Skolt Saami Dictionary Features

Lexicon files

Lexicon files are a part of the langs/sms/src/morphology infrastructure.

Entry structure

<e /> level

TODO: example sms entry

<mg /> level

Man skiller mellom synonymer og meningsgrupper. Synonymer har samme <mg> (meaning group / meningsgruppe) og samme <tg> (translation group / oversettelsesgruppe). Hvis en entry har flere betydninger, så skilles disse som forskjellige <mg>.

<tg /> level

Elementet <mg> inneholder en eller flere <tg> (oversettelsesgruppe eller translation group) som igjen kan inneholde:

<t /> - a word

 TODO: example entry with <t /> 

<t /> - a phrase

 TODO: example entry with <t /> 

<te /> - An explanation:a sentence which explains the meaning of a word, but can't be used in the translation.

 TODO: example entry with <t /> 

<re /> - Restriction

  • <re> gives a restriction for the translation, f.ex. norwegian vest has the restriction of clothes, to separate it from the navigational direction.
 TODO: example entry with <t /> 

<l /> attribute documentation


<t /> attribute documentation


<lemma_ref /> for references

<lemma_ref />is used to display a reference in the dictionary to another entry.

Typically these words also include an <analysis /> node in the <lg /> so we can provide ad-hoc analyses that don't come from the FST.

         <l pos="Pron" type="Pers">muʹnne</l>
         <lemma_ref lemmaID="mon_Pron_Pers">mon</lemma_ref>

Leads to ...

      <l pos="Pron" type="Pers">mon</l>

These are found in Pron_references_sms2x.xml.

<xg /> Example sentences


In sms these can come in under either <mg /> or <tg />, for good reasons.

 TODO: example of reasons

Files with static paradigms

Currently all sms files have a minimal miniparadigm, but in NDS we generate more.

In NDS we can tell the system to not use the static miniparadigm with the @exclude attribute:

      <mini_paradigm exclude="NDS">
        <analysis ms="Pron_Pers_Sg1_Gen"><wordform>muu</wordform></analysis>
        <analysis ms="Pron_Pers_Sg1_Ill"><wordform>muʹnne</wordform></analysis>

If this attribute is not present as in the above, then the static paradigm will be displayed in NDS.

Other files


Generated miniparadigms

Miniparadigms are generated in lexicon entries in order to help users. They vary from POS to POS and sometimes within POS.

Use/NGminip og Allegro i lexc

TODO: are these the tags we use now in sms?

+Use/NGminip - remove inflectional forms that one does not want to present in the miniparadigm. One example, North Saami adjectives.

NB: judicious use of +Use/NGminip from sme to clean up many possibilities into one.

Inflection Without +Use/NGminip With +Use/NGminip
A+Sg+Nom heittot heittot
A+Attr heittogis heittohis (bivttas) heittogis (bivttas)
A+Pl+Nom heittogat heittohat heittogat
A+Comp+Attr heittogit heittogut heittoget heittogat heittohit heittohut heittohet heittohat heittoget heittogat
A+Comp+Sg+Nom heittogit heittogut heittoget heittogeabbo heittogat heittogabbo heittohit heittohut heittohet heittoheabbo heittohat heittohabbo heittogeabbo heittogabbo
A+Superl+Sg+Nom heittogeamos heittogamos heittoheamos heittohamos heittogeamos heittogamos


Display the whole paradigm in two columns for plural. In NDS, because there are case inflections that do not have +Sg or +Pl, we use a special tagset to separate these cases out to display them across one column.

TODO: Noun attributes that affect miniparadigms ?

Bøyning Eksempel
Sg+Nom võrr
Sg+Gen võõr
Sg+Acc võõr
Sg+Ill võʹrre
Sg+Loc võõrâst
Sg+Com võõrin
Sg+Abe võõrtää
Sg+Abe võõrtaa TODO: does this need an attribute to control?
Pl+Nom võõr
Pl+Gen võõri
Pl+Acc võõrid
Pl+Ill võõrid
Pl+Loc võõrin
Pl+Com võõrivuiʹm
Pl+Abe võõritää
Pl+Abe võõritaa TODO: does this need an attribute to control?
Ess võrrân
Par võrrâd

Proper nouns

For now, all proper nouns are not generated in Plural.

Sg+Nom Njuõttjokk Sg+Gen Njuõttjook Sg+Acc Njuõttjook Sg+Ill Njuõttjoʹǩǩe Sg+Loc Njuõttjookâst Sg+Abe Njuõttjooktää Sg+Par Njuõttjokkâd

EX: Äʹnnjääuʹraž

TODO: determine how to display these in sms

Form Context Example Translation
-   -    
Sg+Gen X pääiʹǩ    
Sg+Ill -    
Sg+Loc -    

TODO: Any plural-only proper nouns?


use räjja in context for e.g. eeʹjjpeeiʹv räjja


For adjectives we use context as an attribute on the lemma node, in order to provide an attributive adjective example with a noun.

TODO: determine some good contexts for adjs

Inflection Context Example
A+Pred+Sg   oođâs
A+Attr context: "??" ođđ (??)
A+Comp   ođđsab
A+Superl   ođđsumus

TODO: +A+Pred+Pl ?




Personal pronouns

Most personal pronouns can be generated live from FSTs, depending on the analysis, but it may be easier to include the whole paradigm in a miniparadigm because of complexities in tags matching up with lemmas.

This also requires the type="Pers"attribute on the <l />node, and the +Sg, +Du, and +Pl marking in the pronoun tag. If these change, we will need to adjust the paradigm rules.

Inflection Example
Sg+Nom mon
Sg+Gen muu
Sg+Acc muu
Sg+Ill muʹnne
Sg+Loc muʹst
Sg+Com muin
Sg+Abe muutää
Ess muuʹnen
Par muuʹđed


Indef pron

måtam Måtmin


Pregenerated paradigms


Because the analyzer uses tags that make generation difficult, the thought was to include miniparadigms in the XML file that will contain the whole displayed paradigm.


negative verb



Homonymous entries

Homonymous entries (lemma + POS) may be tricky for a combination of the lexicon and the analyzer. An additional way to deal with this is to mark these on an additional attribute, POS type, or something else. This is also problematic when generating the correct paradigm for the lexicon entry, or when lining up analyses with the meanings.

TODO: jokk is homonymous in sms, find examples for documentation from there.

Non-systematic homonymy


<l> element gets an attribute hid="1" or hid="2". The lemmas are marked similarly in the norm FST. Thus,

Nom Gen norsk norm-fst-analyse
lohkki lohki lokk lohkki+N+Sg+Nom
lohkki lohkki lesar lohkki+N+Actor+Sg+Nom

TODO: xml examples of homonymous entries (either actor type, or hid type, etc.)