Morphology of tlhIngan HoI (Klingon)

This is an example morphology, for the purpose of demonstrating giellatekno morphology infrastructure. The example language we use is a popular conlang by the name of tlhIngan, popularly known by the English name Klingon. This description uses latinised form, for yet-to-be encoded Klingon orthography, a spelling variant rule is provided.

Definitions for Multichar_Symbols

Analysis symbols

The morphological analyses of wordforms of Klingon language are presented in this system in terms of following symbols.

The parts-of-speech are: Multichar_Symbols for noun, Multichar_Symbols for verb (and "adjectives"), Multichar_Symbols for pronouns, Multichar_Symbols for numerals, Multichar_Symbols for conjunctions, Multichar_Symbols for adverbs, Multichar_Symbols for interjections, and Multichar_Symbols for other, unclassified particles.

The nominals are inflected in following Numbers, cases and augmentation: Multichar_Symbols for singular, Multichar_Symbols for plural, Multichar_Symbols for locative, Multichar_Symbols for instructive, Multichar_Symbols for instrumental, Multichar_Symbols for benefactive, Multichar_Symbols for augmentative, and Multichar_Symbols for diminitive

The possession is marked as such: Multichar_Symbols for first singular (mine) Multichar_Symbols for second singular (yours) Multichar_Symbols for third singular (his/hers/its/theirs) Multichar_Symbols for first plural (ours) Multichar_Symbols for second plural (yours) Multichar_Symbols for third plural (theirs)

Verb moods are: Multichar_Symbols for indicative Multichar_Symbols for imperative Verb tenses or aspects are: Multichar_Symbols for continuative Multichar_Symbols for perfect tense Multichar_Symbols for progressive

Verb personal forms in intransitives and unmarked objects are Multichar_Symbols for first singular (I do [myself, to someone]) Multichar_Symbols for second singular (you do [yourself, to someone]) Multichar_Symbols for third singular (he/she/it/they do [theirself, to someone]) Multichar_Symbols for first plural (we do [ourself, to someone]) Multichar_Symbols for first singular (you do [yourselves, to someone]) Multichar_Symbols for first singular (they do [theirselves, to somone])

The verb personal forms objects are tagged separately: Multichar_Symbols for first singular (– – does to me) Multichar_Symbols for second singular (– – does to you]) Multichar_Symbols for third singular (– – does to them) Multichar_Symbols for first plural (– – does to us) Multichar_Symbols for first singular (– – does to you) Multichar_Symbols for first singular (– – does to them)

Other verb forms are Multichar_Symbols negated form Multichar_Symbols reflexive form Multichar_Symbols reciprocal form

Multichar_Symbols Special symbols are classified with: Multichar_Symbols Multichar_Symbols Multichar_Symbols Multichar_Symbols The verbs are syntactically split according to transitivity: Multichar_Symbols transitive Multichar_Symbols intransitive

Question and Focus particles: Multichar_Symbols for question form Multichar_Symbols other focus Multichar_Symbols contrastive this focus Multichar_Symbols contrastive that focus

Derivations are classified under the morphophonetic form of the suffix, the source and target part-of-speech.

Flag diacritics

We have manually optimised the structure of our lexicon using following flag diacritics to restrict morhpological combinatorics - only allow compounds with verbs if the verb is further derived into a noun again:

@P.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@D.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@C.NeedNoun@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised

For languages that allow compounding, the following flag diacritics are needed to control position-based compounding restrictions for nominals. Their use is handled automatically if combined with +CmpN/xxx tags. If not used, they will do no harm.

@P.CmpFrst.FALSE@ Require that words tagged as such only appear first
@D.CmpPref.TRUE@ Block such words from entering ENDLEX
@P.CmpPref.FALSE@ Block these words from making further compounds
@D.CmpLast.TRUE@ Block such words from entering R
@D.CmpNone.TRUE@ Combines with the next tag to prohibit compounding
@U.CmpNone.FALSE@ Combines with the prev tag to prohibit compounding
@P.CmpOnly.TRUE@ Sets a flag to indicate that the word has passed R
@D.CmpOnly.FALSE@ Disallow words coming directly from root.

Use the following flag diacritics to control downcasing of derived proper nouns (e.g. Finnish Pariisi -> pariisilainen). See e.g. North Sámi for how to use these flags. There exists a ready-made regex that will do the actual down-casing given the proper use of these flags.

@U.Cap.Obl@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.
@U.Cap.Opt@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.

The word forms in Klingon language start from the lexeme roots of basic word classes. €gt-norm: Klingon poses € Sus Sus+N wind € jIJ jIH+Pron I € je je+Conj and € batlh batlh+Adv with honor € ghobe’ ghobe’+Intj no (as in discourse response) The verbs require obligatory prefix that is the personal inflection or imperative mood

Klingon verb example examples:

  • Qong 3Sg+Qong+V (Eng. sleeps)