Tags and root lexicon for Komi


Analysis symbols

The morphological analyses of wordforms for the Komi-Zyrian language are presented in this system in terms of the following symbols. (It is highly suggeste d to follow existing standards when adding new tags).

The parts-of-speech tags are:

adjective кывберд прилагательное
adposition (prepositio, postposition)
adverb урчитан наречие
subordinating conjunction XX подчинительный союз
coordinating conjunction XX сочинительный союз
conjunction word XX союзное слово (здесь надо узнать который из 2 выш.)
determiner XX XX
interjection междометтьӧ междометие
noun эмакыв - существительное
numeral лыдакыв числительное
particle кывтор частица
postposition кывбӧр послелог
preposition XX предлог
pronoun нимвежтас местоимение
Quantifier ХХ XX
verb кадакыв глагол

The parts of speech are further split up into: Adjectives


  • +Adv-Ideoph These are ideophonic descriptors used to modify the verb вырк ливтясь "flit and it flew off"
  • +AdA Degree
  • +Manner with reference to type of adverb
  • +Spat spatial
  • +Temp temporal
  • +Parenthetic parenthetical phrase

Interjections +Formulaic = ??? +Conative Used for calling animals, for example


  • +Prop proper
  • +CollN used with paired nouns collective nouns
  • +Relat relational noun: выв, ув




Quantifiers (numerals)

Quantifiers and Numerals are classified under:

numeral лыдакыв
Approximative numeral кавто-колмо, колмошка two or three NB! do not confuse with Komi case +Apr
-ne- ; avide-
cardinal + NCard
Iterative form expressing number of consecutive times; kpv: кыкысь
Multiplicative adverbs number of times; kpv: кык пӧв
ordinal + NOrd
Coordinates, i.e. 65˚36′8,30″ in numerals.lexc

Nominals are inflected for Number and Case


  • +Sg singular
  • +Pl plural


A category of case in Komi can be identified as:

  • +Acc accusative ZERO керан
  • +Acc1 accusative -ӧс керан
  • +Acc3 accusative -сӧ керан
  • +Abl ablative case -лысь босьтан
  • +Apr approximative -лань матыстчан
    • +AprEgr approximative egressive -ланьсянь матысь ылыстчан
    • +AprEla approximative elative -ланьысь матысь петан
    • +AprIll approximative illative -ланьӧ матӧ матыстчан
    • +AprIne approximative inessive -ланьын матыс ина
    • +AprPrl approximative prolative -ланьӧд маті вуджан
    • +AprTer approximative terminative -ланьӧдз матіӧдз воан
    • +AprTra approximative translative -ланьті маті вуджан
  • +Car cartive -тӧг торйӧдан
  • +Cns consecultative -ла могман
  • +Com Comitative -кӧд ӧтвывтан
  • +Cmpr Comparative case form -ся ӧткодялан
  • +Cmpl Postposition complement
  • +Dat dative case -лы сетан
  • +Egr egressive -сянь ылыстчан
  • +Ela elative -ысь петан
  • +Gen genitive case -лӧн асалан
  • +Ill illative -ӧ пыран
  • +Ine inessive -ын ина
  • +Ins instrumental -ӧн керанторъя
  • +Nom nominative case нимтан
  • +Prl prolative -ӧд вуджан
  • +Tra translative -ті вуджан
  • +Ter Terminative -ӧдз матыстчан
  • +Voc Vocative ??
  • +Abs Absolute = +Sg+Nom

The possession is marked as such:

  • +PxSg1 +PxSg2 +PxSg3 +PxPl1 +PxPl2 +PxPl3 ODD
  • +Px1 +Px2 +Px3

The comparative forms are:

  • +Comp +Superl Numerals are classified under:
  • +Attr +Card
  • +Ord
  • +Coll Collective
  • +Distr Distributive
  • +Iter Iterative form expressing number of times

Verb moods are: Verb personal forms are:

Other verb forms are Gerund This is used with derivations

  • +VAbess тӧм Participle
  • +VCar тӧг Gerund
  • +VTer тӧдз Gerund
  • +Symbol = independent symbols in the text stream, like £, €, © Special symbols are classified with: The verbs are syntactically split according to transitivity:
  • +TV
  • +IV

Special multiword units are analysed with:

  • +Multi Non-dictionary words can be recognised with:
  • +Guess

Question and Focus particles:

  • +Qst
  • +Foc
  • +Clt/И This comes at the end of a word -и or after vowels (some authors use -й)
  • +Clt
  • +Clt/а
  • +Clt/ӧ
  • +Clt/тӧ
  • +Clt/сӧ

Tags distinguishing different versions of the same lemma (before POS)

  • +v1
  • +v2
  • +v3
  • +v4
  • +v5
  • +v6
  • +v7
  • +v8
  • +v9
  • +v10
  • +v11
  • +v12
  • +v13
  • +v14
  • +v15
  • +v16
  • +v17
  • +v18
  • +v19
  • +v20
  • +v21
  • +v22
  • +v23
  • +v24

The Usage extents are marked using following tags:

  • +Err/Orth
  • +Err/Orth-no-paragogic-j
  • +Err/Orth-no-paragogic-k
  • +Err/Orth-no-paragogic-m
  • +Err/Orth-no-paragogic-t
  • +Err/Dial e.g. тэг instead of тӧг
  • +Err/Lex substandard, not in normative fst, no normative lemma помсьыны
  • +Use/-Spell
  • +Use/SpellNoSugg
  • +Use/PMatch means that the following is only used in the analyser feeding the disambiguator
  • +Use/-PMatch Do not include in fst's made for hfst-pmatch

Dialect features

Where do these come from source

  • +Src/F foreign source apparently 2015-09-08
  • +Dim diminutive
  • +NonHum look at this and place somewhere
  • +Sem/Act Activity
  • +Sem/Amount Amount
  • +Sem/Ani Animate
  • +Sem/Aniprod Animal Product
  • +Sem/Body Bodypart
  • +Sem/Body-abstr siellu, vuoig?a, jierbmi
  • +Sem/Build Building
  • +Sem/Build-part Part of Bulding, like the closet
  • +Sem/Cat Category
  • +Sem/Clth Clothes
  • +Sem/Clth-jewl Jewelery
  • +Sem/Clth-part part of clothes, boallu, sávdnji...
  • +Sem/Ctain Container
  • +Sem/Ctain-abstr Abstract container like bank account
  • +Sem/Ctain-clth
  • +Sem/Curr Currency like dollár, Not Money
  • +Sem/Dance Dance
  • +Sem/Dir Direction like GPS-kursa
  • +Sem/Domain Domain like politics, reindeerherding (a system of actions)
  • +Sem/Drink Drink
  • +Sem/Dummytag Dummytag
  • +Sem/Edu Educational event
  • +Sem/Event Event
  • +Sem/Feat Feature, like Árvu
  • +Sem/Feat-phys Physiological feature, ivdni, fárda
  • +Sem/Feat-psych Psychological feauture
  • +Sem/Feat-measr Psychological feauture
  • +Sem/Fem Female name
  • +Sem/Food Food
  • +Sem/Food-med Medicine
  • +Sem/Furn Furniture
  • +Sem/Game Game
  • +Sem/Geom Geometrical object
  • +Sem/Group Animal or Human Group
  • +Sem/Hum Human
  • +Sem/Hum-abstr Human abstract
  • +Sem/Ideol Ideology
  • +Sem/Lang Language
  • +Sem/Mal Male name
  • +Sem/Mat Material for producing things
  • +Sem/Measr Measure
  • +Sem/Money Has to do with money, like wages, not Curr(ency)
  • +Sem/Obj Object
  • +Sem/Obj-clo Cloth
  • +Sem/Obj-cogn Cloth
  • +Sem/Obj-el (Electrical) machine or apparatus
  • +Sem/Obj-ling Object with something written on it
  • +Sem/Obj-rope flexible ropelike object
  • +Sem/Obj-surfc Surface object
  • +Sem/Org Organisation
  • +Sem/Part Feature, oassi, bealli
  • +Sem/Perc-cogn Cognative perception
  • +Sem/Perc-emo Emotional perception
  • +Sem/Perc-phys Physical perception
  • +Sem/Perc-psych Physical perception
  • +Sem/Plant Plant
  • +Sem/Plant-part Plant part
  • +Sem/Plc Place
  • +Sem/Plc-abstr Abstract place
  • +Sem/Plc-elevate Place
  • +Sem/Plc-line Place
  • +Sem/Plc-water Place
  • +Sem/Pos Position (as in social position job)
  • +Sem/Process Process
  • +Sem/Prod Product
  • +Sem/Prod-audio Audio product
  • +Sem/Prod-cogn Cognition product
  • +Sem/Prod-ling Linguistic product
  • +Sem/Prod-vis Visual product
  • +Sem/Rel Relation
  • +Sem/Route Name of a Route
  • +Sem/Rule Rule or convention
  • +Sem/Semcon Semantic concept
  • +Sem/Sign Sign (e.g. numbers, punctuation)
  • +Sem/Sport Sport
  • +Sem/State
  • +Sem/State-sick Illness
  • +Sem/Substnc Substance, like Air and Water
  • +Sem/Sur Surname
  • +Sem/Symbol Symbol
  • +Sem/Time Time
  • +Sem/Tool Prototypical tool for repairing things
  • +Sem/Tool-catch Tool used for catching (e.g. fish)
  • +Sem/Tool-clean Tool used for cleaning
  • +Sem/Tool-it Tool used in IT
  • +Sem/Tool-measr Tool used for measuring
  • +Sem/Tool-music Music instrument
  • +Sem/Tool-write Writing tool
  • +Sem/Txt Text (girji, lávlla...)
  • +Sem/Veh Vehicle
  • +Sem/Wpn Weapon
  • +Sem/Wthr The Weather or the state of ground
  • +Sem/Year
  • +Sem/Sur_Fem Surname female
  • +Sem/Sur_Mal Surname male
  • +Sem/Ant Anthroponym
  • +Sem/Ant_Fem Anthroponym female
  • +Sem/Ant_Mal Anthroponym male
  • +Sem/Patr Patronym
  • +Sem/Patr_Fem Patronym female
  • +Sem/Patr_Mal Patronym male
  • +Sem/Event_Plc сёянін
  • +Sem/Hum_Prof profession, capacity doctor, tractor driver

Semantics are classified with

Derivations are classified under the morphophonetic form of the suffix, the source and target part-of-speech.

  • +Der In front of every derivation to make it possible to target derivations as a class e.g. in regular expressions etc
  • +Der/Ан Process Participle +AN
  • +Der/Ана Process Participle +ANA
  • +Der/Анаа adverb derived from participle (+ANA) +ANAA
  • +Der/чӧж +CHOZH
  • +Instr
  • +NomAct
  • +Der/NomAct +Event
  • +Der/NomAg
  • +Duration
  • +Der/иг
  • +Der/ысь
  • +ActPrsPtc
  • +Der/Ан Participle
  • +Der/Ана Gerund or participle according to context (with...)
  • +PrsPrc
  • +PrsPtc
  • +Der/ӧм
  • +PastPtc
  • +Der/кості +KOSTI
  • +Der/коста +KOSTA
  • +Der/кежлӧ +KEZHLO
  • +Der/мысь +MYS
  • +Der/мысьт +MYST
  • +MAbe abessive modifier -тӧм
  • +MLoc locative modifier са -
  • +MHab habeo modifier а -
  • +MTmp temporal modifier ся -
  • +LocMod IneMod Быд во шедӧдӧны бур успеваемость Воркута да Инта каръясса, Прилузскӧй да Княжпогостскӧй районъясса школаяс.
  • +CompMod
  • +Der/тӧм used with nouns and followed by +AbeMod
  • +PrivMod AbeMod джуджыд анализъястӧм да обобщениеястӧм статьяяс.
  • +ProprietiveMod HabObjMod Весиг киясыс тӧдсаӧсь, найӧ мугов рӧмаӧсь, кузь чорыд чуньясаӧсь.
  • +Der/TempMod TempMod Der/ся но и Ф. В. Плесовскийлысь квайтымынӧд вояссяяссӧ * позьӧ аддзыны сӧмын библиотекаясысь.

2012-09-11 Perhaps this is only syntactic

  • +Der/N Noun derived with conversion from noun, conversion but not ZERO
  • +Der/A Adjective derivated from Noun or Verb
  • +Der/Adv Adverb derivated from Adjective

Tags for Ethymological Origin marking. This has initially used used with proper nouns

Sentence markers

  • +Cop Copula кадакыв, коді шуӧ: вӧлі либӧ ӧнія кадся Связка


To represent phonologic variations in word forms we use the following symbols in the lexicon files:

Vowel alternating symbol
Vowel alternating symbol
Vowel alternating symbol
  • к2 л2 м2 т2 ь2 К2 Л2 М2 Т2 Ь2 И2
  • %> suffix border
for soft and hard
for soft and hard

And following triggers to control variation

Vowel change triggers
Vowel change triggers
  • %^Close Close syllable, this triggers final consonant drop, seen in word-final position and before consonant

Valency tags, i.e. tags assigned to verbs for denoting their arbuments

  • +%<acc%> accusative
  • +%<ela%> elative -ысь
  • +%<ins%> instrumental -ӧн
  • +%<inf_ны%> infinitive in -ны
  • +%<po_вылӧ%> postposition вылӧ
  • +%<sub_мый%> subordinate clause in мый/that

Symbols that need to be escaped on the lower side (towards twolc):

  • »
  • «
  • > (written with square brackets, see the root.lexc file)
  • < (written with square brackets, see the root.lexc file)

Flag diacritics

We have manually optimised the structure of our lexicon using following flag diacritics to restrict morhpological combinatorics - only allow compounds with verbs if the verb is further derived into a noun again:

@P.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@D.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@C.NeedNoun@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised

Two flags copied from sme

@P.Pmatch.Loc@ Used on multi-token analyses; tell hfst-tokenise/pmatch where in the form/analysis the token should be split.
@P.Pmatch.Backtrack@ Used on single-token analyses; tell hfst-tokenise/pmatch to backtrack by reanalysing the substrings before and after this point in the form (to find combinations of shorter analyses that would otherwise be missed)

For languages that allow compounding, the following flag diacritics are needed to control position-based compounding restrictions for nominals. Their use is

handled automatically if combined with +CmpN/xxx tags. If not used, they will do no harm.

@P.CmpFrst.FALSE@ Require that words tagged as such only appear first
@D.CmpPref.TRUE@ Block such words from entering ENDLEX
@P.CmpPref.FALSE@ Block these words from making further compounds
@D.CmpLast.TRUE@ Block such words from entering R
@D.CmpNone.TRUE@ Combines with the next tag to prohibit compounding
@U.CmpNone.FALSE@ Combines with the prev tag to prohibit compounding
@P.CmpOnly.TRUE@ Sets a flag to indicate that the word has passed R
@D.CmpOnly.FALSE@ Disallow words coming directly from root.

Use the following flag diacritics to control downcasing of derived proper nouns (e.g. Finnish Pariisi -> pariisilainen). See e.g. North Sámi for how to use these flags. There exists a ready-made regex that will do the actual down-casing given the proper use of these flags.

@U.Cap.Obl@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.
@U.Cap.Opt@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.
  • +Cmp
+Cmp/Serial used with serial verbs



@U.Cap.Obl@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj
@U.Cap.Opt@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj

Lexicon Root

The word forms in Komi (Zyrian) language start from the lexeme roots of basic word classes, or optionally from prefixes:

Testing 2015-09-06 Feeding new words

пу керка выль керка

Lexicon ENDLEX

And this is the ENDLEX of everything:

 @D.CmpOnly.FALSE@@D.CmpPref.TRUE@@D.NeedNoun.ON@ # ;

The @D.CmpOnly.FALSE@ flag diacritic is ued to disallow words tagged with +CmpNP/Only to end here. The @D.NeedNoun.ON@ flag diacritic is used to block illegal compounds.