Free and Open source Upper Necaxa Totonac analyser giella-tku

Divvun and Giellatekno teams, University of Alberta, community members
Software version
Documentation license
SVN Revision
$Revision:68217 $
SVN Date
$Date:2013-01-16 11:31:33 +0200 (Wed, 16 Jan 2013) $


This is free and open source Upper Necaxa Totonac morphology.

Upper Necaxa Totonac morphological analyser


Definitions for Multichar_Symbols

Analysis symbols

The morphological analyses of wordforms in Plains Cree are presented in this system in terms of the following symbols. (It is highly suggested to follow existing standards when adding new tags).


  • +Guess
  • +N
  • +V
  • +A
  • +Adv
  • +CC
  • +CS
  • +Interj
  • +Pron
  • +Num
  • +Loc

Verbal MSP

  • +Prs
  • +Fut
  • +Prt
  • +Prf
  • +Ind
  • +Imp Imperative
  • +Opt Optative,
  • +Irr Irrealis,
  • +Int Interdiction,
  • +Dur Durative
  • +Impf Imperfective
  • +Pfv Perfective
  • +Prog Progressive
  • +1Sg first singular
  • +2Sg etc
  • +3Sg
  • +3oSg 3o is obviative,
  • +3iSg 3i is indefinite
  • +1Pl 1Pl is exclusive plural (I, them, not you)
  • +2Pl
  • +3Pl
  • +3oPl
  • +3iPl
  • +12Pl 12Pl is inclusive plural (I, you, ...)
  • +1SgO objective conjugation
  • +2SgO
  • +3SgO
  • +SgO
  • +3oSgO obviative with objective conjugation
  • +3iSgO
  • +1PlO
  • +P2lO
  • +3PlO
  • +PlO
  • +3oPlO
  • +3iPlO
  • +Inf infinitive (infinite?)
  • +Pos postitive
  • +Neg negative
  • +ConNeg accompanying negative form

Nominal MSP

  • +Sg singular
  • +Pl plural
  • +Px1Sg person prefixes for nouns
  • +Px2Sg
  • +Px3Sg
  • +Px1Pl obviative
  • +Px12Pl inclusive
  • +Px2Pl
  • +Px3Pl
  • %> suffix border 2Sg Stress shift ^SS
  • +Err/Orth tag for substandard forms
  • +Symbol = independent symbols in the text stream, like £, €, ©

Flag diacritics

These are documented in Chapter 8 of Beesley/Karttunen, p. 456 zB.


  • @U.verb.1sgindep@
  • @U.verb.2sgindep@
  • @U.verb.3sgindep@
  • @U.verb.3osgindep@ delete?
  • @U.verb.3isgindep@ delete?
  • @U.verb.1plindep@
  • @U.verb.12plindep@
  • @U.verb.2plindep@
  • @U.verb.3plindep@
  • @U.verb.1sgsbj@
  • @U.verb.2sgsbj@
  • @U.verb.3sgsbj@
  • @U.verb.3osgsbj@ delete ?
  • @U.verb.3isgsbj@ delete?
  • @U.verb.1plsbj@
  • @U.verb.12plsbj@
  • @U.verb.2plsbj@
  • @U.verb.3plsbj@
  • @U.verb.2sgimp@
  • @U.verb.1plimp@
  • @U.verb.2plimp@


  • @U.verb.1sgosgindep@
  • @U.verb.1sgoplindep@
  • @U.verb.2sg1sgindep@
  • @U.verb.2sg3sgindep@
  • @U.verb.2sgoplindep@
  • @U.verb.3sgosgindep@
  • @U.verb.3sgoplindep@
  • @U.verb.1ploindep@
  • @U.verb.12ploindep@
  • @U.verb.2ploindep@
  • @U.verb.3ploindep@
  • @U.tense.prs@
  • @U.tense.prt@


  • @U.noun.1sg@
  • @U.noun.2sg@
  • @U.noun.3sg@
  • @U.noun.3isg@
  • @U.noun.3osg@
  • @U.noun.1pl@
  • @U.noun.12pl@
  • @U.noun.2pl@
  • @U.noun.3pl@
  • @U.noun.abs@

We have manually optimised the structure of our lexicon using following flag diacritics to restrict morhpological combinatorics - only allow compounds with verbs if the verb is further derived into a noun again:

@P.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@D.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@C.NeedNoun@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised

For languages that allow compounding, the following flag diacritics are needed to control position-based compounding restrictions for nominals. Their use is handled automatically if combined with +CmpN/xxx tags. If not used, they will do no harm.

@P.CmpFrst.FALSE@ Require that words tagged as such only appear first
@D.CmpPref.TRUE@ Block such words from entering ENDLEX
@P.CmpPref.FALSE@ Block these words from making further compounds
@D.CmpLast.TRUE@ Block such words from entering R
@D.CmpNone.TRUE@ Combines with the next tag to prohibit compounding
@U.CmpNone.FALSE@ Combines with the prev tag to prohibit compounding
@P.CmpOnly.TRUE@ Sets a flag to indicate that the word has passed R
@D.CmpOnly.FALSE@ Disallow words coming directly from root.

Use the following flag diacritics to control downcasing of derived proper nouns (e.g. Finnish Pariisi -> pariisilainen). See e.g. North Sámi for how to use these flags. There exists a ready-made regex that will do the actual down-casing given the proper use of these flags.

@U.Cap.Obl@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.
@U.Cap.Opt@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.

LEXICON Root is where it all starts

  • Verbs ;