Free and Open source Apurinã analyser giella-apu

Divvun and Giellatekno teams, community members
Software version
Documentation license
SVN Revision
$Revision:68217 $
SVN Date
$Date:2013-01-16 11:31:33 +0200 (Wed, 16 Jan 2013) $


This is free and open source Apurinã morphology.


Definitions for Multichar_Symbols

Analysis symbols

The morphological analyses of wordforms for the Apurinã language are presented in this system in terms of the following symbols. (It is highly suggested to follow existing standards when adding new tags).

The parts-of-speech are:

The parts of speech are further split up into:

The Usage extents are marked using following tags:

The nominals are inflected in the following Case and Number

+Aff +Aff affected by action of verb %>nhi +Loc +Loc -ã +Dat +Dat -munhi allative +Com +Com -kata (Assoc) +All +All -mukary

+Msc +Msc ywa

Possession is marked as such: +NPossd +NPossd not possessed The comparative forms are: Numerals are classified under: Verb moods are: Verb personal forms are:

Other verb forms are +Relzr-Subj relativizer with subject reference +Relzr-Obj relativizer with object reference

+Impf IPFTV +Perf PFTV perfective -pe

+Pss passivizer -~ka

  • +Pred = ka
  • +Frustr = ma: awa-pyty-ka-ma
  • +Emph = pyty: Ithu-pyty-ma-ry, Iãu-pyty-ka-ry, ithu-pyty-ry
  • +Symbol = independent symbols in the text stream, like £, €, © Special symbols are classified with: The verbs are syntactically split according to transitivity: Special multiword units are analysed with: Non-dictionary words can be recognised with:

Question and Focus particles:

Tags distinguishing different versions of the same lemma (before POS)

  • +v1
  • +v2
  • +v3
  • +v4
  • +v5
  • +v6
  • +v7
  • +v8
  • +v9
  • +v10
  • +v11
  • +v12
  • +v13
  • +v14
  • +v15
  • +v16
  • +v17
  • +v18
  • +v19
  • +v20
  • +v21
  • +v22
  • +v23
  • +v24

Semantics are classified with

Derivations are classified under the morphophonetic form of the suffix, the source and target part-of-speech.

Morphophonology To represent phonologic variations in word forms we use the following symbols in the lexicon files: %{hØ%} %{hØ%}

%^VowRM this will remove stem final vowel %^VowNasL This will nasalize preceding vowel

And following triggers to control variation

Symbols that need to be escaped on the lower side (towards twolc):

  • »
  • «
  • > (escaped with square brackets, to avoid collision with > as morpheme boundary)
  • < (escaped with square brackets, to avoid collision with < as morpheme boundary)

Flag diacritics

We have manually optimised the structure of our lexicon using following flag diacritics to restrict morhpological combinatorics - only allow compounds with verbs if the verb is further derived into a noun again:

@P.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@D.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@C.NeedNoun@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised

For languages that allow compounding, the following flag diacritics are needed to control position-based compounding restrictions for nominals. Their use is handled automatically if combined with +CmpN/xxx tags. If not used, they will do no harm.

@P.CmpFrst.FALSE@ Require that words tagged as such only appear first
@D.CmpPref.TRUE@ Block such words from entering ENDLEX
@P.CmpPref.FALSE@ Block these words from making further compounds
@D.CmpLast.TRUE@ Block such words from entering R
@D.CmpNone.TRUE@ Combines with the next tag to prohibit compounding
@U.CmpNone.FALSE@ Combines with the prev tag to prohibit compounding
@P.CmpOnly.TRUE@ Sets a flag to indicate that the word has passed R
@D.CmpOnly.FALSE@ Disallow words coming directly from root.

Use the following flag diacritics to control downcasing of derived proper nouns (e.g. Finnish Pariisi -> pariisilainen). See e.g. North Sámi for how to use these flags. There exists a ready-made regex that will do the actual down-casing given the proper use of these flags.

@U.Cap.Obl@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.
@U.Cap.Opt@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.

The word forms in Apurinã language start from the lexeme roots of basic word classes, or optionally from prefixes: