟʼ Prt Imprt

Jus Qvo

participles

LEXICON V-01_SĪEDÕ : 7 sīedõ: sīe

  • Yaml: siiedw Prt Imprt

Jus Qvo

participles

8 sǭdõ: s Prt Imprt

Jus Qvo

participles 9 9 jūodõ: vī Prt Imprt

Jus Qvo

participles 10

13 jeʼllõ, 18 astõ, 19 võttõ, 24 vieʼddõ, 25 maksõ, 26 tappõ

Cond Imprt Jus Qvo

participles

14 mängõ, 15 killõ, 16 pallõ, 17 loulõ, 20 laitõ, 21 täutõ, 22 pȯļtõ, 23 mȯistõ, 27 āndõ, 28 tīeudõ

29 LEXICON V-01_LUʼGGÕ luʼggõ: luʼggõ 29 This is mutual for 29-36: luʼggõ, muʼdžõ, vakțõ, kittõ, riʼddõ, kutsõ, laskõ, akkõ Prt ImprtI

Jus Kvo

participles

This is mutual for 37-48

Prt

participles

Prt +Act+PrfPrc

Ger, Ger_Ine

  • INF_ZERO ; aʼilõ Inf
  • SUP-STEM_m ; aʼilõ- Sup, Sup+Abe, Sup+Ela, Sup+Deb, Sup+Ill, Sup+Ine, Sup+Tra Ind+Prs+Pl1, Ind+Prs+Pl2, Ind+Prs+Pl3, Ind+ConNeg+Pl1 Ind+ConNeg+Pl2, Ind+ConNeg+Pl3
  • :INDPRSSG1-STEM ; aʼilõ- Ind+Prs+Sg1, Ind+Prs+Sg2, Ind+Prs+Sg3
  • :%^VowsRM INDCONNEGSG ; aʼil- Ind+ConNeg+Sg
  • :%^VowsRM%>i INDPRT_z ; aʼili- Ind+Prt+Sg1, Ind+Prt+Sg2, Ind+Prt+Sg3, Ind+Prt+Pl1, Ind+Prt+Pl2, Ind+Prt+Pl3
  • COND ; aʼilõ- Cond... Imprt+Sg2, Imprt+ConNeg+Sg2

Imprt+Pl1, Imprt+Pl2, Imprt+ConNeg

Jus+Sg3, Jus+Pl3

Quo+Sg3, Quo+Pl3, Der/VN -mi

  • ACTPRFPRC_n ; aʼilõ%>n +Act+PrfPrc
  • :%^VowsRM PSSPRSPRC ; aʼil-
  • :%^VowsRM PSSPRFPRCSG ; aʼil-

58, This is mutual for 58-61: umblõ, mõtlõ, mǟʼdlõ, naʼgrõ Prt Imprt

Jus Qvo

participles

Nonfinites

Are the singular and plural homonyms?

2014-08-21

Finites

Indicative present

Indicative present

Indicative preterite in i

Indicative preterite in z

Indicative preterite in ž

Conditional present

Conditional

Imperative

Jussative

Quotative

The Livonian morphophonological/twolc rules file

Alphabet

  • a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
  • ḑ ļ ņ ŗ š ț ž
  • Ḑ Ļ Ņ Ŗ Š Ț Ž
  • õ ä ö ȯ
  • Õ Ä Ö Ȯ
  • ā ē ī ō ū ǟ ǭ ȭ ȱ
  • Ā Ē Ī Ō Ū Ǟ Ǭ Ȭ Ȱ

ʼ Stød

  %[%>%]  - Literal >
  %[%<%]  - Literal <

Triggers

  • %^PenVV2V: 0 penultimate vowel shortening
  • %^Tense: 0 = Tense stem will have stød if proper stem type
  • %^D2T: 0 d: t veʼž: veʼd: vietā
  • %^PreI: 0 i: 0 veʼž: veʼd: vietā
  • %^Ē2ĪE: 0 kēļ kīel
  • K1: k this k is not effected by gradation
  • %^NoGrad: 0 This will be placed after a stem to break Gradation
  • %^WGStem: 0 this weakens the stem ompel to ommel
  • %^TS: 0 The ti => si
  • %^D2Ž: 0 The *ti => *si
  • %^D2ZERO: 0 The d => 0

Vowel raising

  • %^LowerVows: 0 lower vowel
  • %^RVows: 0 raise vowel
  • %^VowsSh1: 0 vowel shortening in first syllable
  • %^VowsShU1: 0
  • %^VowsShI1: 0
  • %^DiphthSh1: 0
  • %^VowsLI1: 0 vowel lengthening that is followed by "i" when short
  • %^VowsLU1: 0 vowel lengthening that is followed by "u" when short
  • %^VowsL1: 0 vowel lengthening
  • %^DiphthL1: 0
  • %^LongV2Õin2: 0 long vowel to õ in second syllable
  • %^Vow2Iin2: 0 vowel to i or ī in second syllable

vowel metathesis

VOWEL SHORTENING

  • %^VowShIn1: 0 This causes vowel shortening in 1. syll
  • accompanied by coda consonant lengthening
  • %^A2ÕIn2: 0 This causes 2. syll a => õ
  • %^A2ÕIn2: 0 lengthen consonant
  • %^A2ÕIn2: 0 Vow in middle ētam: eitmõd
  • %^A2ÕIn2: 0 laps: läpš
  • %^A2ÕIn2: 0 kīndõr: kīndiriž
  • %^A2ÕIn2: 0 Hyphen in constructions
  • %^A2ÕIn2: 0 morpheme boundary
  • %^A2ÕIn2: 0 Word boundary for both lexicalised and dynamic compounds

Sets

Rule section

Vowel rules

Shortening in first syllable

ǟ:ä in first syllable

kǟnga%^VowShIn1%^A2ÕIn2 examples:

kängõ00 examples:

ā:a in first syllable

āļdža%^VowShIn1%^A2ÕIn2 examples:

aļdžõ00 examples:

āita%^PenVV2V%^VowsRM%>õ examples:

ait000%>õ examples:

ȱ:ȯ

vȱntsa%^VowShIn1%^VowsRM%>õ examples:

vȯnts0000õ examples:

ā:ī in second syllable plural

rikkā%^ConsSh%^Vow2Iin2>di examples:

rik0ī000di examples:

ū:ī in second syllable plural

ruzū%^Vow2Iin2>di examples:

ruzī000di examples:

a:i in second syllable plural

āita%^Vow2Iin2>di examples:

āiti00di examples:

ǭ:a in first syllable

ē:e in first syllable

ū:u in first syllable

ū:ȯ in first syllable

pūol0a%^Stress1to2%^ConsL examples:

pȯ0llõ00 examples:

pūoga%^VowsSh1%^PalatalizeLeft%^VowsRM%>õ examples:

pȯig00000õ examples:

ī:i in first syllable

tīer0a%^VowShIn1%^A2ÕIn2 examples:

tierrõ00 examples:

ȭ:õ in first syllable

mȭuka%^VowsSh1%^VowsRM%>õ examples:

mõuk0000õ examples:

ō:o in first syllable

lengthen vowels

e:ē in first syllable

leiba%^VowsLI1%>st examples:

lē0ba00st examples:

tei%^VowsLI1%>ḑi examples:

tē000ḑi examples:

u:ū in first syllable

ul%^VowsLI1>õd examples:

ūl00õd examples:

õ:ȭ in first syllable

ȯ:ū in first syllable

ä:ǟ in first syllable

0:i after shortened vowel or diphthong

v0eʼd%^PreI examples:

vieʼd0 examples:

0:u after shortened vowel or diphthong

0:o after shortened vowel or diphthong

VOWEL LENGTHENING

a:ǭ in first syllable

tam%^VowsL1aToǭõd examples:

tǭm0õd examples:

a:ā in first syllable

kand%^VowsLI1õd examples:

kāndõd examples:

i:ī in first syllable

niŗț%^VowsLI1%>õ examples:

nīŗț00õ examples:

o:ō in first syllable

ouki%^VowsLI1z examples:

ō0ki0z examples:

o:i

pūog%^VowsSh1%^PalatalizeLeft%>õ examples:

pȯig0000õ examples:

raise vowels ē:ī in kēļ 215

kē0l%^Ē2ĪE examples:

kīel0 examples:

LOWER VOWELS ī:ē in tīe 15

tīʼe%^LowerVows%^StodRM%^VowsRM%>šti examples:

tē000000šti examples:

Destressing in second syllable ā:õ

käp0ā%^ConsL%^LongV2Õin2 examples:

käppõ00 examples:

  • rik0āz%^Stress2to1%^ConsRM
  • rikkõ000

a:õ

tīer0a%^VowShIn1%^A2ÕIn2 examples:

tierrõ00 examples:

ū:õ

õ:i

ǭʼrõn%^PalatalizeLeft examples:

ǭʼriņ0 examples:

nȭŗkõz%^PalatalizeLeft%>ist examples:

nȭŗkiz00ist examples:

VOWEL LOSS

ā:0

aʼmmā%^PalatalizeLeft%^ConsSh%^VowsRM%>ži examples:

äʼm000000ži examples:

aʼmā%^PalatalizeLeft%^ConsSh%^VowsRM%>ḑi examples:

ä0m00000ḑi examples:

daʼdzā%^Stress1to2%^VowsRM%>õ examples:

daʼdz0000õ examples:

maʼigāz%^StodRM%^VowsRM%^ConsRM>īst examples:

ma0ig000000īst examples:

ū:0

ī:0

sīe%>i examples:

s0e0i examples:

a:0

jǭr0a%^Stress1to2%^ConsL%^VowsRMõ examples:

jarr0000õ examples:

pūol0a%^Stress1to2%^ConsL%^VowsRMõ examples:

pȯ0ll0000õ examples:

kǟnga%^VowShIn1%^PalatalizeLeft%^VowsRMi examples:

keņg0000i examples:

e:0

tīʼe%^LowerVows%^StodRM%^VowsRM%>šti examples:

tē000000šti examples:

õ:0

kittõ%^ConsSh%^VowsRM%>dõd examples:

kit00000tõd examples:

i:0 in first syllable

leiba%^VowsLI1%>st examples:

lē0ba00st examples:

tei%^VowsLI1%>ḑi examples:

tē000ḑi examples:

lǭija%^ConsSh examples:

lǭ0ja0 examples:

liestā%^VowShIn1%^PalatalizeLeft%^VowsRM%>i examples:

l0ešt00000i examples:

ūiska%^ConsSh examples:

ū0ška0 examples:

u:0 in second position of first-syllable diphthong

ouki%^VowsLI1z examples:

ō0ki0z examples:

pǟuva%^ConsSh examples:

pǟ0va0 examples:

o:0 in second position of first-syllable diphthong


__pūol0a%^Stress1to2%^ConsL examples:__

__pȯ0llõ00 examples:__

Zero to vowel

0:e in vowel raising kēļ

kē0l%^Ē2ĪE examples:

kīel0 examples:

0:õ in vowel metathesis

Consonant rules

Consonant loss

shorten consonantism between 1st and 2nd vowel center jeʼllõ:jelāb

aʼmmā%^PalatalizeLeft%^ConsSh%^VowsRM%>ži examples:

äʼm000000ži examples:

z:0

  • rik0āz%^Stress2to1%^ConsRM

Consonant lengthening

Lengthening consonantism between first and second vowel center simultaneous to reducing vowel of second syllable

lengthen consonantism between 1st and 2nd vowel center jelāb:jellõ

  • je0l0ā%^Stress2to1
  • ka0l0ā%^Stress2to1
  • rik0āz%^Stress2to1%^ConsRM

pūol0a%^Stress1to2%^ConsL examples:

pȯ0llõ00 examples:

0:p

käp0ā%^ConsL%^LongV2Õin2 examples:

käppõ00 examples:

%{XC%}:Cx

%{XC%}:p2014-02-27

kep%{XC%}>õ examples:

kepp0õ examples:

%{XC%}:ž2014-02-27

veʼd%^D2Ž%{XC%}>i examples:

veʼž0ž0i examples:

%{XC%}:k2014-02-27

rok%{XC%}>õ examples:

rokk0õ examples:

Stod removal left

daʼdzā%^Stress1to2%^VowsRM%>õ examples:

daʼdz0000õ examples:

Stod removal right

ka0l0ā%^Stress2to1 examples:

kaʼllõ0 examples:

z:ž

alīz%^PalatalizeLeft%>i examples:

alīž00i examples:

izā%^PalatalizeLeft%^VowsRM%>ḑi examples:

iž0000ḑi examples:

l:ļ This rule should not require the %^ConsRM: 0 trigger, but for now this makes it work. kēļ: kēl 215

äʼddõl%^PalatalizeLeft%>i examples:

äʼddiļ00i examples:

tuʼl%^StodRM%^PalatalizeLeft%>īž examples:

tu0ļ000īž examples:

n:ņ palatalization

Vē0na%^PalatalizeLeft%^VowsRMõ examples:

Vein000õ examples:

ǭʼrõn%^PalatalizeLeft examples:

ǭʼriņ0 examples:

vȱntsa%^VowShIn1%^PalatalizeLeft%^VowsRM%>ti examples:

vȯņtš00000ti examples: sēņ: sēn 220

kǟnga%^VowShIn1%^PalatalizeLeft%^VowsRMi examples:

keņg0000i examples:

r:ŗ jūŗ: jūr 221

ǟrga%^VowShIn1%^PalatalizeLeft%^VowsRMi examples:

eŗg0000i examples:

d:t

kittõ%^ConsSh%^VowsRM%>dõd examples:

kit00000tõd examples: nominative plural

v0eʼd%^PreI%^StodRM%^D2T examples:

vie0t examples:

d:ț

d:ž

Consonant loss

d:0 Vow: (Cns: +) _ (%^PreI: %^StodRM:

%^VowsLI1: ) %^D2ZERO: 0 ;

T loss before subsequent morpheme with underlying initial d

kittõ%^ConsSh%^VowsRM%>dõd examples:

kit00000tõd examples:

k:0

rikkā%^ConsSh%^Vow2Iin2di examples:

rik0ī00di examples:

ț:0

s:š palatalization

liestā%^VowShIn1%^PalatalizeLeft%^VowsRM%>i examples:

l0ešt00000i examples:

pȯ0is%^VowsLI1õd examples:

pūo0š0õd examples:

ǟ:ē palatalization

ǟ:e short and palatalization

kǟnga%^VowShIn1%^PalatalizeLeft%^VowsRMi examples:

keņg0000i examples:

a:ä palatalization

aʼmā%^PalatalizeLeft%^ConsSh%^VowsRM%>ḑi examples:

äʼm00000ḑi examples: