Free and Open source Somali analyser giella-som

Divvun and Giellatekno teams, community members
Software version
Documentation license
SVN Revision
$Revision:68217 $
SVN Date
$Date:2013-01-16 11:31:33 +0200 (Wed, 16 Jan 2013) $


This is free and open source Somali morphology.

Somali morphological analyser


Multichar_Symbols definitions

Analysis symbols

The morphological analyses of Somali wordforms are presented in this system in terms of the following symbols. (It is highly suggested to follow existing standards when adding new tags).

The parts-of-speech are:

  • +N
  • +V
  • +A
  • +Adp
  • +Q
  • +Pr
  • +Adv
  • +CC
  • +CS
  • +Interj
  • +Pron
  • +Num

Fusional adpositions

  • +Adp/u Fusional ú
  • +Adp/ka Fusional ká
  • +Adp/la Fusional lá
  • +Adp/ku Fusional kú

Object pronouns in adpositional+pronoun

  • +1SgObj/i E.x.: la + i + lá -> laylá
  • +2SgObj/ku E.x.: la + ku + lá -> lagulá


  • +Foc/L Focus markers baa and ayaa
  • +Foc/R Focus marker waxaa

The parts of speech are further split up into:

  • +Interr
  • +Interr/ma
  • +Attr
  • +Short
  • +Cmp
  • +Der/sho
  • +Pfx
  • +PP
  • +Sep
  • +Com
  • +Appos
  • +Impers
  • +Inch
  • +Recit
  • +Restr
  • +Pers
  • +Dem
  • +Coll
  • +Mass
  • +Acr
  • +Abstr
  • +Abbr
  • +Prop

Verb and noun declensions for the analysers that want to know about that NOTE: We probably do not want to thag these, this is morphological and not morphosyntactic info. t.

  • +Decl/1
  • +Decl/2
  • +Decl/2A
  • +Decl/2B
  • +Decl/3 +Decl/3A +Decl/3B
  • +Decl/4
  • +Decl/5
  • +Decl/6
  • +Decl/7

The Usage extents are marked using the following tags:

  • +Err/Orth
  • +Use/-Spell
  • +Use/-Spell
  • +Use/Circ
  • +Use/CircN
  • +Err/Lex
  • +Use/Marg
  • +Use/NG
  • +Use/Ped
  • +Use/SpellNoSugg+Prog
  • +Err/Orth

The nominals are inflected in the following case, number

  • +Sg
  • +Pl
  • +Nom
  • +Abs
  • +Gen
  • +Indef
  • +Def

Nominals also are inflected for gender

  • +Masc
  • +Fem

Nominal marked for gender undergo gender polarity changes in plural. We want to mark +Masc and +Fem, such that disambiguation is easier, but knowing the gender of the lemma since it is not predictable from a given plural form is a good thing.

  • +M→M
  • +M→F
  • +F→M
  • +F→F

Nominals also have affixed demonstratives

  • +Prox -0
  • +Dist -ii
  • +Near -aas / -aasi
  • +Far -eer / -eeri
  • +Farther -oo / -ooyi
  • +Close -an / -anu / -ani

Are these in use?

  • +Adc
  • +Apr
  • +Prl
  • +Apr
  • +Cns
  • +Ord

The possession is marked as such:

  • +PxSg1
  • +PxSg2
  • +PxSg3F
  • +PxSg3M
  • +PxPl1
  • +PxPl1Incl
  • +PxPl1Excl
  • +PxPl2
  • +PxPl3

The comparative forms are:

  • +Comp
  • +Superl

Numerals are classified under:

  • +Attr
  • +Card
  • +Ord

Verb moods are:

  • +Ind
  • +Opt
  • +Imprt
  • +Neg
  • +Imper

Verb tenses

  • +Past
  • +Pres

Verb aspects are:

  • +Prog

Verb personal forms are (NB: no inclusive/exclusive):

  • +1Sg
  • +2Sg
  • +3Sg
  • +3SgM
  • +3SgF
  • +1Pl
  • +2Pl
  • +3Pl

Verbs also mark some non-agreement syntactic information

  • +Red occurs often with subjects that are focused
  • +Rel the verb is within a relative clause, and is also case marked.

Other verb forms are

  • +Inf
  • +Ger
  • +ConNeg
  • +ConNegII
  • +Neg
  • +ImprtII
  • +PrsPrc
  • +PrfPrc
  • +Sup
  • +VGen
  • +VAbess

Abbreviated words are classified with:

  • +ABBR
  • +Symbol = independent symbols in the text stream, like £, €, ©
  • +ACR

Special symbols are classified with:

  • +CLB
  • +PUNCT
  • +LEFT
  • +RIGHT

The verbs are syntactically split according to transitivity:

  • +TV
  • +IV
  • +DV

Special multiword units are analysed with:

  • +Multi

Non-dictionary words can be recognised with:

  • +Guess

Question and Focus particles:

  • +Qst
  • +Foc

Semantics are classified with

  • +Sem/Plc

Derivations are classified under the morphophonetic form of the suffix, the source and target part-of-speech.

  • +V→N
  • +V→V
  • +V→A
  • +Der/xxx
  • +Incl
  • +Excl

Syntaxy stuff, don't want to use +Acc, because this isn't relevant in nouns

  • +Subj
  • +Sem/Obj

Nominal MSP

  • +Rel


  • +Der/A
  • +Der/V
  • +Der/N


  • +Clit/ba
  • +Clit/se
  • +Clit/na
  • +Clit/oo
  • +Clit/CS
  • +Clit/Without


  • +Use/NG
  • +Sty
  • +Sty/TODO
  • +Sty/i
  • +Sty/D
  • +Sty/R
  • +TODO


To represent phonologic variations in word forms we use the following symbols in the lexicon files:

  • {N} For tagging certain twolc rules as nominal-only

Going to try to replace these with flag diacritics if possible.

And following triggers to control variation

  • {#} # -

TODO: no need for , but needs to be removed in all files

  • {m} in nouns: for marking m~n alternations
  • {mm} in nouns: rare instance of mm ~ n
  • {C2} in nouns: consonant reduplication in noun declension 4. (yaab ~ yaabab)
  • {X} in nouns: insertion of some kind in noun definiteness. TODO: twolc rule no longer exists?
  • {ae} in verbs: umlaut of a~i in some verb stems (seems restricted to specific lexemes, not productive)
  • {e} in nouns: -e- variation in declension 7 (waraabe ~ waraabaha), not 100% predictable
  • {-e} in nouns: delete final -e, often used in conjunction with {a}, possible room for cleaning up.
  • {a} in verbs: Mostly V3B: has alternation between o ~ a. (sigo ~ sigaday)
  • {-V} in verbs: deletion of specific vowel, used only in affixes, to make stems prettier? room for cleaning
  • {-I} in verbs: -i- deletions in V3A and -san adjectives
  • {-a} used specifically in -sho derivations. TODO: change to rule with » ?
  • {E} part of cliticized ee (CS+Appos)
  • {y} in verbs: -y- deletion in certain parts of V2


  • ´´

Symbols that need to be escaped on the lower side (towards twolc):

Literal »
Literal «
  %[%>%]  - Literal >
  %[%<%]  - Literal <

Flag diacritics

We have manually optimised the structure of our lexicon using following flag diacritics to restrict morhpological combinatorics - only allow compounds with verbs if the verb is further derived into a noun again:

@P.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@D.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@C.NeedNoun@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised

For languages that allow compounding, the following flag diacritics are needed to control position-based compounding restrictions for nominals. Their use is handled automatically if combined with +CmpN/xxx tags. If not used, they will do no harm.

@P.CmpFrst.FALSE@ Require that words tagged as such only appear first
@D.CmpPref.TRUE@ Block such words from entering ENDLEX
@P.CmpPref.FALSE@ Block these words from making further compounds
@D.CmpLast.TRUE@ Block such words from entering R
@D.CmpNone.TRUE@ Combines with the next tag to prohibit compounding
@U.CmpNone.FALSE@ Combines with the prev tag to prohibit compounding
@P.CmpOnly.TRUE@ Sets a flag to indicate that the word has passed R
@D.CmpOnly.FALSE@ Disallow words coming directly from root.

Use the following flag diacritics to control downcasing of derived proper nouns (e.g. Finnish Pariisi -> pariisilainen). See e.g. North Sámi for how to use these flags. There exists a ready-made regex that will do the actual down-casing given the proper use of these flags.

@U.Cap.Obl@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.
@U.Cap.Opt@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.
  • @P.VCLASS.V1ow@ @R.VCLASS.V1ow@
  • @P.VCLASS.V1ow2@ @R.VCLASS.V1ow2@
  • @P.VCLASS.V3B_ADelPart@ @R.VCLASS.V3B_ADelPart@
  • @U.VCLASS.V1@
  • @U.VCLASS.V2A@
  • @U.VCLASS.V2B@
  • @U.VCLASS.V3A@
  • @U.VCLASS.V3B@
  • @P.ATR.True@
  • @R.ATR.True@

Person flags

  • @U.Pers.1Sg@
  • @U.Pers.2Sg@
  • @U.Pers.3SgM@
  • @U.Pers.3SgF@
  • @U.Pers.1Pl@
  • @U.Pers.2Pl@
  • @U.Pers.3Pl@
  • @P.Pers.1Sg@
  • @P.Pers.2Sg@
  • @P.Pers.3SgM@
  • @P.Pers.3SgF@
  • @P.Pers.1Pl@
  • @P.Pers.2Pl@
  • @P.Pers.3Pl@
  • @R.Pers.1Sg@
  • @R.Pers.2Sg@
  • @R.Pers.3SgM@
  • @R.Pers.3SgF@
  • @R.Pers.1Pl@
  • @R.Pers.2Pl@
  • @R.Pers.3Pl@
  • @R.Gender.Masc@
  • @P.Gender.Masc@
  • @R.Gender.Fem@
  • @P.Gender.Fem@

The continuation lexica

The word forms in Somali start from the lexeme roots of basic word classes, or optionally from prefixes:

  • LEXICON Root
  • Abbreviations ;
  • Nouns ;
  • ProperNouns ;
  • Numerals ;
  • Pronouns ;
  • Verbs ;
  • IrregularVerbs ;
  • VerbalPrefixes ; Certain VP elements often get combined with the verbs in writing.
  • Adjectives ; Some have verb morphology, and some view them to just be a 4th declension of verbs.
  • Adverbs ;
  • Conjunctions ;
  • Subjunctions ;
  • Adpositions ;
  • Determiners ;
  • Interjections ;
  • Punctuation ;
  • Symbols ;

The following are coming from som-lex.txt

  • IrregularAdjective ;
  • Prefixes ;
  • LEXICON FINAL_NG just adds the +Use/NG tag to lower ##
  • LEXICON FINAL just adds lower ##

These lexica are dummy lexical to make the source compile, they contain only #.

  • LEXICON Proper
  • LEXICON Unknown_Declensions
  • LEXICON Obj_Pron
  • LEXICON SemiReducedPerson


Nouns in Somali have separate paradigms depending on morphophonological stuff, but are split up into subgroups which correspond to gender polarity groups.

Note that items containing ATR should mark the ATR using <¨> before the vowel or at the beginning of the stem if uncertain.

doog:¨doog NOUN1_M/SgOnly ;

Irregular nouns _il_ and _si_ are both female in singular, and have typical morphology there but, have varying irregular masculine plural forms.

  • LEXICON IrregNouns

il # Irregular tests examples:

  • il: il+N+Fem+Sg+Indef+Abs
  • isha: il+N+Fem+Sg+Def+Abs+Prox
  • indho: il+N+Masc+Pl+Indef+Abs
  • indhaha: il+N+Masc+Pl+Def+Abs+Prox

il # Irregular tests examples:

  • si: si+N+Fem+Sg+Indef+Abs
  • sida: si+N+Fem+Sg+Def+Abs+Prox
  • siyaabo: si+N+Masc+Pl+Indef+Abs
  • siyaabaha: si+N+Masc+Pl+Def+Abs+Prox

Declension 1: F→M

TODO: write quick overview of morphosyntax, morphophon -i for some nominatives. Pl is -o.

Good amount of nouns with -ad, Fem derivational suffix.

aalad # aalad sample paradigm. examples:

  • aalad: aalad+N+Decl/1+Fem+Sg+Indef+Abs
  • aaladda: aalad+N+Decl/1+Fem+Sg+Def+Abs+Prox
  • aalado: aalad+N+Decl/1+Masc+Pl+Indef+Abs
  • aaladaha: aalad+N+Decl/1+Masc+Pl+Def+Abs+Prox

Declension 1: M, sg. only

Declension 1: M→M, M→F

Declension 1: Masc. Pl. Only

Declension 1: Fem. Sg. Only

A fair amount of abstract things, and some collective things that probably need to be moved to collective lexica.

Declension 2

Declension 2: Collective

Groups of things, -ley is a common suffix. Taged with +Coll, but available only in singular.

Declension 2: M→F -yo is plural.

Declension 2: M→F

Some consonant doubling in plurals with -o, some with -yo, no doubling.

Declension 2: M→M - Arabic words with Somali plurals.

Declension 2: F→F -yo plurals

Declension 2: M→F - collectives

TODO: these are collectives, but not marked as such and perhaps should be. but also, they have plurals. May be marked as collectives because of Orwin

Declension 2: M→F - Mass

TODO: these are mass nouns, but not marked as such and perhaps should be. Plurals found in word lists, so maybe these need some special handling.

Declension 3: M→M These are fun, because plurals delete the second vowel. Ex.) gabadh -> gabdho; xubin -> xubno Note that some of these have lenis/fortis changes: Ex.) xadhig -> xadhko

Declension 3: F→M

gabadh # dh + d -> dh; vowel deletion examples:

  • gabadh: gabadh+N+Fem+Sg+Indef+Abs
  • gabadha: gabadh+N+Fem+Sg+Def+Abs+Prox
  • gabdho: gabadh+N+Masc+Pl+Indef+Abs
  • gabdhaha: gabadh+N+Masc+Pl+Def+Abs+Prox

Declension 3: M→M

xadhig # g ~ k; vowel deletion examples:

  • xadhig: xadhig+N+Masc+Sg+Indef+Abs
  • xadhigga: xadhig+N+Masc+Sg+Def+Abs+Prox
  • xadhko: xadhig+N+Masc+Pl+Indef+Abs
  • xadhkaha: xadhig+N+Masc+Pl+Def+Abs+Prox

Arabic loan plural forms These are borrowed Arabic plural forms for Arabic loans. Not really predictable but mostly taken from Qaamuuska af-Soomaaliga.


  • amar -> awaamiir
  • axmaq -> axmaqiin
  • banki -> bunuug
  • LEXICON ArabicLoans

guri # Odd-syllable test examples:

  • guri: guri+N+Masc+Sg+Indef+Nom

The Somali morphophonological/twolc rules file

Morphophonological notes

Phonological Processes in Somali

Somali has several phonological alternations involving reduplication, lenition, vowel harmony and tone. The hopes with this documentation is that it will either make twolc rules clearer, or help if it comes time to completely redo all the rules.

Spreading processes


The lenis stop series in Somali <b d g> alternates with the fortis series <t k>, note that the <b> does not actually participate. Lenis stops are found in coda positions, and fortis stops are found elsewhere. The alternation occurs in both nouns and verbs.

    ilig ‘tooth'   ~   iligga ‘tooth (Def.)'     ~   ilko ‘teeth (Indef.)’
    arag ‘see'     ~   aragtaa ‘2Sg/3SgF sees'   ~   arkaa ‘1Sg/3SgM sees’

Voicing assimilation

Stops assimilate for voicing (or lenis/fortis), particularly across morpheme boundaries, however they only assimilate if they share place of articulation.

    aragtaa            ‘2Sg/3SgF sees’
    wararka            ‘the news’
    buugga             ‘the book’
    naagta            ‘the woman’
    jaamacadda        ‘the university’

This also follows for the retroflex segment <dh>, however the sequence <dhdh> is shortened to <dh>.

    gabadh            ‘(a) girl’
    gabadha           ‘the girl’

Vowel ablaut

Vowels are subject to two main types of ablaut: (1) full ablaut across back consonants, and (2) partial ablaut with <a> ~ <e> preceding the high vowel <i>. Full ablaut is constrained to morpheme boundaries: and most commonly occurs in the ‘waxa’ focus marker.

    waxaan ‘foc+1Sg'            magac                        rah
    wuxuu  ‘foc+3SgM'           magucu    / magacu           ruhu
                                magicii   / magicii 

Full ablaut appears to be optional in some words. Partial ablaut occurs in verbal infinitives with mostly any word of the pattern CaC. When the infinitive ending <i> is appended, <a> raises to <e>. It also occurs around person suffixes and tense ending in <e>

    tag ‘go'        tegi ‘to go'            tegeen ‘they went’
    bax ‘leave'     bexi ‘to leave'         bexeen ‘they left’

<k> deletion

<k> is deleted when it follows a back consonant (which is not <k> itself):

    wax + ka => waxa
    magac + ka => magaca
    rah + ka => raha

<l> + <t> -> <sh> Occurs only across morpheme boundaries, in verbs and nouns. wiilal => wiilasha ‘boys' ‘the boys’ maqal => maqashay ‘listen' ‘2Sg/3SgF listened’

Vowel harmony

For a complete description of vowel harmony, see the literature. Short summary: +ATR is the active spreading feature, and spreads leftward across all boundaries but is blocked by pauses in speech (Intonation Phrase). +ATR can spread rightward, but stops at the word boundary. It does not cross clitics, typically. Hopefully VH will be covered in this analyzer.

Tonal Processes

In certain environments Somali appears to dislike having two tones immediately next to eachother. I have some collected environments for a phonology paper. May not be super important right off the bat.


Somali has two kinds of reduplication: partial and full. Reduplication is typically a strategy for marking plural in nouns and adjectives in some declensions, but also appears in verbs as a derivational process. The inflectional processes are quite productive, but the derivational processes are not as productive. Partial reduplication occurs in the 4th declension of nouns, but a subtype of these 4th declensional nouns also has full reduplication. Partial reduplication includes epenthesis of <a>. Note that partial reduplication in adjectives is prefixing, while in nouns it is suffixing. Also, the template is slightly different.

    af ‘mouth, language'        =>        afaf    ‘... +Pl’
    qoys ‘family'               =>        qoysas    ‘... +Pl’

Note: There may be some partial reduplication that also copies the vowel. Full reduplication also applies to some of these nouns:

    qof ‘person'                =>         qofqof
    cad ‘part'                  =>        cadcad


    quruxsán ‘beautiful'        =>        qurquruxsán ‘ ... +Pl’
    fudúd ‘easy, light'         =>        fudfudúd
    adág ‘difficult'            =>        ad'adág
    yár ‘a little'              =>        yaryára
    gaabán ‘short'              =>        gaaggaabán ‘ ... +Pl’
    laabán ‘folded'             =>        laallaabán
    jabán ‘broken'              =>        ‘jajabán’

Irregular adjectives:

    dhéer ‘long, tall (sg)'        =>        dhaadhéer
    wéyn ‘big'                     =>        waawéyn

Note: Other possibilities might be found greping: with ‘^\(.\)aa\1e', ‘^\(.\)aa\1\1aa', ‘\(.\)a\1$’

Person morphemes

The realization of personal suffixes on verbs is a little complex and depends mostly on declension type and whether or not the suffix is preceded by the progressive.

Realization of these suffixes is currently all handled by twolc:

                    sg            pl                
        1          {đ}            {ñ}     ==>        
        2          {ŧ}             0                
        3 Masc     {đ}            {đ}                
        3 Fem      {ŧ}                            
        Declension 1

                    sg            pl                    
        1            keenaa        keennaa         1        dhacay        dhacnay
        2            keentaa       keenaan         2        dhacday        dheceen
        3 Masc       keenaa        keentaan        3 Masc    dhacay        dhecdeen
        3 Fem        keentaa                       3 Fem    dhacday
        Declension 2
                    sg            pl                     sg
        1            sameeyay    sameynay       1        kariyay        karinay
        2            sameysay    sameyseen      2        karisay        kariseen
        3 Masc       sameeyay    sameeyeen      3 Masc   kariyay        kariyeen
        3 Fem        sameysay                   3 Fem    karisay
        Declension 3
                    sg            pl                    
        1            furay        furannay            1        watay        wadannay
        2            furtay       furateen            2        wadatay        wadateen
        3 Masc       furay        fureen              3 Masc    watay        wateen
        3 Fem        furtay                           3 Fem    wadatay

A short summary:

        %{đ%} - 1Sg, 3SgM and 3Pl;     realized as 0/y/d in classes
        %{ŧ%} - 2Sg, 3SgF, 2Pl;        realized as t/s in classes 
        %{ñ%} - 1Pl;                   realized as n in all classes
                                      ‘special' here just in case.

This process could easily be removed from twolc and done in just flag diacritics, why not?

More processes to describe:

  • wataa / wadatay dissimilation
  • a/e alternation in -e nouns (noun type is a bit more complex too, as corpus reveals)
  • vowel deletion ilig, ilko
  • e/y alternation in samee- verbs
  • w/b alternations
  • vowel lengthening magaalo / magaalooyin


  • If forms disappear but the rule should work, make sure that the pair transforming exists in the Alphabet


For ease of reduplication and treating sh as separate from l + t => sh

TODO: write tests for gacmahii / gacmihii, magacii / magicii, magucu / magacu

TODO: tests from these

ilig+N+Masc+Pl+Def+PxSg3M+Abs+Prox       il^ik´%>%{N%}a%>híisa#
  -- > ilkihiisa 
walaal+N+Masc+Pl+Def+PxSg3M+Abs+Prox     walaal´´%>%{N%}a%>híisa#
  -- > walaalihiisa 

magac+N+Masc+Sg+Def+Abs+Dist                magac´´%>%{N%}kii#
  -- > magicii 
magac+N+Masc+Sg+Def+Nom+Prox                magac´´%>%{N%}ku#
  -- > magucu 
magac+N+Masc+Sg+Def+PxSg3F+Abs+Prox      magac´´%>%{N%}kíisa#
  -- > magiciisa 
waxa+CS+Foc/R+Sg3M      wax%>uu#
  -- > wuxuu

wax+N+Masc+Sg+Def+PxSg3M+Nom+Prox        wax´´%>%{N%}kíisu#
  -- > wixiisu / waxiisu

List of rules:

Ablaut around back fricatives at morpheme boundaries

Ablaut in declension 7 with final vowel

LT -> SH part 1

LT -> SH part 2

LT -> SH part 2 for V3B

LT -> SH in reduplicative plurals, pt 1

V2 {y} deletion

Definite suffix -k to -g next to preceding voiced

t:0 before d h

t/d alternation - definite suffix, V1

TODO: dukaammo

Declension 2:-C doubling in plural

TODO: This rule is currently conflicting with the next one.

Declension 2:-y insertion after back sounds and fricatives; and after -i

Declension 4:Plural Partial Reduplication

Declension 4:Plural Partial Reduplication %{m}

Declension 4:C2->n in m contexts

-y- insertion in plurals

Disallow yy

Doesn't work with wuxu, where k has been deleted. Doesn't work with magicii, magucu, but should optionally. magacii and magicii, etc are both possible

Declension 6:final vowel

Declension V1:magacow / magacaabay / magacawday, shorten a

Delete preceding a

AllBoundaries \?: WordChars

Declension 7:{-e} delete

Declension 7:final vowel

Declension 7:final vowel in final position

Verbal Rules

V2A -> V3B derivations, delete -i

V2A -> V3B derivations, depalatization

V1:a/e umlaut before i/e

V1:a/e umlaut before a

V1, D3:Vowel deletion

V1:Simplification of dhd to dh (t)

V1:n/m when deleted vowel results in C0n





V2B:ey before consonants

V2B:ee before y

V2B:Remove e



Following rules are for the funky things that happen with 1Sg, 3SgM, 3Pl Basically, disallowed d_d, so it gets simplified to t

wada>d>aa# wada>nn>aa# wada>t>aa# wada>d>aan# wada>d>aa# wada>t>aan# wada>t>aa#

wataa wadannaa wadataa wadataan wataa wataan wadataa

fura>d>aa# fura>nn>aa# fura>t>aa# fura>d>aan# fura>d>aa# fura>t>aan# fura>t>aa#

furtaa furannaa furataa furataan furtaa furtaan furataa

Also another type: TODO: merge

sigo+V+IV+1Sg+Ind+Past sig{a}>d>ay# sigo+V+IV+2Sg+Ind+Past sig{a}>t>ay#

sigtay sigatay

But: obd / cd / hd / qd / xd / yd Note: bt / obd

V3B:%{o%}:o finally

V3B:%{o%}:0 in d _ d

V3B:d dissimilation

V3B:d dissimilation w/ cor

V3B:d dissimilation 2

V3B:root {a} deletion before suffixes with -d


General Rules

Vowel reduction VVV -> VV

m->n in codas

m->m in codas

Optional m doubling

Velar deletion after Back, but avoiding digraphs

Final lenition.

-ee changes to -ye after other vowels

-ee changes to -e after y

-ee clitic deletes preceding -o

progressive nasal assimilation across morphological boundaries

  • primus%>s
  • primus00