Free and Open source Klingon analyser giella-tlh

Tommi Pirinen
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$Revision:68217 $
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$Date:2013-01-16 11:31:33 +0200 (Wed, 16 Jan 2013) $


This is free and open source Klingon morphology.

Morphology of tlhIngan HoI (Klingon)

This is an example morphology, for the purpose of demonstrating giellatekno morphology infrastructure. The example language we use is a popular conlang by the name of tlhIngan, popularly known by the English name Klingon. This description uses latinised form, for yet-to-be encoded Klingon orthography, a spelling variant rule is provided.

Definitions for Multichar_Symbols

Analysis symbols

The morphological analyses of wordforms of Klingon language are presented in this system in terms of following symbols.

The parts-of-speech are: Multichar_Symbols for noun, Multichar_Symbols for verb (and "adjectives"), Multichar_Symbols for pronouns, Multichar_Symbols for numerals, Multichar_Symbols for conjunctions, Multichar_Symbols for adverbs, Multichar_Symbols for interjections, and Multichar_Symbols for other, unclassified particles.

The nominals are inflected in following Numbers, cases and augmentation: Multichar_Symbols for singular, Multichar_Symbols for plural, Multichar_Symbols for locative, Multichar_Symbols for instructive, Multichar_Symbols for instrumental, Multichar_Symbols for benefactive, Multichar_Symbols for augmentative, and Multichar_Symbols for diminitive

The possession is marked as such: Multichar_Symbols for first singular (mine) Multichar_Symbols for second singular (yours) Multichar_Symbols for third singular (his/hers/its/theirs) Multichar_Symbols for first plural (ours) Multichar_Symbols for second plural (yours) Multichar_Symbols for third plural (theirs)

Verb moods are: Multichar_Symbols for indicative Multichar_Symbols for imperative Verb tenses or aspects are: Multichar_Symbols for continuative Multichar_Symbols for perfect tense Multichar_Symbols for progressive

Verb personal forms in intransitives and unmarked objects are Multichar_Symbols for first singular (I do [myself, to someone]) Multichar_Symbols for second singular (you do [yourself, to someone]) Multichar_Symbols for third singular (he/she/it/they do [theirself, to someone]) Multichar_Symbols for first plural (we do [ourself, to someone]) Multichar_Symbols for first singular (you do [yourselves, to someone]) Multichar_Symbols for first singular (they do [theirselves, to somone])

The verb personal forms objects are tagged separately: Multichar_Symbols for first singular (– – does to me) Multichar_Symbols for second singular (– – does to you]) Multichar_Symbols for third singular (– – does to them) Multichar_Symbols for first plural (– – does to us) Multichar_Symbols for first singular (– – does to you) Multichar_Symbols for first singular (– – does to them)

Other verb forms are Multichar_Symbols negated form Multichar_Symbols reflexive form Multichar_Symbols reciprocal form

Multichar_Symbols Special symbols are classified with: Multichar_Symbols Multichar_Symbols Multichar_Symbols Multichar_Symbols The verbs are syntactically split according to transitivity: Multichar_Symbols transitive Multichar_Symbols intransitive

Question and Focus particles: Multichar_Symbols for question form Multichar_Symbols other focus Multichar_Symbols contrastive this focus Multichar_Symbols contrastive that focus

Derivations are classified under the morphophonetic form of the suffix, the source and target part-of-speech.

Flag diacritics

We have manually optimised the structure of our lexicon using following flag diacritics to restrict morhpological combinatorics - only allow compounds with verbs if the verb is further derived into a noun again:

@P.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@D.NeedNoun.ON@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised
@C.NeedNoun@ (Dis)allow compounds with verbs unless nominalised

For languages that allow compounding, the following flag diacritics are needed to control position-based compounding restrictions for nominals. Their use is handled automatically if combined with +CmpN/xxx tags. If not used, they will do no harm.

@P.CmpFrst.FALSE@ Require that words tagged as such only appear first
@D.CmpPref.TRUE@ Block such words from entering ENDLEX
@P.CmpPref.FALSE@ Block these words from making further compounds
@D.CmpLast.TRUE@ Block such words from entering R
@D.CmpNone.TRUE@ Combines with the next tag to prohibit compounding
@U.CmpNone.FALSE@ Combines with the prev tag to prohibit compounding
@P.CmpOnly.TRUE@ Sets a flag to indicate that the word has passed R
@D.CmpOnly.FALSE@ Disallow words coming directly from root.

Use the following flag diacritics to control downcasing of derived proper nouns (e.g. Finnish Pariisi -> pariisilainen). See e.g. North Sámi for how to use these flags. There exists a ready-made regex that will do the actual down-casing given the proper use of these flags.

@U.Cap.Obl@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.
@U.Cap.Opt@ Allowing downcasing of derived names: deatnulasj.

The word forms in Klingon language start from the lexeme roots of basic word classes. €gt-norm: Klingon poses € Sus Sus+N wind € jIJ jIH+Pron I € je je+Conj and € batlh batlh+Adv with honor € ghobe’ ghobe’+Intj no (as in discourse response) The verbs require obligatory prefix that is the personal inflection or imperative mood

Klingon verb example examples:

  • Qong 3Sg+Qong+V (Eng. sleeps)

The Klingon morphophonological/twolc rules file

  • primus%>s
  • primus00