Free and Open source Lushootseed analyser giella-lut

Divvun and Giellatekno teams, community members
Software version
Documentation license
SVN Revision
$Revision:68217 $
SVN Date
$Date:2013-01-16 11:31:33 +0200 (Wed, 16 Jan 2013) $


This is free and open source Lushootseed morphology.

Lushootseed morphological analyser !


Definitions for Multichar_Symbols


č č̓ dᶻ ǰ





Analysis symbols

The morphological analyses of wordforms for the Lushootseed language are presented in this system in terms of the following symbols. (It is highly suggested to follow existing standards when adding new tags).

The parts-of-speech are:

  • +N +A +Adv +V
  • +Pron +CS +CC +Adp +Po +Pr +Interj +Pcle +Num

The parts of speech are further split up into:

  • +Prop +Pers +Dem +Interr +Refl +Recipr +Rel +Indef
  • +Aux +Cop

Types of adverbs also include

  • +Deg this is degree
  • +Manner with reference to type of adverb
  • +Parenthetic parenthetic
  • +Qnt quantifier
  • +Spat spatial
  • +Temp temporal
  • +Tot total, universal quantifiers

The Usage extents are marked using following tags:

  • +Err/Orth
  • +Use/-Spell

The nominals are inflected in the following Case and Number

  • +Sg +Du +Pl
  • +Ess +Nom +Gen +Acc +Ill +Loc +Com +Com/Sh

The possessor indices are marked as such:

  • +PxSg1 first person singular
  • +PxSg2 second person singular
  • +PxSP3 third person singular or plural
  • +PxPl1 first person plural
  • +PxPl2 third person plural

The comparative forms are:

  • +Comp +Superl

Numerals are classified under:

  • +Attr +Card
  • +Ord

Verb moods are:

  • +Ind +Pot +Cond +Imprt

Verb tenses and aspect are:

  • +Fut * future
  • +Prs +Prt
  • +RemPst * remote past tu%<
  • +Asp/Prf * perfective aspect ʔu%< , (Beck) punctual
  • +Asp/Prog * progressive aspect lə%<
  • +Asp/Stat * stative aspect ʔəs%< , (beck: as%<)
  • +LOC * lack of control %>dxʷ
  • +Imprt = %>ɬi
  • +Surprise * surprise %>əw̓ə
  • +Top * topic marker
  • +Now * focus? %>əxʷ

Verb personal forms are:

  • +Sg1 +Sg2 +Sg3 +Du1 +Du2 +Du3 +Pl1 +Pl2 +Pl3

Direct Object conjugation

  • +OcSg1 = object conjugation first person singular
  • +OcSg2 = object conjugation second person singular
  • +OcSP3 = object conjugation third person singular or plural
  • +OcPl1 = object conjugation first person plural
  • +OcPl2 = object conjugation second person plural

Other verb forms are

  • +PrsPrc +PrfPrc +Sup +VGen +VAbess
  • +ABBR +ACR
  • +Symbol = independent symbols in the text stream, like £, €, ©

Special symbols are classified with:


The verbs are syntactically split according to transitivity:

  • +TV +IV

Special multiword units are analysed with:

  • +Multi

Non-dictionary words can be recognised with:

  • +Guess

Question and Focus particles:

  • +Qst +Foc


  • +Msc +Fem

Semantics are classified with

  • +Sem/Mal +Sem/Fem +Sem/Sur
  • +Sem/Plc
  • +Sem/Org
  • +Sem/Obj
  • +Sem/Ani
  • +Sem/Hum
  • +Sem/Plant
  • +Sem/Group
  • +Sem/Time
  • +Sem/Txt
  • +Sem/Route
  • +Sem/Measr
  • +Sem/Wthr
  • +Sem/Build
  • +Sem/Edu
  • +Sem/Veh
  • +Sem/Clth

Derivations are classified under the morphophonetic form of the suffix, the source and target part-of-speech.

  • +V→N +V→V +V→A
  • +Der/xxx
  • +Der/Dimin * diminutive
  • +Der/s * Noun derivation
  • +Clt %>əxʷ

Tags distinguishing different versions of the same lemma (before POS)

  • +v1
  • +v2
  • +v3
  • +v4
  • +v5
  • +v6
  • +v7
  • +v8
  • +v9
  • +v10
  • +v11
  • +v12
  • +v13
  • +v14
  • +v15
  • +v16
  • +v17
  • +v18
  • +v19
  • +v20
  • +v21
  • +v22
  • +v23
  • +v24

Note: These high +v... number are in use for one word only:

Symbols that need to be escaped on the lower side (towards twolc):

Literal »
Literal «
  %[%>%]  - Literal >
  %[%<%]  - Literal <

Morphophonology To represent phonologic variations in word forms we use the following symbols in the lexicon files:

  • {aä} {oö} {uü}

place holders

  • %{p1%}
  • %{p2%}
  • %{p3%}
  • %{p4%}
  • %{p5%}
  • %{p6%}
  • %{p7%}

And following triggers to control variation

  • {front} {back}
  • %^Red1CV2CiCV qəlb: qiqəlb rain showers
  • %^Red1CV1toCV2C 2-segment to 3-segments with vowel change
  • %^Red1CV1toCV2CPL 2-segment to 3-segments with vowel change Plural
  • %^Red2CVC2CVCCVC 3-segment reduplication

Flag diacritics

We have manually optimised the structure of our lexicon using following flag diacritics to restrict morhpological combinatorics - only allow compounds with verbs if the verb is further derived into a noun again:

@P.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@D.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@C.NeedNoun@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised

For languages that allow compounding, the following flag diacritics are needed to control position-based compounding restrictions for nominals. Their use is handled automatically if combined with +CmpN/xxx tags. If not used, they will do no harm.

@P.CmpFrst.FALSE@ Require that words tagged as such only appear first
@D.CmpPref.TRUE@ Block such words from entering ENDLEX
@P.CmpPref.FALSE@ Block these words from making further compounds
@D.CmpLast.TRUE@ Block such words from entering R
@D.CmpNone.TRUE@ Combines with the next tag to prohibit compounding
@U.CmpNone.FALSE@ Combines with the prev tag to prohibit compounding
@P.CmpOnly.TRUE@ Sets a flag to indicate that the word has passed R
@D.CmpOnly.FALSE@ Disallow words coming directly from root.

Use the following flag diacritics to control downcasing of derived proper nouns (e.g. Finnish Pariisi -> pariisilainen). See e.g. North Sámi for how to use these flags. There exists a ready-made regex that will do the actual down-casing given the proper use of these flags.

@U.Cap.Obl@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.
@U.Cap.Opt@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.


  • @U.PossPx.SP3@
  • @U.PossPx.Sg1@
  • @U.PossPx.Sg2@
  • @U.PossPx.Sg3@
  • @U.PossPx.Pl1@
  • @U.PossPx.Pl2@
  • @U.PossPx.Pl3@
  • @R.PossPx.Sg1@
  • @R.PossPx.Sg2@
  • @D.PossPx@
  • @C.PossPx@


  • @U.TAM.PRF@
  • @R.TAM.PRF@
  • @U.TAM.FUT@
  • @R.TAM.FUT@
  • @U.TAM.COND@
  • @R.TAM.COND@
  • @U.TAM.PROG@ progressive
  • @R.TAM.PROG@ progressive
  • @U.TAM.REM@
  • @R.TAM.REM@
  • @U.TAM.STAT@
  • @R.TAM.STAT@
  • @R.TAM@
  • @U.OBJ.1@
  • @U.OBJ.2@
  • @D.OBJ.1@
  • @D.OBJ.2@
  • @D.TAM@
  • @C.TAM@
  • LEXICON Root Root lexicon The word forms in LUSHOOTSEED language start from the lexeme roots of basic word classes, or optionally from prefixes:
  • 0 Verbs ;
  • 0 Adjectives ;
  • 0 Adpositions ;
  • 0 Adverbs ;
  • 0 Conjunctors ;
  • 0 Interjections ;
  • 0 Pronouns ;
  • 0 Numerals ;
  • 0 Prefixes ;
  • LEXICON K Clitic lexicon