Free and Open source Pite Sami analyser giella-sje

Divvun and Giellatekno teams, community members
Software version
Documentation license
SVN Revision
$Revision:68217 $
SVN Date
$Date:2013-01-16 11:31:33 +0200 (Wed, 16 Jan 2013) $


This is free and open source Pite Sami morphology.

Pite Sámi morphological analyser

This file contains the tags and reference to main lexica

Multichar_Symbols definitions


  • +N Noun
  • +V Verb
  • +A Adjective
  • +Adv Adverb
  • +CC Coordinating conjuction
  • +CS Subordinating conjuction
  • +Interj Interjection
  • +Pron Pronoun
  • +Num Numeral
  • +Pcle Particle
  • +Po Postposition
  • +Pr Preposition


  • +Pers Personal
  • +Dem Demonstrative
  • +Interr Interrogative
  • +Indef Indefinite
  • +Refl Reflexive
  • +Recipr Reciprocal
  • +Rel Relative
  • +NomAg Agent noun
  • +Attr Attributive
  • +Comp Comparative
  • +Superl Superlative

Morphosyntactic properties

Verbal MSP


  • +Prs Present tense
  • +Prt Preterite (past) tense
  • +Ind Indicative mood
  • +Imprt Imperative mood
  • +Pot Potential mood


  • +Sg1 First person singular
  • +Sg2 Second person singular
  • +Sg3 Third person singular
  • +Du1 First person dual
  • +Du2 Second person dual
  • +Du3 Third person dual
  • +Pl1 First person plural
  • +Pl2 Second person plural
  • +Pl3 Third person plural

Infinite forms

  • +Inf Infinitive
  • +Neg Negation verb
  • +ConNeg Connegative verb
  • +GerI Gerund I
  • +GerII Gerund II
  • +PrfPrc Perfect participle
  • +PrsPrc Present participle
  • +VAbess Verb abessive
  • +Cmp Compound
  • +TV Transitive verb
  • +IV Intransitive verb

Other tags

  • +ABBR Abbreviation
  • +Symbol = independent symbols in the text stream, like £, €, ©
  • +Coll Collocation
  • +Cmp/SgNom Compound component using Nominative Singular form
  • +Cmp/SgGen Compound component using Genitive Singular form
  • +Det Determiner

Derivation tags

  • +Der/NomAg Derived agent noun
  • +Der/Dimin Derived diminutive
  • +Der/State Derived state noun

Nominal MSP

  • +Sg Singular
  • +Pl Plural


  • +Nom Nominative
  • +Acc Accusative
  • +Gen Genitive
  • +Ill Illative
  • +Ine Inessive
  • +Ela Elative
  • +Com Comitative
  • +Ess Essive
  • +Abe Abessive
  • +Ord Ordinal
  • +Card Cardinal

Semantic properties of names

Pssessive suffixes

  • +PxSg1 First person singular possessive suffix
  • +PxSg2 Second person singular possessive suffix
  • +PxSg3 Third person singular possessive suffix
  • +PxDu1 First person dual possessive suffix
  • +PxDu2 Second person dual possessive suffix
  • +PxDu3 Third person dual possessive suffix
  • +PxPl1 First person plural possessive suffix
  • +PxPl2 Second person plural possessive suffix
  • +PxPl3 Third person plural possessive suffix

Other tags

  • +Err/Orth Not part of standard orthography
  • +Use/NG Found in reality, but not generated
  • +Use/Circ
  • +Cmp/Hyph
  • +Cmp/SplitR
  • +Use/-Spell
  • +Use/NGminip

Compounding tags

The tags are of the following form:

  • +CmpNP/xxx - Normative (N), Position (P), ie. the tag describes what position the tagged word can be in in a compound
  • +CmpN/xxx - Normative (N) form ie. the tag describes what form the tagged word should use when making compounds
  • +Cmp/xxx - Descriptive compounding tags, ie. tags that describes what form a word actually is using in a compound

Normative/prescriptive compounding tags: (to govern compound behaviour for the speller, ie. what a compound SHOULD BE)

The first part of the component may be ..

  • +CmpN/Sg = Singular
  • +CmpN/SgN = Singular Nominative
  • +CmpN/SgG = Singular Genitive
  • +CmpN/PlG = Plural Genitive
  • +CmpNP/All - ... be in all positions, default, this tag does not have to be written
  • +CmpNP/First - ... only be first part in a compound or alone
  • +CmpNP/Pref - ... only first part in a compound, NEVER alone
  • +CmpNP/Last - ... only be last part in a compound or alone
  • +CmpNP/Suff - ... only last part in a compound, NEVER alone
  • +CmpNP/None - ... not take part in compounds
  • +CmpNP/Only - ... only be part of a compound, i.e. can never be used alone, but can appear in any position
  • +CmpN/SgLeft Singular to the left
  • +CmpN/SgNomLeft Singular nominative to the left
  • +CmpN/SgGenLeft Singular genitive to the left
  • +CmpN/PlGenLeft Plural genitive to the left
  • +Cmp/Sg Singular
  • +Cmp/SgNom Singular Nominative
  • +Cmp/SgGen Singular Genitive
  • +Cmp/PlGen Plural Genitiv
  • +Cmp/PlNom Plural Nominative
  • +Cmp/Attr Attribute
  • +Cmp Dynamic compound - this tag should always be part of a dynamic compound. It is important for Apertium, and useful in other cases as well.
  • +Cmp/SplitR This is a split compound with the other part to the right: "Arbeids- og inkluderingsdepartementet" => Arbeids- = +Cmp/SplitR
  • +Cmp/SplitL This is a split compound with the other part to the left
  • +Cmp/Sh testing ShCmp

Punctuation tags

  • +CLB Clause boundary
  • +PUNCT Punctuation
  • +LEFT
  • +RIGHT
  • +SENT

Morphophonological symbols

Symbols for regulating the twolc file

^WG * weak grade ^G3 * marks grade three for stems w/o Cgrad ^V2E2AA * e to á (before j), o to u before j in V2 ^CDEL * Deleting final consonant, biednag ^VDEL * Deleting final V2 vowel in compounds or gájk ^MON * Monophthong in contract ^UAUML * uo to uä juolge / juällge ^IEUML * ie to ä etc. gielbar gællbara ^IUML * a to i, gallgat gillgin ^IJ * e to i in front of Plural j and Sg Com ^V2O2U * o to u in V2 (e.g. Ill.Sg, Dim, some N_ODD) etc. ^MONB4J * No rules for this one in twolc!


i2 * Variable vowel, does not trigger VH u2 * Variable vowel, does not trigger VH ä2 * Variable vowel, does not undergo (further) VH b2 d2 g2 t2 j2 * Variable consonants, undergo final devoicing or other alternations ^O * o but ä in uä

  »7       * »
  «7       * «
  %[%>%]   * >
  %[%<%]   * <

Flag diacritics

We have manually optimised the structure of our lexicon using following flag diacritics to restrict morhpological combinatorics - only allow compounds with verbs if the verb is further derived into a noun again:

@P.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@D.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@C.NeedNoun@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised

For languages that allow compounding, the following flag diacritics are needed to control position-based compounding restrictions for nominals. Their use is handled automatically if combined with +CmpN/xxx tags. If not used, they will do no harm.

@P.CmpFrst.FALSE@ Require that words tagged as such only appear first
@D.CmpPref.TRUE@ Block such words from entering ENDLEX
@P.CmpPref.FALSE@ Block these words from making further compounds
@D.CmpLast.TRUE@ Block such words from entering R
@D.CmpNone.TRUE@ Combines with the next tag to prohibit compounding
@U.CmpNone.FALSE@ Combines with the prev tag to prohibit compounding
@P.CmpOnly.TRUE@ Sets a flag to indicate that the word has passed R
@D.CmpOnly.FALSE@ Disallow words coming directly from root.

Use the following flag diacritics to control downcasing of derived proper nouns (e.g. Finnish Pariisi -> pariisilainen). See e.g. North Sámi for how to use these flags. There exists a ready-made regex that will do the actual down-casing given the proper use of these flags.

@U.Cap.Obl@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.
@U.Cap.Opt@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.

Key lexicon

Lexicon Root starts the analyser and directs paths to all POS.

Lexicon ENDLEX

And this is the ENDLEX of everything:

 @D.CmpOnly.FALSE@@D.CmpPref.TRUE@@D.NeedNoun.ON@ # ; 

The @D.CmpOnly.FALSE@ flag diacritic is ued to disallow words tagged with +CmpNP/Only to end here. The @D.NeedNoun.ON@ flag diacritic is used to block illegal compounds.

Adjectives !

Här är lexikon för adjektivsböjning. Först jämnstaviga, så uddastaviga, och sen kontrakta. Efteråt kommer morfologin, som också spiller över i nouns.lexc.

  • LEXICON A_EVEN_D ex. almelatj: almelatja, nominativ och attributiv fungerar ej
  • LEXICON A_EVEN_NOCG_S ex. jasska, állke
  • LEXICON A_ODD är uddastaviga
  • LEXICON A_ODD_GIS är uddastaviga ex.bavrek: bavreg- d
  • LEXICON A_ODD_SIS är uddastaviga ex aset: ased-
  • LEXICON A_ODD_AA är uddastaviga ex suddes.suddás-
  • LEXICON A_ODD_S är uddastaviga ex blávvat: blávvad-/blávvis
  • LEXICON A_ODD_Y är uddastaviga ex tjuavvgat: tjuavvgad-/tjuvvgis
  • LEXICON A_ODD_Å är uddastaviga ex lusjgos: lusjgos-
  • LEXICON A_ODD_Ä är uddastaviga ex stumbu: stumbus-
  • LEXICON A_ODD_DD är uddastaviga ex gilos: gillus-
  • LEXICON A_ODD_ÖÖ är uddastaviga ex rádes, rádep !kolla compsup
  • LEXICON A_ODD_k_K är uddastaviga ex tjuorak: tjuorag-
  • LEXICON A_EVEN_KONTR_C , exempel sjtänntjáj: sjtänntjá
  • LEXICON A_EVEN_KONTR_D , exempel låmmsje: låmmsjá/låmmsjes (attr)
  • LEXICON A_EVEN_KONTR_E , exempel mivkes: mivkká-/mivka (attr)

File containing abbreviations

Lexica for adding tags and periods

Splitting in 3 groups, because of the preprocessor

  • LEXICON Abbreviation
  • LEXICON trab-ab-noun
  • LEXICON trab-ab-adj
  • LEXICON trab-ab-adv
  • LEXICON trab-ab-verb
  • LEXICON trab-ab-num
  • LEXICON trab-ab-cc
  • LEXICON itrab-ab-noun
  • LEXICON itrab-ab-adj
  • LEXICON itrab-ab-adv
  • LEXICON itrab-ab-num
  • LEXICON trnumab-ab-noun
  • LEXICON trnumab-ab-adj
  • LEXICON ab-nodot-noun The bulk Here come POS and Case tags, and no period.
  • LEXICON ab-nodot-adj
  • LEXICON ab-nodot-adv
  • LEXICON ab-nodot-num
  • LEXICON ab-nodot-cc
  • LEXICON ab-nodot-verb

Intransitive abbreviations


Transitive abbreviations


Pite Saami Adjectives

  • LEXICON Adjective is the main lexicon

Lexc inflectional classes (Mini-grammar)


  • LEXICON Postposition is the list
  • LEXICON PrePostposition is the list
  • LEXICON PostP adds the tag +Po
  • LEXICON PrePost adds the tags +Po and +Pr


  • LEXICON adv adds the tag +Adv
  • LEXICON Adverb is the list


  • LEXICON CC gives +CC
  • LEXICON Conjunction is the list.
  • LEXICON interj gives the tag +Interj
  • LEXICON Interjection is the list

Pite Saami Nouns

  • LEXICON Noun is the main lexicon

Lexc inflectional classes (Mini-grammar)

  • Even-syllable stem patterns:
    • N_EVEN: bisyllabic stems except those ending in -o- (e.g. juällge, bijjla, gisstá, gällu, båsskå)
    • N_EVEN_O: bisyllabic stems ending in -o- (e.g. iello)
    • N_EVEN4: tetrasyllabic stems (trisyllabic in Nom.Sg) ending in -k/-g-, -tj- (e.g. mánnodak, såbmelatj)
    • N_EVEN4_ISA: tetrasyllabic stems (trisyllabic in Nom.Sg) ending in -is/-as- (e.g. guoksagis)
  • Odd-syllable stem patterns:
    • N_ODD: odd-syllable stems ending in a closed syllable and without consonant gradation (e.g. almatj)
    • N_ODD_OPEN: odd-syllable stems ending in an open syllable (e.g. biena)
    • N_ODD_VH: odd-syllable stems ending in a closed syllable and with vowel harmony (e.g. ålol)
    • N_ODD_WG: odd-syllable stems ending in a closed syllable (e.g. vanas)
  • Contracted stem patterns:
    • N_CONTR_AJA: contracted stems ending in -aj or -a (e.g. ålmaj)
    • N_CONTR_ESA: contracted stems ending in -es or -á (e.g. sarves)
    • N_CONTR_OJU: contracted stems ending in -oj or -u (e.g. båtsoj)
    • N_CONTR_OU: contracted stems ending in -o or -u (e.g. suolo)

Pite Saami numerals

  • LEXICON Numeral
  • LEXICON pcle the tag
  • LEXICON Particle the list


  • LEXICON Pronoun
  • LEXICON Personal
  • LEXICON perssg
  • LEXICON persdu
  • LEXICON perspl
  • LEXICON Demonstrative
  • LEXICON Determiner
  • LEXICON Relative
  • LEXICON Interrogative
  • LEXICON Indefinita
  • LEXICON Reflexive
  • LEXICON gallacase

Pite Saami ProperNouns


  • LEXICON ProperNoun


  • LEXICON Punctuation
  • LEXICON Subjunction

Pite Saami Verbs

  • LEXICON Verb is the main lexicon

Lexc inflectional classes (Mini-grammar)

  • V_EVEN_E: even-syllable stems ending in -e- (e.g. båhtet)
  • V_EVEN_A: even-syllable stems ending in -a- (e.g. dahkat)
  • V_EVEN_O: even-syllable stems ending in -o- (e.g. viessot)
  • V_EVEN_Å: even-syllable stems ending in -å- (e.g. bårråt)
  • V_ODD: odd-syllable stems (e.g. ságastit)
  • V_CONTR: contracted stems (e.g. gullit -j-, tjerrut -j-)
  • lä: LE "copula/auxiliary verb" ;
  • ij: IJ "negation verb" ;

Pite Sámi TWOLC file

0 :weak grade
0 :marks grade three for stems w/o Cgrad
0 :e to á in V2 (e.g. ILL.SG, DIM, 1/2-Sg) %^V2O2U:0 * o to u in V2 (e.g. Ill.Sg, Dim, some N_ODD) etc.
0 :delete final consonant odd (biednag)
0 :delete final V2 vowel in compounds or gájk
0 :Monophthong in contracted stems
0 :uo to uä juolge / juällge
0 :ie to ä, gielbar / gällbara %^IUML:0 * a to i, gallgat gillgin %^IJ:0 * e to i in front of Plural j and Sg Com %^MONB4J:0 * what is this?


Consonant gradation rules

Consonant Gradation for htt(j|s):ht(j|s)

Consonant Gradation for hxx:hx

Consonant Gradation for xdn(j):xn(j)

Consonant Gradation for xx:x

Consonant Gradation for xxy:xy

Consonant Gradation for xxt(j|s):xt(j|s)

Consonant Gradation for xxsj:xsj

Consonant Gradation for xy:y

Delete h in hx:y

Intervocalic voiced plosives in hx:y

Consonant Gradation for l/jbm:l/jm

Consonant Gradation for nnjg:njg

Consonant Gradation for vgŋ:vŋ

Consonant Gradation for rdj:rj

Other consonant rules

Final C Deletion

Final devoicing

Word Final Simplification in -st

Word-final De-Affricatization for tj

Vowel rules


Default VH

Default VH for 4syllables

Default UA in G3

  • lu^Oddan^UAUMLi%>t
  • luaddan0i0t

Special UÄ (VH) in G3

  • gu^Odde^G3%>t
  • guädde00t
  • gu^Odde^G3%>t
  • guädde00t

Special VH for u^O

Special VH for ie

  • sjievdnje^IJ%>s
  • sj0evdnji00s
  • hierrge^WG^IJ%>j
  • h0er0gi000j
  • hierrge%>j^V2E2AA
  • h0ärrgá0j0

Ä in G3

Ä in G3 capitalized

V2 E to I before j-suffixes

V2 E to Á

  • båhte^WG%>v^V2E2AA
  • bå0dá00v0
  • båhte^WG%>^V2E2AA
  • bå0dá000
  • máhtte^WG%>v^V2E2AA
  • máht0á00v0
  • máhtte^WG%>^V2E2AA
  • máht0á000

V2 E to Á before S or R

V2 O to U

Final V Deletion

  • a
  • b